Transcript of "Atmospheric change and air quality"
Himmet Haybat GEO523 Strategies for51061103 Sustainable Development
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION PURPOSE AND METHODOLOGY MAIN SAUBJECTSRESEARCH QUESTIONS FINDINGS SOLUTIONS CONCLUSION
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INTRODUCTIO NThe Earths climate is not static. Over the billions ofyears of earth’s existence, it has changed many timesin response to natural causes.
• However, when people talk about climate change today, they mean the changes in temperature over the last 100 years caused by human activity.
• During this time, the average temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth’s surface has risen by about 0.75 degrees Celsius
• Scientists drill cores and analyze the gas bubbles in each layer to see what the atmosphere was like at that time.• Scientists test their models by entering real data from the past and seeing how well their model would have predicted past trends.• They generally find: Models that incorporate only natural factors or only anthropogenic (human-caused) factors predict poorly.
• The aim of this study was searching air quality, potential climate change, and ozone layer depletion• So with this study found many different earlier studies which is related to climate change, air quality, and ozone layer• Namely in this study were used research methods to perform for study aim• Then began search articles that related to climate change, air quality, and ozone depletion• In the end of this study every articles combined which was found before and brought
Climate Change Ozone Layer Depletion Air Quality
W is it mean of Climate? hat W is it mean of Climate Change? hat• What causes Earth’s climate to change?• What are impacts of Climate Change?• How Might the Earth’s Temperature and Climate Change in the Future? W is it mean of Ozone? hat• What is it mean of good and bad Ozone? W is it mean of Ozone Layer hat Depletion? W is it mean of Air Quality? hat
• Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods• A regions climate is generated by the climate system, which has five components: Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Cryosphere, Land surface, and Biosphere
• Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average. Climate change may be limited to a specific region or may occur across the whole Earth.
NATURAL HUMAN• Continental drift • Large quantities of waste• Volcanoes • Greenhouse gases• The earths tilt • Air Pollution• Ocean currents • CO2• Sun’s output • Burning of the fossil fuel, cutting of forests
Sea level is rising: During the 20th century,sea level rose about 15 cm (6 inches) dueto melting glacier ice and expansion ofwarmer seawater. Models predict that sealevel may rise as much as 59 cm (23inches) during the 21st Century,threatening coastal communities,wetlands, and coral reefs.
Arctic sea ice is melting: The summer thickness of seaice is about half of what it was in 1950. Melting icemay lead to changes in ocean circulation. Plusmelting sea ice is speeding up warming in the Arctic
Glaciers and permafrost are melting:Over the past 100 years, mountain glaciers inall areas of the world have decreased in sizeand so has the amount of permafrost in theArctic Greenlands ice sheet is melting fastertoo
Sea-surface temperatures are warming: In recentyears sea surface temperature increasing morethen before
• The temperatures of large lakes are warming: The temperatures of large lakes world-wide have risen dramatically. Temperature rises have increased algal blooms in lakes, favor invasive species, increase stratification in lakes and lower lake levels
Extreme drought is increasing:Higher temperatures cause a higherrate of evaporation and more droughtin some areas of the world
Ecosystems are changing: As temperaturesEcosystems are changing: As temperatureswarm, species may either move to a coolerwarm, species may either move to a coolerhabitat or die. Species that are particularlyhabitat or die. Species that are particularlyvulnerable include endangered species, coralvulnerable include endangered species, coralreefs, and polar animals. Warming has alsoreefs, and polar animals. W arming has alsocaused changes in the timing of spring eventscaused changes in the timing of spring events
Spread of diseases:As northern countries warm, diseasecarrying insects migrate towardsnorth, bringing plague and diseasewith them. Indeed some scientistsbelieve that in some countries thanksto global warming, malaria has notbeen fully eradicated
• Ozone layer• Not really a layer, but a region of higher- than-normal ozone concentrations (which are still very low)• ~17–30 km altitude• Ozone = O3—molecule of 3 oxygen atoms• Absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sun, protecting organisms on surface from radiation damage
• BAD: Ground level ozone contributes to smog, and is harmful to living things (Troposphere)• GOOD: Ozone in the stratosphere act as a shield protecting Earth’s biosphere against harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays found in sun light. [UV rays contribute to skin cancer]
Ozone depletion refers to thethinning of the stratospheric ozonelayer• Result is a loss of earth’s protection from UV radiationPrimary ozone depleters arechlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons• These break down in UV light, releasing chlorine, which destroys stratospheric ozone molecules
Air quality is defined as a measure of thecondition of air relative to therequirements of one or more bioticspecies or to any human need or purpose
Conclusive evidence that global warming is due to human activity Climate change will stress water resources Coastal areas are at increasing risk from sea-level rise and storm surge Threats to human health will increase Climate change will interact with many social and environmental stresses Some species will face a high risk of extinction Future climate change and its impacts depend on choices made today
• Control of Air PollutionIndustrial Activities• Emissions reduction Fluorescent bulbElectricity generation is the biggest source of greenhouse gas emissions• Renewable energy: including energy from wind, solar, wave, biofuels, etc., substitutes directly for fossil fuels and eliminates CO2 emissions entirely• W alking, biking, and using public transportation• Planting trees
In the end of this study found differentinformation about climate change and airquality. So, learned what the mean of airquality is, then how atmospheric changewas happening in recent years and in thepast. Also end of this study we getknowledge about causes of climate change.
If look at the in detail of this study, learnedspecific information about the climatechange, air quality, ozone layer depletion,effects of CO2 to climate change and toatmosphere, how Halocarbons effect toatmosphere, how methane effect toatmosphere. Another results of this studywas learned economic consequences whicheffected by climate change.
•Akimoto, H. (2003). Global Air Quality and Pollution. Sc ie nc e m a g , 3 0 2 ,1716-1719.•Coheur, P. F., Clerbaux, C., & Colin, R. (2003). Spectroscopicmeasurements of halocarbons and hydro halocarbons by satellite-borne remote sensors. JO URN L O F G EO PHYSI L RESEA A CA RCH,1 0 8 , 1-14. •DeMore, W. B. (1996). Experimental and Estimated Rate Constantsfor the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radicals with Several Halocarbons. Je tPro p uls io n la bo ra to ry , Ca lifo rnia ins titute o f te c hno lo g y , Pa s a d e na , 1-25. •Forster, P. (2007). Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and inRadioative Forcing. I PCC Wo rking G ro up IThird A s e s s m e nt Re p o rt, s129-234. •Furman, J., Bordoff, J. E., Deshpande, M., Noel, P. J. (2007). AnEconomic Strategy to Address Climate Change and Promote EnergySecurity. The Bro o king s I titutio n, 1-40. ns•Gee, D., & Vaz, G. (2002). Late lessons from early warnings: theprecautionary principle 1896–2000. Office for O ffic ia l Public a tio ns o f
• National Science Teachers Association (2007). Global Climate Change: Resources for Environmental Literacy. N tio na l Sc ie nc e a Te a c he rs A s o c ia tio n, 1-19. s• Prentice, I. C. (2001). The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. 183-237.• Rowland, F. S. (2004). The Changing Atmosphere in 2004. Biblio the c a A x a nd ra , 1-18. le• Solomon, S. (1999). Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: A Review of Concepts and History. N tio na l O c e a nic a nd A o s p he ric a tm A m inis tra tio n, 3 7 (3 ), 276-316. d• Walther, G. R., Post, E., Convey, P., Menzel, A., Parmesank, C., Beebee, T. J. C., Fromentin, J. M., Guldberg, O. H., & Bairlein, F. (2002). Ecological responses to recent climate change. N ture , 41 6 , a 389-395.• Wang, J. L., Chang, C. J., & Lin, Y. H. (1998). Concentration Distributions of Anthropogenic Halocarbons Over a Metropolitan Area. Che m o s p he re , 3 6 (10), 2391-2400.• Wuebbles, D. J., & Hayhoe, K. (2001). Atmospheric methane and global change. Ea rth-Sc ie nc e Re v ie ws , 1 1 , 177-210.