Non Anthropogenic Causes of Climate ChangePresentation Transcript
non-Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change non-Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change Professor Hector R Rodriguez School of Business Mount Ida College Business, Society & Environment
The Corporation and Its Stakeholders
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
The Social Responsibility of Business
The Shareholder Primacy Norm
CSR, Citizenship and Sustainability Reporting
The Community and the Corporation
Taxation and Corporate Citizenship
Corporate Philanthropy Programs
Employees and the Corporation
Managing a Diverse Workforce
A Balanced Look at Climate Change
Non-anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change
Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost
The Kyoto Protocol
Green Information Technology
Transportation, Electric Vehicles and the Environment
Carbon Capture and Storage
Solid, Toxic and Hazardous Waste
Forests, Paper and Carbon Sinks
Life Cycle Analysis
Water Use and Management
Course Map – Topics Covered in Course
Weather: daily temperature and moisture conditions in a place
Climate: a description of the long-term weather pattern in a particular area
Global warming: the increase in Earth’s average surface temperature due to rising levels of greenhouse gases.
Climate change: a long-term change in the Earth’s climate, or of a region on Earth. Climate change includes:
Changes in temperature (Global Warming)
Changes to precipitation patterns and sea levels
Humidity, wind, and severe weather events.
First, Some Terms to Understand
Climate Change Over the Years There is a significant amount of historical evidence pointing to episodes of climate change in both distant and recent past. How do we know? Let’s review some geology first.
Glaciation Advancing Glaciers Original State
Glacial features in the White Mountains - Cirques
Glaciation in Our Backyard – White Mountains, NH
Cirques are one of the most common and most distinct glacial landforms in glaciated mountains.
Cirques are large bowl-like shaped valleys with a large steep headwall on one side.
Cirques are commonly found on the eastern slopes of the White Mountains where the snow would have been blown off of the summits and collected.
Glacial features in the White Mountains - Glacial throughs
The notches in the White Mountains were carved by the valley glaciers. These glaciers followed V-shaped river valleys and as the glacier passed through it widened and deepened the valley leaving behind a U-shaped valley after the glaciers retreated.
Glaciation in Our Backyard – White Mountains, NH Crawford Notch
More Evidence of Glaciation Cirques Glacial Through Hanging Valley Horn
The Medieval Warm Period in the 11 th century raised the mean temperature in AK to 3-5 o F warmer than it is today; the snow line in the Rocky Mountains was about 300 yards higher than today
Recent Changes in Climate
Likewise in the middle of the last millennium saw a marked cooling, named the Little Ice Age . The Artic pack ice extended so far south that there are six records of Eskimos landing their kayaks in Scotland.
Glaciers have been advancing and receding since the last ice age; most glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere were small or absent from 9,000 to 6,000 years ago.
Conclusion: Glaciers are Cyclical
They reached a recent maximum at the end of the Little Ice Age. So it should not be surprising to see them dwindling as we leave the Little Ice Age; we are comparing them with their absolute maximum over the last 10,000 years
What causes this cyclicality?
Variations in the Earth's Orbit and Inclination to the Sun (see Milankovitch Cycles on next slide)
Changes in the Atmosphere (which can be caused by volcanoes and sunspots)
Some Causes of Climate Change These are not related to human activity…
Changes in Circulation of Sea Water
Sliding of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet over the Ocean
June 1991 Mt Pinatubo eruption cooled temperatures in some regions by as much as 0.5 degrees C* *http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/VolcWeather/description_volcanoes_and_weather.html
Milankovitch Cycles Click Here
Inclination (variation of tilt)
The changes in the axial tilt (22 o to 24.5 o ) of the Earth
The greater the tilt the greater the contrast between summer and winter temperatures
Cycle is about 41,000 years
The wobble of the Earth as it spins on its axis
Cycle is about 26,000 years
Earth’s orbital changes controls its climate
Measure of the non-circularity of Earth's orbit
Cycle is about 100,000 years
What I said…
Climate change has happened in the past
There is evidence that proves so
These effects were not driven by human activity
What I will also say…
Pace of climate change seems to be increasing
Human activity is influencing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere
This is causing anthropogenic global warming and may cause future catastrophic climate change
Please Note! As future business leaders we cannot afford to be influenced by unbalanced arguments, laced with hyperbole… our stakeholders expect more of us… our credibility depends on it.
A comprehensive strategy to mitigate the risk associated with GHG emissions must be implemented. It should include the following steps:
Developing renewable sources of energy
Implementing comprehensive International Protocols