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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (PART ONE)
 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (PART ONE)

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The focus of this research relates to the democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, and what role did the Dominican Republic in democratic defense. One of the elements that stand out ...

The focus of this research relates to the democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, and what role did the Dominican Republic in democratic defense. One of the elements that stand out are: how democracy arises from its beginnings until today. The independence of the United States and the French Revolution in the years 1776 and 1784 respectively mark the beginning of democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean, which transcended independence struggles across the region sustained the liberality of the States. The incidence of the Dominican Republic in defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, is manifested in the political life of the Caribbean nation. After independence in 1844, its ideologues sought to create a free and sovereign democratic state based on a current. It is from the ideals of Juan Pablo Duarte, that democracy is part of the Dominican political system that has managed to face all kinds of foreign interference, authoritarian rule that for decades were directing the destinies of the country and that in the end there is a manifest a scenario of over thirty years in the defense of the democratic security of the nation by the different political movements that affect the Dominican people. Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean, has had a level of acceptance among its inhabitants, those actions in the pursuit of development of the people, a government that guarantees the rights of citizens, and the promotion of human development predominates, the capabilities of States to transform and take place in public policy, political, economic and cultural order, can not be supported by the majority, nor called champion of democracy. Democratic security in the region are based on inclusive policies character among all states seeking to agree through international relations, international conventions and treaties that seek to maintain regional security and peace, away from threats which have traditionally staked political stability in the region. To consider the existence of a democratic security, have been absent from the political stage coups, dictatorships and internal armed conflicts. Even with the opening of political ideas, geopolitics, and international linkages, governed by various bodies such as the OAS and the UN, as well as other political, cultural and economic, impact heavily upon the permanence of democracy in all Latin American and the Caribbean.

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    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (PART ONE) DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (PART ONE) Document Transcript

    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com (Free translation Google) FOUNDATION FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC STUDIES (FUNDEIMES) TITLE: ROLE OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010 (PART ONE) AUTHOR: LIC.VICTOR MERCEDES B. CRUZ FABIÁN MASTER IN DEFENSE AND NATIONAL SECURITY SANTO DOMINGO, DN YEAR 2014
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com TITLE ROLE OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2000-2010
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com CLARIFICATION "The views expressed in this research report are the sole responsibility of the author and the institution will not necessarily reflect the opinions issued."
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com CONTENTS Introduction i Problem ii General Purpose vii Specific Objectives vii Ideas to defend viii Methodological framework of the research ix CHAPTER I - BACKGROUND OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA CARIBBEAN YEL. 1.1. Origin of democracy 1 1.2 -. History of the Democratic Security in Latin America and The Caribbean 3 1.3.-Chronology of Democratic Different State Governments In Latin America and the Caribbean 7 1.4 -. Evolution of Democracy in the Dominican Republic 29 1.5 -. Principal approaches of democratic security and validity in Latin America and the Caribbean 35 1.6 -. Organic concept of democracy and security 37 1.7 -. Democracy and Political Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean 42 1.8 -. Political Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean 44 1.9 -. Acceptance level of democracy in Latin America and The Caribbean 46 CHAPTER II -. DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN. 2.1 -. Geopolitics and Security in Latin America and the Caribbean 49 2.2 -. Geopolitical Analysis of Latin America and the Caribbean 51 2.3 -. Organization of American States (OAS) in safety democratic in Latin America and the Caribbean 54 2.4 -. Economics and Globalization in Latin America and the Caribbean 58 2.5 -. Features of the situation of globalization in Latin America and The Caribbean 60 2.6 -. Democratic Security and Human Rights 63 2.6.1 The relationship between democracy and human rights 64 CHAPTER III -. INCIDENCE IN DEFENSE OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN BY DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 3.1 -. Overview of public policy for Security Democratic 67 3.2 -. Incidence of security and defense in the democratic security Latin America and the Caribbean 69 3.3 -. Role of regional bodies for safety Democratic 70 3.4 -. Democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean 72 3.5 -. Perspective of Public Safety in the Republic
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Dominican 76 3.6 -. Contributions from Dominican Republic to defend safety democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean 80 3.6.1 -. Conventions and treaties democratic security 84 CONCLUSION 89 RECOMMENDATIONS 93 GLOSSARY OF TERMS 95 REFERENCES 98
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com INTRODUCTION
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Introduction This research is based on the role of the Dominican Republic in defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, with reference to the events that have marked the freedom of the peoples fighting for a better future, in which underpinned by the fundamental rights recognized peaceful coexistence and the rule of law. Elements in the Dominican Republic, assuming its role in the defense of democratic security is drawn, the political evolution of each state in Latin America and the Caribbean. A number of important events in the political life of the region is analyzed. Geopolitics in the hemisphere is Latin America as a key element for the existence of a climate of harmony and good diplomatic relations between states, which have concluded agreements and meetings with very beneficial results for democracy in the region is also described. The prospect that the Dominican Republic has over other governments in the region in political, trade and security issues, world order posed by globalization, the effects produced by different social changes that persist in the world is observed. PROBLEM In the present research is intended to describe or study of the role of the Dominican Republic in defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean. He considers democracy as a new political system, which over time has been gaining notoriety, yet notes that is quite young, this feature makes the democratic system vulnerable to maintain their status in states that already have such a system. With these considerations the problem indicated that the region faces major challenges which must be overcome and maintain a climate of peace, solidarity and social coexistence arises. Have emerged crisis both internal political and external, and this has had the intervention of international organizations that are part of democratic states to AL and the Caribbean, particularly the Organization of American States (OAS), even creating peace agreements , and other in order to maintain political stability in the area.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Conflicts have continued to occur, still remain in some places in the southern hemisphere, and yet prevails rapprochement between the parties through dialogue and negotiations of political and diplomatic nature. This pan can distinguish the role played by democratic states, those who have different political ideas or guidelines. With the creation of the Organization of American States (OAS) on April 30, 1948, comes a climate towards democratization of Latin American and Caribbean included the influence of the United States of America (USA) for materialize this current, which led coups, foreign interventions, internal conflicts, holding free and democratic elections in most of the region. Democratic security is made or born as the means by which the rule of law is guaranteed response gives possible solutions to conflicts affecting the region, taking into account its causes, consequences and positive results in the near future. The problem lies not only in the democratic system, its institutions are still weak, but dragging phenomena identified as populism, corruption, extreme poverty, social exclusion, social inequality, abuse of power, lack of population, low levels of education, lack of opportunity, unemployment, crime, violence, organized crime, terrorism, drug trafficking and human trafficking, and illegal immigration, etc values. This situation has motivated the Latin American and Caribbean countries have to implement measures or public security policies with the sole aim of reducing risks to new threats described above, entered politics, social stability at stake, and economic . Data provided by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), in its 2008 report reveals that in recent years, Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced high rates of economic growth and yet, the region faces a concern that affects daily life of citizens: the need to substantially improve safety. That is why in this paper seeks to define the factors that affect the democratic security and what more appropriate strategic proposals may be used to maintain security and democratic defense are from the different scenarios presented to us geopolitics in the region. Problem Description
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Democratic security is vital for good governance in the States and the Dominican Republic is no exception component with respect to the subject whose agenda is still unfinished. This seems to be a widespread symptom in the region, to the extent that the processes of relative consolidation of democracy are still accompanied by social inequality, low levels of human development, increased social scourge of violence and crime, which end up harming the potential for economic and social development of the countries of the area. For the Dominican Republic to assume the defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean, is to face systematic violations of human rights as a serious matter that has political costs to governments and erodes the legitimacy of its policies aimed at ensuring their safety. Latin America and the Caribbean are full of political events that are contradictory to the achievements on display today, to have had authoritarian governments and democratic pass, but still have a large social debt. To which must make the commitment of all States to organize a regional integration able to maintain political stability in response to social needs demanded by the people when choosing their leaders by direct vote.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com CHAPTER I BACKGROUND OF THE DEMOCRATIC SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com CHAPTER I BACKGROUND IN DEMOCRATIC SECURITY LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN. 1.1 -. Origin of democracy Democracy may have its origins in ancient Greece, the Athenians practiced this type of government primitive form, were small municipalities or cities organized under this system. In the ninth century BC, the first Greek polis appear. Even at that time there was the term democracy was the way that gave character, referring to equal political rights and was used interchangeably with the term "democracy." The meaning of democracy is given of the Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato in his "Republic". Democracy was the result of the will of the majority, governed to serve the people and for the people and for the people, phrase coined by Abraham Lincoln who was president of the United States. 1 When referring Roman Empire, who applied a democratic idea in shaping his reign comprising its Senate. Also arise in medieval monarchies, and then with the first modern democratic nation-states, which are located in a relatively short period between the mid-seventeenth and early nineteenth appear. Another origin of democracy is the referent of the independence revolution of the States of the Union, today the United States who have shown to be able to realize a state of democratic politics with impeccable stay. By contrast, the French Revolution of 1789, is a major historical event that followed the independence of the United States, but could not keep those liberal ideas, returning to what it was after the Napoleonic Empire, which had its influence in the struggle for independence some Latin American and the Caribbean. Contemporary democracy had its origins in the English Revolution and driven by the ideals of scholar Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his Social Contract, which again proposed to democracy as an indispensable political project also influenced the French Revolution of 1789 . According to many writers there are several types of democracy. Directa, when the force of the popular will of the people directly affects the government, without the need to elect a president, has exercised sovereignty and direct mode Representative, is that through which the sovereign elects its leaders who represent them, through free elections and the independent relationship exists between the branches of government.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com These take presidential and parliamentary governments. This type of government is the most widespread and currently dominates operation acquires the three branches of government. Executive, Legislative and Judicial 2 System of government argues that democracy has not had a full residence, has suffered various interruptions characterized by coups, and the imposition of dictatorial regimes that prevailed for many years. 1.2 -. History of the Democratic Security in Latin America and the Caribbean Democracy in the modern world began with the end of dictatorships in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, at the time the United Nation were in an era of change in the political order characterized by the First and Second World War. Although the world was living in a new order that influenced political systems: Communism or socialism, fascism and others. Democracy made the difference by the ratio of the branches of government that allows a balance of understanding of the vital forces that dominate the world. Among the main characters considered most relevant in the modern world dictators can mention: Adolf Hitler, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini, Mao Tse-Tung, Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar, Anastasio Somoza Garcia and Joseph Stalin, who represented different political currents that were considered contrary to democracy. The end of each regimen influenced the rise of the opening towards democratization driven by states world leaders, citing a new geopolitical wave characterized by the Cold War. The writer Samuel P. Huntington in his ”Third Wave” divides democratization since 1828 and culminates with the 3rd wave in 1974. This writer points out the division of the factions began in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and mentioned conservatives moderate and Marxist competing with each other. This is a sign that a political current starts a process in a state of security needs in the permanence of its institutions as a result of the very free decisions of citizens in maintaining a political system that favors him as in the case of democracy. In the world's first democratic institutions appear, what Samuel P. Huntington called democratic wave. Quote:. ¨ A wave of democratization is a set of transitions of a non- democratic regime to a democratic, occurring in a given period of time and that significantly outnumber transitions in the opposite direction over the same period ¨ mean that in many cases United took a step towards democracy, and after a time, the process was interrupted by military
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com and civilian groups that seized power in a de facto. In his work entitled THE THIRD WAVE, p. 26 Huntington describes changing dates with the following schemes: First-extensive-wave of democratization 1828-1926 Against wave 1922-1942 Second wave of democratization 1943 - 1962 Against wave 1958 - 1975 Third wave of democratization 1974 to today Source: The Third Wave by Samuel P. Huntington Democracy is a system of government that supports the people and their leaders are elected by the citizens. Democracy is also given of the separation of powers of the state, no one can be above the other all are subject to the normative order governing the state.Whether Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, in his written works they referred to the freedom of men, politics, separation of powers, the political ideas of liberalism and the role of the state as representative of society. These ideas are born by the very existence of governments sustained by the rule of law so that they can stay. Democracy seeks to maintain a people and subject to government rules and principles citizens, and limited to those who hold power, without this balance democracy is threatened and there is no stability. Democracy is guaranteed when rights are promoted and preserved constitutionally. Political patronages, administrative corruption, lack of institutional and politicking are actions that weaken the system, but not disabled. 3 In constitutional terms the Latin American and Caribbean countries were shaken by coups, which precluded the popular will, decide who should govern, they were prevented by the intervention of the military force, have the power of the weapons and perhaps understand that those who ruled, although they were freely elected government's policies were oriented towards another target that could put international relations between the State and another responding in a line of ultra- right danger.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com In these cases it is clearly evident at the time of the Cold War, the military obeyed right and others obeyed left, wanted the conservative state call it democracy be maintained, and thus respond to the interests of the group of states right contributing to the indicated stage were established many military dictators.Once the Berlin Wall disappeared in Latin America and the Caribbean the vast majority remained elsistema democratic security as a key element to ensure the interests of national security nacionalesy. Although democracy is characterized by a constitutional government, the existence of the powers of the state, the citizen the opportunity to gain power through institutions called political parties, electoral democracy is vital for the formation of democratic security. Political parties are democratic institutions, influencing the formation of governments through political and electoral participation in any state elections. Therefore democratic security is considered as an essential tool to maintain a political system capable of realizing all conditions enjoyed by a liberal state (security, rule of law, cooperation and development). Democracy is identified as participatory and representative, both terms are used in different states or governments, the existence of bodies representing the people in decision making and also the participation of citizens collectivizes to democratic security even if some variation . When speaking of social democracy participation is essential, observed by one or more groups that are in the position are asked representatives accountable by the community. The community uses the mechanisms of electing political leaders who often change the constitutional rules to stay in power by appealing to the political strength, amount of followers to his claims of popularly perpetuated in power. Electoral processes considered failures have brought new democratic regimes, many of them have had to resign, others have been overthrown, giving to understand the existence of an exhaustion of viable alternative systems in the symbolism of the economic and political then translated win of democracy. 1.3.-Democratic Chronology of Different Governments of the Latin American and Caribbean The chronology of the different democratic governments in Latin American and the Caribbean had different colored by events that gave rise to various causes and effects in the political life of these countries, with the succession of governments which had similar conditions.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com The political history of Latin America and the Caribbean experienced changes, such as Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Uruguay, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina, and representing countries with more years in democracy. Although the social forces and the serious economic challenges have affected the prospects for consolidation in the region. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries often had several coups, characterized by military and civilians which were formed in dictatorships that slyly hinted to the world that their regimes were ideological, nationalistic reasons and to prevent other streams leftist policies contrary could rule the rest of the region. In Latin America and the Caribbean, as in the rest of the world, to realize these liberal ideals has been a lifelong aspiration, but often has faced challenges such as political conflicts, civil wars, abuses human rights, dictatorships and the interventionist policies that brought the Cold War. In the early twentieth century, most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean had been able to establish at least several governments in democracies; ie regimes in which presidents were derived from an open political competition, which had the support of limited constituencies, as established constitutional provisions. However, as in Europe, the advent of the worldwide depression of the 1930s unleashed forces stopped the advance of representative government. After the Second World War, however, a brief turn toward democratization experienced, that the late forties and early fifties had already disappeared. In turn, the most profound shift towards democracy that lived in the late fifties faced the resurgence of military regimes in many countries during the 1960s and 1970s. Military's withdrawal from direct government control late seventies and throughout the eighties marked the entrance to the Latin American decade of the nineties with a historic number of democratic governments. While during the middle twentieth century between the thirties and the eighties most of the nations of Central and South America remained well behind construction of democratic countries such as Chile, Costa Rica, Uruguay, Colombia and Venezuela experienced periods lengthy of democratic governance. Democracies in Latin America and the Caribbean have undergone a change, leaving behind the usual coups that created democratic political instability or insecurity. Progress has created confidence in civilian governments elected by the people as a means to the popular wishes are being honored with the
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com contribution to democracy constitutionalized as a starting point to new currents govern. To explain in detail the evolution of democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean chronologies governments of each state from the time when the world was undergoing a geopolitical situation characterized by the Second World War, which ended in described the 1945. The creation of the United Nations (O. N. U) which marks the beginning of a new world order, which sought peace and security of States, influenced the consolidation of democracy, the political bipolarity still prevailed in the world. Hemispheric region did not escape this international situation facing the United States and Russia (former USSR) called the Cold War, ending in 1991 with the toppling of the Berlin Wall. Latin America has shown as a vulnerable region, the political and institutional crises that have occurred due to problems of governance given by a set of circumstances. Between 1989-2009 there were coups, uprising or military tension, dismissal / resignation of presidents which are detailed in the following scheme:4 STATE YEARS REASON Argentina 1990 and 2001 Coup and Resignation of President. Bolivia 2003 Coup and impeachment. Brazil 1992 removal or resignation of the President Chile 1990.93, and 95 Lifting or military tension Colombia 1995 Lifting or military tension Ecuador 2000 Dismissal-resignation of President El Salvador 1993 Coup Guatemala 1997 Lifting or military tension Haiti 1991, 95, and 2001 Military coup and uprising Honduras 1991, 1997, 2000 Removal and coup Panama 1989 Coup Venezuela 1992 and 2002 Military uprising and coup Honduras 2009 Coup Data collected by the researcher This chronology democratic security in the region has been threatened on several occasions, but could replenish the international political link between the
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com countries of the region, and involvement in foreign policy led by the United States; who led a force of international agreements integration increasingly moving towards the democratization of these nations. Chronology of democratic Chile The Republic of Chile is considered one of the state’s most democratic tradition have much time to enjoy a climate of political tranquility, except the interruption period Salvador Allende Gossens, who was deposed by dictator Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, Year 1973, this action is seen as a blow to Chilean democracy, because it allowed a dictatorship of over 17 years, characterized by persecution, political prisoners, disappearances, violation of human rights and other abuses. In 1980 the military junta drafted a new constitution and held a plebiscite in October 1988 where the "No" got the win. On this occasion, the public chose to call elections for 1989 and chile walks on political understanding based on the alternation of power founded on democracy. In Chile prevailed institutional socioeconomic balance and changeability of democratic governments. GOVERNMENT PERIOD CONDITION Carlos Ibáñez del Campo 1952-1958 Democratic Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez 1958 1964 Eduardo Frei Montalva 1964-1970 Salvador Allende Gossens 1970-1973 Democratic Military Junta 11/10/1973 De facto interim Augusto Pinochet Ugarte 1973 -1990 Dictatorship Patricio Aylwin Azocar 1990-1994 Democratic Eduardo Frei Ruiz Tagle 1994 - 2000 Democratic Ricardo Lagos Escobar 2000 - 2006 Democratic Michelle Bachelet 2006 - 2010 Democratic Data compiled by the author Chronology of democratic Argentina Democracy in Argentina going since 1951 until 2007, was tempered nine interruptions considered democratic governments, and four resignations, which identify a power struggle featuring the different political and military intervention groups. The leadership of the various parties affected in the creation of governments that were characterized in the division of groups of moderate and conservative tendencies, these political forces significantly impacted security in democratic Argentina. Argentina has overcome major political crisis, heavy fighting between the government and the opposition, leaving the political integrity as the basis of several
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com streams of both the right and the left, but the socio-economic phenomenon led some governments to resign, and affected democratic security, overcome these crises, Argentina today enjoys political stability. 5 GOVERNMENTS PERIODS AND CONDITIONS Roberto Viola E. 1981 - 1981 Deposed Leopoldo F. Galtieri 1981 - 1982 Disclaimer Reynaldo B. Bignone 1982 - 1983 Normalizer Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín 1983 - 1989 Disclaimer Carlos Saul Menem 1989 - 1995 - 1999 Concludes two periods Fernando de la Rua 1999 - 2001 Disclaimer Ramón Puerta 2001 - 2001 Concludes Nestor KIRCHNER 2003 - 2007 Concludes Source www.sitios Argentina. com.ar / 2 / presidents. htm 18-2 day-2013.Hr 8:30 pm Timeline Democratic Republic of Colombia Colombia in its democratic chronology shows one short break between the years of 1930 to 2010, which proves that this country has had a lasting democracy and their governments are determined to maintain it. Public lapolítica Colombia's democratic security is one of the best known in the region, involving aspect of defense and security and combating crime. Democracy is affected by guerrilla or revolutionary groups such as the (FARC) arising in 1964 and 1968, until the day or so of today is considered a threat to the political stability of the country. Democratic security of Colombia has three elements: first the protection of the rights of all citizens, and second the protection of values, pluralism and democratic institutions; and third solidarity and cooperation of all citizens in defense of democratic values. According to (The Politics of Democratic Security and Defense), launched by the government of Alvaro Uribe Velez June 16, 2003, "The real security depends not only on the ability of the security forces to exercise the coercive power of the state but also on the ability of the judiciary to ensure prompt and effective administration of justice, the Government to comply with the constitutional responsibilities of state and Congress to legislate safety in mind as the quintessential common good of all society. " Although democratic security has been threatened by internal conflict with the Colombian guerrillas (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and National Liberation Army (ELN), and the incidence of drug cartels as violence, the state of law prevails in this country. GOVERNMENT PERIOD CONDITION
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Ernesto Samper Pizano 1994-1998 Democratic Andrés Pastrana Arango 1998-2002 Democratic Álvaro Uribe Vélez 2002 - 2010 Democratic Data collected by the researcher Democratic Chronology of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Venezuela's democratic history is full of changes in the political, economic and social order, which influenced the democratic security. To get an insight into the generality of democracies in Latin America, Venezuela had for various scenarios colored by free elections and coups intervals, as a way to identify which government from democracy remained unhindered except some sporadic events. After the dictatorship of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958., This state has maintained a long democratic period, but the wear of governments and political parties created in the population dislikes. The emergence of a military leader Lt..Colonel Hugo Chavez caused by others to try a coup, was rather a military uprising was not successful at that time. In 1999 political change occurs, is elected Hugo Chavez who wins elections by democratic means, beginning a new era of democracy in Latin America, lasting until today. It is a socialist movement with popular support with social welfare policy. It is a democracy of the people represented by their political leaders working on behalf of those who have limited financial resources, these resources are intended to tackle illiteracy, extreme poverty, social inequality and hunger is seen as the real revolution. In this government there was a change in external relations between Venezuela and the rest of Latin America and the Caribbean, foreign policy and economic order, as a show of solidarity with the region Petrocaribe is created as a way to keep the union of Latin America and the Caribbean in support of democracy. GOVERNMENTS PERIODS Rafael Caldera (1969-1974) democratic Carlos Andrés Pérez (1974-1979) democratic Luis Herrera Campins (1979-1984) democratic Jaime Lusinchi (1984-1989) democratic Carlos Andrés Pérez (1989-1993) democratic
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Rafael Caldera (1994-1999) democratic Hugo Chavez (1999-2012) democratic Source: www.todomarketingpolitico.com/ enciclopedia.us Timeline Democratic Republic of Nicaragua Prior to the establishment of democracy in Nicaragua have happened several acts of political nature, tinged by the first U.S. intervention in 1910 to 1925 and from 1926 to 1933, which marks a new era in the political history of this nation. In 1933, the intervening force the United States finally withdrew from that country, given the resistance of Augusto César Sandino, who fought for 6 consecutive years. Before leaving the country, however, leave Americans constituted the National Guard, that armed force under the command of Anastasio Somoza García, would be responsible for putting to death Sandino (1934) and to lead a long dictatorship of the Somoza family. During this period the political situation was in Nicaragua was made up of the following organizations: The Nationalist Liberal Party, composed of supporters of Somoza, the Conservative Party, which was the only legal political opposition organization that allowed the regime, the Democratic Union Liberation (UDEL) composed of various political parties and trade unions who aspired to democracy and the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), an organization that brought together socialists, Communists, Christian Democrats, Catholics and non-political coalition fought for democracy, are encouraging armed rebellion against tyranny. The Sandinistas identified themselves as democratic socialists, and sought the overthrow of Somoza and free elections; the dissolution of the National Guard; nationalization of private banks; rapid land reform and expropriation of companies of Somoza. 6 In 1979 ended the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza Debayle, who ruled the country for several years alternating with a puppet while in power from the head of the Guard National. Resurfaces constitutional history of democracy in Nicaragua the July 19, 1979 with the triumph of the Sandinista Popular Revolution and on July 20 of that year the Fundamental Statute of Government of National Reconstruction was enacted. With this condition the democratic security policy consolidated until today, favored free elections and transitions without any trauma. Governments Condition Anastasio Somoza Debayle 1979 end of the dictatorship
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Daniel Ortega Saavedra 1985-1990 democratic Violeta Barrios de Chamorro 1990-1997 democratic Arnoldo Alemán 1997 - 2002 democratic Enrique Bolaños Gayer 2002 - 2007 democratic Daniel Ortega Saavedra 2007 - 2012 democratic Source www. Nicaragua -actual.info / presidents . html 18/02/2013 Timeline Democratic Republic of Honduras During the period 1978-1980 Honduras was ruled by a military junta, this phenomenon manifested itself several times in the region, at the height of the Cold War, democratic security was unchanged by geopolitical conditions. After this dictatorship, led by the military, decided to restore the civil power with a new constitution, calling elections, always with the safety of military bodies, Honduras had over thirty years of democracy, but with extremely worn governments by the lack of economic and social attention to the people by their rulers. Then Manuel Zelaya Rosales directed the government from 2006-2009, but was dismissed and expelled from the country on 28 June 2009, the Dominican Republic hosted political asylum, and condemned the coup, but was later present at the swearing in ceremony of President elect Porfirio Lobo, a fact that was criticized by the public. When interrupted the constitutional order, the international community did not recognize the de facto government of Honduras. Later free elections were held on November 29, 2009, which was elected Porfirio Lobo Sosa, current president of Honduras. GOVERNMENTS PERIODS Military junta 1978-1980 dictatorship Roberto Suazo 1981-1986 democratic José Azcona Hoyo, 1986-1990 democratic Rafael Leonardo Callejas 1990-1994 democratic Carlos Roberto Reina, 1994-1998 democratic Carlos Roberto Flores 1998-2002 democratic Ricardo Maduro Joest 2002-2006 democratic Manuel Zelaya Rosales 2006-2009 interrupted democratic
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Roberto Micheletti Bainen Government de facto Porfirio Lobo Sosa 2010 current democratic Data compiled by the author. Chronology of the democratic Republic of Ecuador Democracy in Ecuador takes a turn since 1979, the contrast with the preceding nine years of dictatorship favored a climate of political peace, a new democracy was born of a complete legal restructuring. Ecuador still not showing although economic dynamism and warning signs of crisis in the world economy.Their governments adopted the neoliberal economic model with an extensive program of privatization of state enterprises, the social explosion was immediate and a number of social organizations took to the streets in a massive demonstration to express their rejection of the economic measures taken. After the members of the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) took to the streets of Quito and advance to the National Congress, supported by the Armed Forces happened several coups where there was a lack in democratic guarantees, the State did not know in the hands of who was, so there were political events that marked the path of democracy with free elections where the people proceeded to define the political future of the nation. The January 15, 2007 assumes the presidency Rafael Correa Delgado, during his second year in office a fact of international character was highlighted as the international crisis with the Colombian State. It began in March 2008 when a surprise attack by Colombian armed forces destroyed a FARC camp and killed Raul Reyes, second head of the guerrilla organization, allegedly in Ecuador. Then both governments gave peace summit of heads of states held in Dominican Republic, where the country plays a starring role as a contribution to democratic security in Latin America. GOVERNMENTS PERIODS SITUATION Jaime Aguilera Roldós 1979-1981 Democratic Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea 1981-1984 Take the power León Febres Cordero Ribadeneyra 1984-1988 Democratic Rodrigo Borja 1988-1992 Democratic Sixto Duran Ballen 1992-1996 Democratic Abdala Bucaram Ortiz 1996 -1997 Ousted Fabián Alarcón 1997-1998 Take the power Jamil Mahuad 1998 - 2000 Take the power
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Gustavo Noboa 2000 - 2003 Take the power Lucio Edwin Gutiérrez Borbúa 2003 - 2005 Take the power Alfredo Palacio 2005-2007 Take the power Rafael Correa Delgado 2007 Democratic Data collected by the researcher Bibliografía.http :/ / www.explored.com.ec / Ecuador / prescons.htm Chronology of Democratic Republic of Peru Democracy in the Peruvian State to our understanding has been weak and lacking in legal institutions characterized by the lack of office expressing the country's constitution; other element is that the population has not given the necessary support for maintenance, is from the year 1980 democratic stability returning to Peru. This weakness allows for several years arose revolutionary cells, or so-called terrorist groups that threatened the democratic security of that country. With thirty years of constitutionally elected governments shows the division between the political parties that have shared the government, party weakness, wear them, led to the election of a candidate hitherto unknown; Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000) who on April 5, 1992 caused a coup, shutting Congress and declaring reorganizing the judiciary. His second term was marked by corruption and authoritarianism. It is the third time choosing fraudulently, thus inaugurating the third period July 28, 2000, which will be short, because after several scandals and calls for general elections fail his trip to Japan to flee the country, giving up the presidency of the Republic. This event made a difference in the Peru's democratic security. 7 GOVERNMENTS PERIODS SYSTEM Manuel Prado Ugarte che 1956-1962 Democratic military junta 1962-1963 De facto Fernando Belaunde Terry 1963 - 1968 Democratic Juan Velasco Alvarado 1968-1975 De facto Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti 1975-1980 De facto Fernando Belaunde Terry. 1980-1985 Democratic Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez 1985-1990 Democratic Alberto Fujimori Fujimori (1990-2000). Democratic Valentín Paniagua Corazao 2000-2001 Caretaker government Alejandro Toledo Manrique 2001-2006) Democratic Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez 2006-2011 democratic Data collected by the researcher. www peru routes.com / .htm
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Chronology of Democratic Federative Republic of Brazil The Brazilian government systems were traditionally undemocratic as many countries in the region. Prevailed for long dictatorships. Top Rated governments of Brazil was Getúlio Dorneles Vargas, considered a leader in its periods exercised a democracy with some involvement of the people ruled until 1945 when there were elections, after several transitions emerged coups military, in that meaning Brazil has 21 years of military dictatorship. Just spent a long dictatorial way and twenty five years of democracy include the economic and social transformation of the democratic government of Luis Inacio Lula da Silva that from 2003 government pursues a policy of sustained development and institutional strengthening the state, as their predecessors did not give answers to the needs of the Brazilian people, democracy is consolidated in the scheme that makes a difference in the fight against poverty and an aggressive policy of social investment. As Timothy Garton Ash 1 JUL 2007 opinion that " Brazil is, along with India and the United States, one of the largest democracies in the world. It is a true democracy for less than 20 years ago, and has already stood the test of peaceful transfer of power between rival parties and presidents. This young democracy has survived economic crisis, a creaky federal system complexity and repeated corruption scandals. It has a free, vibrant and combative press. The army, which previously controlled the country, now remains in the background. In many ways it is a hopeful experiment. But the question that remains is how long can a liberal democracy is maintained with such degrees of inequality, poverty, social exclusion, crime, drugs and anarchy ". 8 GOVERNMENTS PERIODS SYSTEMS João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo 1979-1985 end of dictatorships José Sarney 1985-1990 democratic Fernando Collor de Mello 1990-1992 Democratic resignation Itamar Franco 1992-1995 democratic Fernando Henrique Cardoso 1995-2003 Democratic Luís Inácio Lula da Silva 2003 Democratic Data compiled by the author www.observatoriomercosur.org.uy/ Timeline Democratic Republic of Guatemala The transition from authoritarianism to democracy resulted in Guatemalan citizenship, as in others, great expectations. Not only was it possible to live in peace but for the first time in recent history, democracy would be the management model to follow. To view the democratic life of this State Central transition their
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com early highlights. Directly influenced U.S. foreign policy in Guatemala in the 1950s, for reasons that the dictator put into play the business interests of the U.S. (United Fruit Company) when they tried to modify the existing agreement with the company. These statements are taken from the book of Demetrio Boersner " International Relations in Latin America. Brief history . Page 192 . writer goes on to say that in early 1954 the Guatemalan agrarian reform law several distributed land to the peasants and this influenced the relations of Guatemala and the United States, and urged to give strong support to the counter-revolutionaries to overthrow constitutional government. These decisions marked historically democratic life in Guatemala. From the March 15, 1951 Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, was president of Guatemala who later was the victim of a coup in 1954 by Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas was supported by the United States and Guatemala ended operation in accordance with the spirit of the age by economic and political interests. The government of Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo (14 January 1986-1990) is recognized by the management to seek peace in Central America at the height of the Esquipulas II. Also sought the establishment of the Central American Parliament, which is currently running and current. He suffered a couple of coup attempts. And finally the government of Alfonso Antonio Portillo Cabrera (2000-2004) signs a governability pact with the opposition, he could fulfill his executive plan, framing itself to commitments made in peace agreements. I should add that this country was rocked for a long time with intense fighting with the guerrillas, leaving a liability of victims and political persecution, can say that the transition to democracy in Guatemala has been a critical transition. 9 GOVERNMENTS PERIODS SYSTEMS Colonel Enrique Peralta Azurdia 1963 -1966 De facto Mr. Julio César Méndez Montenegro 1966 -1970 Democratic General Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio 1970-1974 Democratic Kiell Gen. Eugenio García Laugerud 1974-1978 Democratic Gen. Fernando Lucas Garcia 1978-1982 Deposed Democratic EfrainRios Montt 1982 - 1983 De facto Mr. Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo 1986 - 1990 Democratic Engineer Jorge Serrano Elías 1991 - 1993 Take the power Ramiro de León Carpio 1993 - 1996 Take the power
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Alvaro Arzu Irigoyen 1996 - 2000 Democratic Alfonso Antonio Portillo Cabrera 2000-2004 Democratic Data compiled by the author www.oas.org / children / members / presidentes_de . Chronology of democratic Costa Rica Governments that Costa Rica has had since independence (1821) have excelled to achieve maximum progress and development for its people. Notably the period 1950-2006, characterized by maintaining a democratic security has set an example for other states in the region. A Costa Rica is considered to have succeeded in maintaining a stable political system, identified with democratic principles; include some policy decisions on the security and defense of the nation, with the abolition of the army. Each government took decisions of a political, economic, and social issues among which stands out in the period of President Mario Echandi Jiménez (1958-1962) the government broke diplomatic relations with Cuba, the Castro regime subsequently restored diplomatic relations with Cuba. Besides described, Costa Rica has been a symbol of peace to go ahead in the region in finding peaceful solutions to armed and political conflicts, ie has served as the international balance in the regional political order as a promoter of the defense of human rights. 10 GOVERNMENTS PERIODS Otilio Ulate White (1949-1953) have all been democratic Mario Jimenez Echandi (1958-1962) Francisco José OrlichBolmarcich (1962-1966) José Joaquín Trejos Fernández (1966-1970) Daniel Oduber Quiros (1974-1978) Rodrigo Carazo Odio (1978-1982) Luis Alberto Monge Alvarez (1982-1986) Óscar Arias Sánchez (1986-1990) Rafael Angel Calderon Fournier (1990-1994) José Figueres Olsen (1994-1998) Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Echeverría (1998-2002) Abel Pacheco de la Espriella (2002-2006) Laura Chinchilla Miranda 2010-Present
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Chronology of democratic El Salvador Includes various periods from 1931-2009, characterized by governments artifacts, temporary, civil-military coups, revolutionary junta and democratic governments with the same characteristic of the rest of the countries of Central America. In the case of Salvador's democratic transition had to cover certain agreements with revolutionary or guerrilla groups, as were the peace accords to end the armed conflict in 1992, from this agreement democratic security remains stable. Peace agreements came to be the main factor of change; in other South American countries, the military acquiesced the possibility of change with the holding of elections. To give these changes were necessary given that the internal and external conditions, such as ending the armed conflict and other agreements of a political nature characterized by diplomatic efforts to achieve peace and democracy in Central America. GOVERNMENTS PERIODS SYSTEM Tte. cor. Julio Adalberto Rivera 1962-1967 Democratic General Fidel Sánchez Hernández 1967-1972 Democratic Colonel Arturo Armando Molina 1972-1977 democratic General Carlos Humberto Romero 1977-1979 Ousted 1 2.3, Gob revolutionary joints. 1979-1980 De facto Dr. Alvaro Magana Borja 1982-1984 Take the power Jose Napoleon Duarte 1984-1989 Democratic Mr. Alfredo Félix Cristiani 1989-1994 Democratic Dr. Armando Calderón Sol 1994-1999 Democratic Francisco Flores 1999-2004 Democratic Elías Antonio Saca González 2004-2009 Democratic Data compiled by the author 11 Chronology democratic Paraguay The democratic transition of Paraguay is qualified by military and civilian governments, which took into account several coups, which were given sometimes staying was up to one year and less. Democratic security was affected by the revolutions that occurred in almost all countries in Latin America; local politics felt
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com the influence of totalitarian "fashion" aimed right. That was one of the many causes that led to political, economic and social instability in Paraguay. GOVERNMENTS PERIODS SYSTEM General Alfredo Stroessner 1954-1989 Dictatorship General Andrés Rodríguez Pedotti 1989-1993 Take the power Juan Carlos Monti Wasmosy 1993-1998 Raul Cubas Grau 1998-1999 Take the power Luis Angel Gonzalez Macchi 1999-2003 Constitutional Nicanor Duarte Frutos 2003-2008 Constitutional Fernando Lugo Méndez 2008 - 2012 Constitutional deposed Data compiled by the author Source www.softcha.com/ history . htm Chronology of democratic Uruguay The governments of Uruguay were immersed by economic crises, the incursion of the Tupamaros guerrilla group, the permanence of a military dictatorship for twelve years, but with the passing of the years democracy is established to give a respite to hopeful people. Democracy in this country has been characterized as one of the most stable in Latin America. The Uruguayan presidential system is based on maintaining a consensus between two parties. Uruguay holds a solid democracy since 1990, because I did not resist the wave of military dictatorships of the 1970s. Recovered that stretch from 1996 to 2010 where changes that modify the traditional political scenario allowing Uruguay install help understand the Presidential stability. 12 GOVERNMENTS PERIODS SYSTEM Tte. General Gregorio Alvarez 1981 -1985 De facto Dr. Rafael Addiego 1985 -1985 De facto Dr. Julio Sanguinetti Ma 1985 -1990 Constitutional Dr. Luis A. Lacalle 1990 - 1995 Constitutional Dr. Julio Sanguinetti Ma 1995 - 2000 Constitutional Dr. Jorge Batlle Ibáñez 2000 Constitutional Collector Data Source author www.escueladigital.com.uy/ history / presidents / presidents. Chronology of Democratic Republic of Haiti The Republic of Haiti is considered by many critics as a revolutionary state, achieved its independence on January 1, 1804, with the abolition of slavery, the
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com legacy of the French. The democratic history has not been very lucky, has gone through a long period of the existence of very strong dictatorships that have ridden the Haitian people the scariest political, economic and social crisis. Migration is seen as a topic of conflict, in the order of external relations. Different governments have failed to give a response to the needs of the poorest nation in Latin America and the Caribbean and elsewhere. So far Haiti is experiencing a situation of democratic instability and insecurity, and that needs to remain Mission Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), which was established on June 1, 2004, for lack of a national army. 13 It should highlight the role played by the Organization of American States (OAS) in the various political crisis in Haiti, which support the democratic security of the Caribbean state, the conflicts after the dictatorship of Jean-Claude Duvalier in the year 1986 have forced to have to intervene in the processes of political stability in that country, because there have been internal struggles for power without proper application of the Haitian constitution. In the early nineties almost all Latin American countries have democratic regimes and efforts of the OAS in Haiti has focused on helping to ensure that governments are elected through free elections and to try to combat coup attempts. In fact responds to these concerns the content of Resolution 1080 applied in the democratic election of Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1991, to be overthrown, a trade embargo on the coup and did not recognize that government, that had the support of all States in the region, including Dominican Republic. 14 GOVERNMENTS PERIODS SYSTEMS Jean-Claude Duvalier 1971-1986 Dictatorship Henri Namphy 1986 - 1988 De facto Leslie Manigat 1988 Constitutional Henri Namphy 1988 de facto Prosper Avril 1988 -1990 de facto Herard Abraham 1990 Provisional Pascal-Trouillot ertha 1990 Provisional Jean-Bertrand Aristide 1991 Constitutional Raoul Cedras 1991 De facto Joseph Nérette 1991-1992 Provisional Marc Bazin 1992-1993 provisional
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Jean-Bertrand Aristide 1993-1994 Constitutional Émile Jonassaint: 1994 Provisional Jean-Bertrand Aristide 1994-1996 Constitutional René Préval 1996-2001 Constitutional Jean-Bertrand Aristide 2001-2004 Constitutional Boniface Alexandre 2004-2006 Provisional René Préval 2006-2011 Constitutional SOURCE www.applet-magic.com/ haiti sp.htm 1.4 -. Evolution of Democracy in the Dominican Republic. The Dominican State since independence rests with the democratic bases February 27, 1844, but subsequently would ignore such political. The transition to democracy has gone through four stages according to our criteria: First stage: Pre-Trujillo, this comes after the first U.S. military occupation (1916-1924), who organized a National Guard leaves and a constitutional president Horacio Vásquez . assumes the government July 12, 1924 was initiated in the middle of full of difficulties and economic situation of borrowing funds made by the American military government had been exhausted and therefore public works were semi-paralyzed, the government again had to resort to borrowing for about 25,000.000 million and signed a new convention with the United States. The government of President Horacio Vásquez was affected by a domestic political crisis, which began with the modification of the constitution of 1924, and the appointment of General Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina as chief of the Army, who later sworn in as president of the republic on August 16, 1930. Centre an economic crisis prevailing in the country, the government assumes the protective shadow of the United States, and remains for thirty years under a harsh dictatorship. Second stage : post-Trujillo, begins with the death of dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molinael May 30, 1961 Missing the dictator, elections are held in 1962, and is elected Professor Juan Emilio Bosch Gavino, who remains for seven months. office, and again the second democratic constitutional interrupt occurs with the 1963 coup that prevents Bosch govern the period during which he was elected. In this government the Constitution of the Republic was changed and there were other political and social changes.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com This prevents the democratic process to continue developing and brings a revolutionary response enshrining the April 24, 1965. Revolution April divides the armed forces, leading to a second American intervention. In September 1963, an interim governing board consists of senior officers of the Armed Forces, chaired by the de facto government that then delivers the Triumvirate on September 26, 1963. April 25, 1965. (10:30 am to 8:00 pm). Military Revolutionary Command (Led by the military; Vinicio Pérez Fernández, Giovanni Gutierrez Ramirez, Francisco Caamano Deno, Eladio Ramírez Sánchez and Pedro Bartolomé Benoit) From 25 to 27 April 1965 José Rafael Molina Ureña. May 1 to May 7, 1965. Military junta led by Bartolomé Benoit (FAD). Santana Olgo Carrasco (G. M.) and Henry A. Casado Saladin (EN). May 4 to September 3, 1965, Francisco Caamano Deno A. May 7, 1965 at 30 August 1965. "Government of National Reconstruction" (Chaired by Antonio Imbert Barreras. Grisolía Poloney Carlos Alejandro Zeller Cocco, D. Bartolomé Benoit and Julio Postigo). September 3, 1965, Héctor García Godoy, provisional President. At this stage of the democratic revolution of April wanted to maintain security but again external relations with the United States influenced the policy Dominican governments. Third stage : covers the twelve years of the Dr. Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo , assumed the presidency of the Republic on July 1, 1966, winning the election that year, and was re-elected twice, four-year periods 1970 and 1974. In 1978 opted for reelection again but lost it by the Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD) with its presidential candidate Antonio Guzmán Fernández who died before finishing his term. During the twelve years of President Balaguer, the country experienced an economic and social development, which amended the conditions to open a new phase of political and democratic transition, although this period was characterized by maintaining a political crisis that faced hard opposition which was persecuted for political arrests and sometimes several deaths of journalists, politicians, and students. 15 Fourth stage -. begins with the constitutional election of Antonio Guzmán Fernández in 1978 until today and will finally step process once a new political and democratic transition in the Dominican Republic consolidating democratic security. Guzman died before completing his tenure, and assumes the presidency
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com for 45 days Majluta Vice President Jacobo, who delivered Salvador Jorge Blanco , who had won the elections of that year, the period covered (1982-1986). Dr. Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo is back Constitutional President of Republic for two consecutive terms (1986 -1990. 1990-1994). In the elections of 1994 there was a post-electoral crisis by signing the " Pact for Democracy ", a national agreement between the opposition leaders, modifying the Constitution of the Republic, which cuts the two-year mandate prohibits reelection and sends new elections for the year 1996, the separation of the presidential elections-municipal congressional two years apart, the double round if no candidate received more than 50 percent of the vote, reform the judicial system, a positive impact of these reforms was to create the feeling that the Dominican democracy progressed, and that reforms adopted would make the political system more democratic. Rosario Espinal Professor of Sociology and Director of the Center for Latin American Studies at Temple University in Philadelphia, discusses this term with the following : "The electoral triumph of Balaguer and his return to power in 1986, political insecurities generated given the precedent of the previous government 12 years. The key questions were whether Balaguer guarantee public freedoms won during the governments of the PRD, and if remain competitive electoral rules established from 1978. At first, the Balaguer government maintained the gains. In the second, there was a significant decline between 1986 and 1994 - both the general elections of 1990 and 1994 were the disputed " After overcoming the political crisis of 1994, Leonel Fernández Reyna, assumes the presidency of the republic during the constitutional terms (1996-2000 and 2004-2008 -2012) in his last constitution was amended in 2002 with the signing of the " Covenant the Blue Tie ", this new constitution concretized modern democracy, and prohibits consecutive reelection. Hipólito Mejía. Constitutional President ( 2000 - 2004) during this period the constitution of 1994, which re-election again but for two consecutive periods and never ever allowed was modified. In the Dominican Republic democratic security space without any traumas you live, even if it occurred several agreements between political parties: Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC) , Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD) and the National Liberation Party ( PLD) that played a historic role in the democratic life of the country. The Political Culture of Democracy in the Dominican Republic has made an impact on governance as it is well positioned in the ranking of democracy as the
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com best form of government, according to a study of the Americas Barometer 2008 about 75% of interviewees expressed their agreement with this system in Latin America. This result has been a constant in surveys in the country in the last decade. Since democratic security is at an average of 45.9 and the highest in the region. The Dominican Republic, his role in the defense of democratic security in Latin America and the Caribbean has been rather an example for the entire region because from the year 1978 to 2012 are 34 years of uninterrupted democracy has been rated as a strength social, economic and political stability. His influence in the region has been short in other democracies, it is worth mentioning the case of Honduras and President Zelaya as the country gave him asylum after he suffered a coup. In the case of Haiti, the country has been a steady body for that country to be maintained with a stable democracy, such as humanitarian aid following the earthquake of January 12, 2010 with the plan "Helping Hand" the armed forces intervened as a humanitarian force under the direction of the Government. International relations mark the contribution to other democratic states in the area, with the conclusion of economic nature, security and others, with Petrocaribe Venezuela, according to the Free Trade Agreement with Central America, the Central American Integration System ( SICA) and the Central American Parliament (Parlacen) is an example of the degree of cooperation between the Dominican Republic and other countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. 1.5 -. Principal approaches to security and democratic force in Latin America and the Caribbean There is a general and ambiguous criteria on democracy and democratic security, you need to understand now that the first is a form of political ordering of society and system of government, the democratic order is defined by the various political leaders from their party structures in agreement with the people expressed at the polls. According to the treaty framework of democratic security quote " Security is not understands primarily as the security of the State , nor as citizen security without the help of the state, but as the protection of citizens and democracy by the State with the partnership and commitment of the entire society. " Democratic Security is well founded on three pillars: 1. N or the protection of the rights of all citizens.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com 2. The protection or n values, pluralism and democratic institutions atic. 3. Solidarity and cooperation of all or n í citizenship to defend democratic values to Ticos. You need to understand now that democracy is participatory and representative, is the sum of two terms, and corresponding to each level of interaction of society. For example, in the community and municipal levels, the expression of democracy is participation. While levels involving legislation corresponds to an elected voting citizen who represents the region to be delegated to the responsibility of representing their interests. 16 Representative democracy seejerce with popular sovereignty, the people expressed interest free enelecciones. Overall impression either directly to the people associating with the government. The huge arrangement favors state media, on the other hand, a policy of remuneration. The representation is a typically normative concept. Its own effect is that the acts of the representative force the represented although this is not directly involved in the decisions. In modern representative democracy it is characteristic that represented important part of the rule can attend regularly on those who govern. Criticism is certainly right, if facts pointing representative democracy is done, in both procedure does not ensure results. In this sense it is completely neutral.First, no group or party ensures that rule. Then, no rule says how or what the chosen people will decide, at least within certain limits. His force in Latin America has been transformative for the reason that many states have gone through economic crises that erode the stability of democracy and shown positive or negative as the perception of government economic performance. In the region leaders that have permeated the population a different way of doing democracy have emerged because all their efforts in public administration have been directed through social policies framed in reducing poverty, social inequality and democratic security. Include Dasilva presidents Lula in Brazil, Evo Morales in Bolivia, Rafael Correa in Ecuador, Hugo Chavez in Venezuela, José Mujica in Uruguay, Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua and Alvaro Uribe in Colombia. All the rest of the region has been infected with this democratic current that gives better perception of government performance, contributing to the support of democratic security.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Whenever the State acquires the system status legislation prevails over time and space, if we analyze how democracy has been received and adopted in Latin America and the Caribbean, due to its geopolitical condition and holding their homeland ties or strong ties with the West, and that with the passage of time have not taken a step back, opposite the air integration are the best example in the region is accustomed to having a system that responds to maintain a social, economic and political balance in the new world order led by those countries of a powerful group represented in the Security Council of United Nations (UN). 1.6 -. Organic concept of democracy and security Security is a basic need of the person and of human groups and inalienable right of man, society and the State. This concept denotes a state of trust, security, tranquility, prevention, protection, provision, preservation, defense, control and stability, both of the person, and the institutions and the state against threats, pressures or adverse events that threaten their existence, their integrity, their property, their tranquility and the free exercise of their rights. 17 Democracy as a political element is key to maintaining sustainable development, wealth creation promotes more significant aspiration of peoples for achieving levels of economic growth, democratic system to be placed on the viability of national interests. The characteristic of organic concepts of democracy is that they offer a homogeneous idea of political community, especially its aims or goals. This idea of mass democracy evokes: the group-be it people or nation is presented as a unit of absolutely equal parts together, dense, expansive and a few simple oriented purposes. The State, in this conception of democracy, is the instrument of action of social group, their active political arm, it's like having a support base, without the state the group or people can not plan, identify, make agreements, decide who will direct, is a concept of the nation state that is maintained by the national power. Democracy instrumentalized bodies that compose the constitution evokes or send to exercise the function of each organ of power, there is a balance between these powers with one's purpose is to control others. This is the separation of state powers, constitutionally setting. Between rulers and ruled there are no distances or differences. Those who govern are the soul of the people. Along with denying any difference between the state and society, in an organic democracy leaders are symbols of collective power. This concept of democracy is by nature any limitations to political power.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com Rulers are the political decision-making body and in them lies political responsibility. Although the power comes from below, the idea of representation makes clear that those bodies of second grade, the administration and Congress are acting. Thus, the elections also fulfill function control and determines who will or who exercise power, to distribute among different political bodies. The organic democracy finds great difficulty in the lack of consistent legal forms a complex society. Eventually, the bureaucratization of power and personal freedom so become functional requirements to prevent the dough is activated. Representative democracy is associated with other institutions guaranteeing the rule of law and recognition of constitutional guarantees. Democracy is a process to select who governs and when processes are not clear we invade those who hold power through chaos and force is what produces de facto governments. This modern concept of politics goes back to Thomas Hobbes in his work entitled (Leviathan), a manual on human nature and how society is organized. People who have different beliefs and interests together undergo a common government, whose pledge to obey rules, not because they are necessarily true or correct, but because they come from the authority. Hence, the basic content of the covenant is clearly attributive: " I authorize this man or this group of men to rule me and I transfer them the right to do so, provided that the other transfer their own right and authorize all his actions . " 18 While the government does not abide by means accepting the concept of truth of those who govern, it contributes to the concept distanced from politics that characterize representative democracy. This is a typically modern phenomenon: modernity is largely give up the comfort of a society in which everyone has his place beforehand. But diversity were born other virtues that make bearable the need to decide. This also applies to the rules established democratic procedures: elections do not guarantee that the ideal ruler is elected; rather let you select who the rulers, creating conditions for its management is finally subject to public control. So, in a representative democracy the popular vote does not relieve the rulers of the political responsibility for their decisions. 19 Democratic security, is a modern terminology because it comes with itself, its evolution is not so long, is based on an abstract and perception, there are those who seek democratic security as a way of balancing political and social state with equity, where fundamental rights are guaranteed. Being as objective democratic security is related to the social, economic and political, for which is
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com guaranteed. Others establish the relationship of the absence of new threats to the enjoyment of rights. Colombia has established a policy of democratic security quote: " which aims to strengthen and ensure the rule of law throughout the country, by strengthening democratic authority: the free exercise of the authority of institutions, the rule of Law and active participation of citizens in matters of common interest " This project implemented in 2002 focused on strengthening state institutions, justice, military, police, finance and intelligence to deal with the threats outlined also involves the community in decision-making. This vision of democratic security is not enough to maintain political and democratic stability, but combines several factors needed for civil peace, no democracy without it so the term (democratic security) corresponds to that studied in the research. But there is a very different concept that relates to public safety democratic security. So, are used, among others, the concepts of national security, internal security, public order or public safety, to refer to the same field of imputed state functions. The key idea that is common to all these concepts is the goal interventions against crime and violence is none other than the security of the State, which is achieved by generating the conditions for the maintenance of certain political, legal economic or social. In other words, since the crime and interpersonal violence that disrupt "public order," the state apparatus must have the operational capacity to suppress these changes, for the sake of what is considered best interests delmismo State. However, in the last two decades, the development of democratic security doctrines, especially in Latin America since the restoration of the rule of law overcome the years of authoritarian rule and military dictatorship, allowed the contents of the concept will be generated public safety. In this direction, the doctrine holds that specialized public safety concept achieves a focused approach in building higher levels of democratic citizenship, with the individual as a central policy objective, as opposed to state security or particular political order. In democratic regimes, the concept of security against the threat of crime or violence, is associated with public safety and is used in reference to the primary safety of individuals and social groups . 20 The term democratic security refers not only to the safety of people living in urban areas or have requirements to hold political citizenship, but the idea of democratic citizenship, conceived as the ability to be the subject of rights.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com In that direction, and opposite paradigms supported the idea of maintaining the legal order and state authority above all things, the new model developed from the concept of citizen security, aims to " preserve rights and freedoms while it provides a public service to citizens, and whose main mission would be to protect the safety of citizens, all in pursuit of a better quality of life " . 21 1.7 -. Democracy and Political Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Political leaders have historically been responsible for the political future of Latin America and the Caribbean, although many exceptions did not contribute to this development and have used the power ruthlessly to personal benefits. In the last decades of the twentieth century, Latin America and the Caribbean experienced an unprecedented wave of democratization in terms of its breadth, geographical extent and durability. Indicators of an independent body called FREEDOM HOUSE- point: the evolution of democracy worldwide, the percentage of countries classified as "free" rose from 20% in 1978 to 38% in 1982 In the late seventies. and eighties, governments led or supervised by the military relinquished control to civilian rule, and today almost all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have democratic governments. 22 Has increased the protection of civil liberties, and greater decentralization of government authority has greatly increased the power of decision of the citizens action which corresponds to democratic security. Democracy is still consolidating in this region. The impact of political institutions has to be really effective in democratic systems both as presidential representative, this combines the social and economic balance, in response to the expectations of society. Institutions in this case play a role and his governments, public policies related to effective democratic security. Political institutions have to be renewed when the democratic system has had significant changes in the political scene. That's what happened in Latin America with the systematic wave of politics, have spent a considerable number of authoritarian governments purely democratic governments seeking to renew political leaders classics. The Armed Forces are subordinate to political power, and its mission aimed at the military defense of the nation and face other threats, democratic left security in the hands of the civil power and institutions. Security forces and defense are monolithically pawned to provide answers to the needs of security through
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com international cooperation, global integration to confront together the new threats in the region such as: illegal migration, drug trafficking, organized crime , arms trafficking, smuggling and trafficking in human beings and terrorism. Democratic governance is the ability of modern societies to guide their institutions towards better civil coexistence, designed to strengthen the development of their citizens the full exercise of all the powers of rights that offer more and better opportunities to bring kind of life they value, including them in decisions that affect them. 1.8 -. Political Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean The instituciones politicas must reflect the balance of forces for self- preservation. The main political institutions in the region include: Government, Congress, government ministries, Armed Forces, Public Security, Political Parties, Electoral Body and Justice, etc.. Therefore you may not meet all the expectations that people have of them, but it is important to observe your subject to laws that govern initiatives. In institutional terms such organizations require a policy of social cohesion, as they must equally, because the region observed great social inequality that impedes human development. Democratic governments must not only support the retention policy, but rather to combat poverty, lack of education, health, employment, justice, violence, and crime, that is achieved by strengthening all institutions. What forms can take the various governments in Latin America? Keep balanced positions of power in order to bring the democratic security, based on the strength of its institutions. With that many governance problems are avoided. It should be emphasized in the fight against poverty, as they are doing the governments of Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador and Bolivia, putting into service all the resources available to States to its residents. What is the political patronage? It is a form used by politicians to attract followers to his candidacy or parties that have sought to achieve power. To achieve these purposes seeks any form or deliver economic privileges, valuables, offer government posts, with the purchase of conscience or vote as well as the purchase of bonds. This phenomenon drags many difficulties in the race, which the political prostitutes. That's why in the Dominican Republic there is the initiative of a draft law on the law of parties that govern the political agenda and prevent this kind of abuse of power.
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com What governments maintain relationships with their institutions? Generally in the region's traditional governments centralize everything, even in democratic systems, but we are facing a determination of autonomous bodies, which have their own rules, control, and functionality, so there is no intervention of powers. Therefore there must be institutional harmony States. How are structured local institutions and political elites for the supply of public policy and the exercise of democracy? They are framed in constitutions, and organic laws outlining your roles, responsibilities and how to manage their policies according to the rules. The degree of political autonomy and administrative capacity for the supply of public policies. 23 1.9 -. Acceptance level of democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean The expansion of democratic freedoms and the regular use of competitive elections has been considerable progress in terms of democratic security and responsiveness of governments to citizens. So the establishment of a comprehensive and stable democratic political system requires time. Acceptance levels to democracy indicate the underlying legitimacy of these new democratic institutions. Survey data to try to get an idea of whether people perceive that democratic institutions are able to represent and reconcile diverse interests and to implement policies that demand citizenship. What is apparent, and what is stated in other studies, is a general support for the concept of democracy, but markedly less support for democracy in the way it is practiced today. 24 The level of support for democracy can also be assessed by examining the degree of public confidence in political institutions. Latino Barometer reports what degree of confidence the Congress has in different countries of Latin America. Seven states have more than 40%, and nineteen have more than 20% acceptance 25 Opinion polls consistently show that citizens are not entirely satisfied with the performance models governments whose data are presented by Latin barometer of the Americas in 2010. From this point of democratic values remain unchanged, this dissatisfaction is the result of high levels of unemployment in the region of around 9% in recent years, the prevailing extreme poverty, lack of opportunity and growth or development of peoples, there is a large social debt that weakens the current political system. The emergence of a socialist-democratic popular and nationalist currents gives respite support governments with degaste
    • Fundeimes.blogspot.com preferably by corruption and neoliberalism, turn now to a more popular form characterized by populism in response to the points made above. The level of acceptance by citizens in Latin America is estimated that the proportion of people who hold orientations towards democracy, is 43.0, 30.5 ambivalent, not Democrats 26.5, according to figures published by the United Nations Program for Development (UNDP), in its report: Democracy in Latin America , Towards a Citizens' Democracy, yet even these estimates reflect a close difference between Democrats and ambivalent created by levels of governance and economic factors underlying the acceptance or rejection of a system of government. The government has to be functional, able to meet the needs of the people, in a prospective framework to achieve the scope of development in the short term, medium and long term. Source:www2.ohchr.org/spanish/issues/democracy/.../PNUD-seminario.pdf
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