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2 data 2011
 

2 data 2011

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unit 2 of the chemistryadventure series

unit 2 of the chemistryadventure series

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    2 data 2011 2 data 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      SI Units: Le SystemeInternationale
      Unit 2: Data
      Identify the 7 common SI units:
      Kelvin
      temperature
      Ampere
      k
      current
      second
      s
      time
      A
      mole
      meter
      amount
      mol
      m
      distance
      candela
      brightness
      cd
      kg
      kilogram
      mass
      Combined Units:
      speed
      acceleration
      density
      volume
      Density formula:
      1
    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      Unit 2: Data
      Density calculations
      13.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 5 mL. Density?
      What is the mass of 2 mL of aluminum?
      • m = vd
      • = (2 mL)(2.7 g/mL)
      • = 5.4 g
      divide
      m
      multiply
      d
      v
      2
    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      Unit 2: Data
      Billion (109)
      Giga (G)
      2. Prefixes
      Mega (M)
      Million (106)
      List the common unit prefixes and their abbreviations
      kilo (k)
      Thousand (103)
      learn more
      1
      Hundredth 10-2
      centi (c)
      milli (m)
      Thousandth (10-3)
      micro (m)
      Millionth (10-6)
      3
      nano (n)
      Billionth (10-9)
    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      Temperature
      Unit 2: Data
      When is Kelvin normally used and why?
      Kelvin
      Temp scale that cannot go below zero:
      K to 0C:
      25oC = ?K
      K = oC +273
      = 298 K
      In many formulas: it is mathematically accurate.
      0F to 0C:
      °C= (°F - 32) × 5/9°F = ° C× 9/5 + 32 
      -40oC = ?0F
      x9 = -360, /5 = -72, + 32 = -40 0F
      -40oF = ?0C
      -32 = -72, x5 = -360, /9 = -40 = -40 0C
      4
      4
    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      Scientific Notationfor big and small numbers
      Example:
      Try some:
      = 2.12 x 102
      212
      .0097
      10,000
      = 9.7x 10-3
      = 1 x 104
      602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
      Draw a line to make it between 1 and 10; count to decimal point.
      Always 10x
      Always 1-10
      = 6.02x 1023
      -2860
      = -2.86 x 103
      = 9.742 x 10-4
      .0009742
      5
    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      Scientific Notation on your calculators: 2 methods
      Enter 6.02 x 1023
      For fancy calculators (like TI-83, etc)
      For cheaper calculators that don’t do ()
      Enter it all in parentheses- you’ll need them
      Use EE button, no parentheses needed
      Enter (6.02x10^23)
      Enter 6.02E23
      Example: what is (2 x 101)(1 x 101)?
      Enter (2 x 10^1)(1 x 10^1)
      Enter 2E1x1E1
      = 200 or 2E2
      Try this: (3 x 10-2) x (-4.2 x 10-4) = ?
      Enter (3x10^-2)x(-4.2x10^-4)
      Enter 3E-2x-4.2E-4
      Negative, not subtract
      Negative, not subtract
      Add answer
      = -1.26 x 10-5 or -0.0000126
      6
    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      5. ConversionsA Sample Problem
      You have $7.25 in your pocket in quarters. How many quarters do you have?
      1. Start with
      What you are
      given
      3. Multiply using
      Conversion factors
      To get there
      2. Write the units
      you need to
      Get to
      4 quarters
      29
      = ___ quarters
      X
      7.25 dollars
      dollar
      Cancel your units to prove you did it correctly.
      7
    • 1. Units 2. Prefixes 3. Dens./temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      Convert 65 miles/hour to meters per second
      • (1609 meters = 1 mile; 3600 seconds = 1 hour
      1. Start with
      What you are
      given
      3. Multiply using
      Conversion factors
      To get there
      2. Write the units
      you need to
      Get to
      1609 meters
      1 hour
      65 miles
      x
      x
      meters
      second
      = 29.05
      hour
      1 mile
      3600 seconds
      Cancel your units to prove you did it correctly.
      Slightly Harder Conversions
      8
    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      6. Significant Figures
      1. When measuring
      include the known digits plus one estimated digit.
      Volume?
      32.0 mL
      9
    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      Significant Figures: Guess which zero’s matter (L1 only)
      number
      why
      # SIG. FIGS:
      1. “non-zero numbers are always significant”
      32
      2
      2. “leading zeroes are
      Never significant”
      0.0323
      3
      3. “sandwiched zeroes are
      always significant”
      3.004
      4
      300
      1
      4. “trailing zeroes are only significant if there is a decimal place”
      300.
      3
      5
      300.20
      .030690
      Summary:
      Keep if decimal present
      dump
      10
      keep
    • Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      Learning Check INCLUDE add subtract multiply divide add graph to formula slide
      A. Which 2 answers contain 3 significant figures?
      1) 0.4760 2) 0.00476 3) 4760
      B. All the zeros are significant in
      1) 0.00307 2) 25.300 3) 2.050 x 103
      C. 534,675 rounded to 3 significant figures is
      1) 535 2) 535,000 3) 5.35 x 105
      > or = 5; round up
      11
    • 7. Percent Error
      Data: 1.Units2. Prefixes 3. temp. 4. Sci. not. 5. Conversions 6. sig. fig.’s 7. % error
      You measure your mass to be 120 lbs,
      but in reality it is 150 lbs. What is your percent error?
      Add images, perhaps a video, etc.
      = 30 lbs/150 lbs x 100
      = 20%
      End data unit 
      12