Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
26
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Northern Ireland After the Belfast Agreement: A Contemporary Context Assessment  By Ina G. Wanca, Franziska Praxl and Stephen Cucharo
  • 2. Introduction  How did we get here?  Where do we go moving forward?  Why doesn’t peace stick in Northern Ireland?  How did we get here?  Where do we go moving forward?
  • 3. Hypothesis We posit that the youth in Northern Ireland is a significant, yet underutilized capacity for peace. If this untapped capacity is mobilized through educational initiatives, we can better stem the resurgence of violence and prevent the recurrence of the Troubles and possibly put Northern Ireland on a better path for a renewed peace.
  • 4. Literature Review  Youth mobilization as a capacity for peace needs investment and development  Structural issues such as segregation and economic inequalities need to be addressed, and remain part of the root of the problem in Northern Ireland  Despite public consensus educational initiatives haven’t received enough attention  The relationship between the youth population and the Government of Northern Ireland has deteriorated
  • 5. BELFAST AGREEMENT Rights, Safeguards and Equality of Opportunity 12. “The participants particularly recognize that Young people from areas affected by the troubles face particular difficulties and will support the development of special community-based initiatives.. …”[This] will require the allocation of sufficient resources” 13. “An essential aspect of the reconciliation process is the promotion of a culture of tolerance at every level of society, including initiatives to facilitate and encourage integrated education”…
  • 6. Context Assessment Youth ANALYSIS Grievances Identity Gender PROFILE FACTORS ACTORS ELEMENTS DYNAMICS PRACTICES POLICES RECOM
  • 7. FACTORS POLITICAL FACTORS Youth Disenfranchisement Gender Inequality Legacy of Armed Conflict ECONOMIC Youth Unemployment Economic Stagnation SECURITY Youth Vulnerability SOCIAL Religious and Ethnic Segregation Lack of School Integration Community Identity
  • 8. ACTORS ANALYSIS
  • 9. CONTEXT DYNAMICS SOCIO-POLITICAL •Outlet for youth grievances nonexistent INSTITUTIONAL PERFORMANCE •Youth skeptical of Government, Security Sector and CSOs ECONOMIC •Economic stagnation makes youth vulnerable •Segregation inhibits shared narrative •Hostility between communities is omnipresent •Aspects of the Belfast Agreement remain unimplemented •Cross-communal tensions impacted by economics SECURITY •Security forces are perceived as illegitimate and ineffective •Paramilitary violence commonplace •Security measures inhibit peacebuilding efforts
  • 10. STATUS QUO  FRAGILITY  THE ROOT CAUSES OF CONFLICT REMAIN  VIOLENT OUTBREAKS COUNTINUE  GRIEVANCES DEEPEN
  • 11. POSITIVE CHANGE  TRUST BETWEEN CITIZENS AND STATE REBUILT  VIOLENT OUTBREAKS ARE ELIMINATED  ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE  PARAMILITARIES MEMBERSHIP DECRESEAD  PROLIFERATION OF OPPORTUNITIES TO CHANEL GRIEVANCES
  • 12. Review of Current Polices and Practices Expected €1.1 billion US US $532 million 2011/ 2012 £10.5 bn EU $532 million
  • 13. FACTORS POLITICAL FACTORS Youth Disenfranchisement Gender Inequality Legacy of Armed Conflict ECONOMIC Youth Unemployment Economic Stagnation SECURITY Youth Vulnerability SOCIAL Religious and Ethnic Segregation Lack of School Integration Community Identity
  • 14. CURRENT PRACTICES AND POLICIES GAPS AND IMPROVEMENTS  Despite the overwhelming approval of the population, integration on the primary and secondary educational level hovers around 5-6%  Cross-communal dialogue has been initiated on the university level, but doesn’t approach students whose opinions are subject to change  Peace education was not implemented  Issues with the use of EU funds for youth initiatives  Non-holistic approach is taken
  • 15. RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE GOVERNMENT OF NORTHERN IRELAND  Request policy in line with public consensus  Begin slow integration of schools  Enable schools to fulfill their mandate  Incorporate peace education into curricula. Invest in new and innovative curricula
  • 16. RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE GOVERNMENT OF NORTHERN IRELAND  Programs must first and foremost foster in-group communication  Extra curricular programs that are including youth from both communities  Arts and sports can be used as a combining activity to work on the shared interests as a starting point for a conversation  Trained in conflict resolution teachers or mediators provide guidance of these extra curricular activities
  • 17. RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE SECURITY APPARATUS  Rebuilding trust and communication between youth and the security apparatus by encouraging visits to schools  Training in youth sensitive approaches to law enforcement are essential
  • 18. RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY  Coordination of funding resources and enhanced monitoring system  Accountability of the Government of Northern Ireland by explicit working reports  The EU and the international community exercise pressure over the Government of Northern Ireland for transparency and targeted implementation
  • 19. CONCLUSION  15 years have passed since the ratification of the Belfast Agreement  The youth has inherited the conflict and the dynamics that have characterized Northern Irish society for generations  Young people have the greatest capacity to transform the conflict  Our recommendations should be considered as a step towards building sustainable peace
  • 20. THANK YOU! Ina G. Wanca iw359@nyu.edu Franziska Praxl fp588@nyu.edu Steve Cucharo sc4010@nyu.edu