Int 2 Computing Mr Arthur
Course Outline <ul><li>3 Main Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Systems =  40 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software...
Computer Systems <ul><li>5 units in the Computer Systems Section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Representation = 6 hours </li>...
Aims of Lesson 1 <ul><li>How are numbers, text and images represented inside the computer system? </li></ul><ul><li>Discus...
Data Representation 100 billion  switches  per sq. cm
Data Storage <ul><li>Numbers, Text, and Images are all stored as a series of 1s and 0s inside the computer system. </li></...
Decimal Counting System <ul><li>When we represent numbers we use the decimal counting system, for example </li></ul><ul><l...
How Positive Whole Numbers are Stored <ul><li>34 </li></ul><ul><li>128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ...
Binary back to Decimal <ul><li>1011 0011 </li></ul><ul><li>128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 </li></u...
Binary Bingo <ul><li>42 </li></ul><ul><li>81 </li></ul><ul><li>21 </li></ul><ul><li>16 </li></ul><ul><li>121 </li></ul><ul...
Aims of Lesson 2 <ul><li>Data Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bits/Bytes etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Floating Point Representat...
Storage Capacities 0 or 1 = 1 bit 8 bits = 1 byte 1024 bytes = 1 Kilobyte 1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte 1024 Megabytes = 1 G...
Representing Non Whole Numbers <ul><li>How do we represent the number 128.75 in binary? </li></ul><ul><li>128 + 0.5 + 0.25...
Mantissa and Exponent <ul><li>Mantissa </li></ul><ul><li>Exponent </li></ul><ul><li>8 </li></ul><ul><li>8   4   2  1 </li>...
<ul><li>Mantissa </li></ul><ul><li>Exponent </li></ul><ul><li>6 </li></ul><ul><li>8   4   2  1 </li></ul><ul><li>0   1   1...
Representing Non Whole Numbers <ul><li>Mantissa relates to the precision of the number you can represent i.e 34.44454321 <...
Aims of Lesson 3 <ul><li>Representing Graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></u...
Pixels/Resolution <ul><li>Pixel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stands for Picture Element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pixel is a d...
BIT Map Graphics SCREEN MEMORY PIXEL MEMORY REQUIRED 8 BITS X 8 BITS = 64 BITS = 8 BYTES Bit Map = the graphic is made up ...
Graphics Resolution <ul><li>The smaller the size of the pixels, the finer the detail of the image </li></ul><ul><li>800 x ...
Calculating Storage Capacities of Bit Mapped Images <ul><li>Storage Requirements = total number of pixels * number of bits...
Aims of Lesson 4 <ul><li>Last Lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Representing whole numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decimal to Binary...
How is Text Represented <ul><li>ASCII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each key on the keyboard is converted into a binary code using...
Binary Message <ul><li>1010100  1001000   1001001  1010011 </li></ul><ul><li>0100000  1010111   1000101   1000001  </li></...
Advantages of Using Binary <ul><li>Computers are 2 state e.g. on and off and Binary is a 2 state counting system e.g. 1010...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Int 2 data representation 2010

1,567 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,567
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
204
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Int 2 data representation 2010

  1. 1. Int 2 Computing Mr Arthur
  2. 2. Course Outline <ul><li>3 Main Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Systems = 40 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Development = 40 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence = 40 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 End of Unit Assessments (NABS /20) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Practical Coursework Tasks (/15 - 30%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written Exam (/70 or 70%) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Computer Systems <ul><li>5 units in the Computer Systems Section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Representation = 6 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Structure = 7 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripherals = 5 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking = 9 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Software = 9 hours </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Aims of Lesson 1 <ul><li>How are numbers, text and images represented inside the computer system? </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing the 2 state computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Converting positive whole numbers to binary and vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>Playing Binary Bingo </li></ul>
  5. 5. Data Representation 100 billion switches per sq. cm
  6. 6. Data Storage <ul><li>Numbers, Text, and Images are all stored as a series of 1s and 0s inside the computer system. </li></ul><ul><li>These series of 1s and 0s are made up of pulses of electricity from 1 volt to 5 volts </li></ul>
  7. 7. Decimal Counting System <ul><li>When we represent numbers we use the decimal counting system, for example </li></ul><ul><li>123,000 </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 0 0 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Since the computer is 2 state, the binary counting system goes up by the power 2, rather than 10 i.e </li></ul><ul><li>256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul>
  8. 8. How Positive Whole Numbers are Stored <ul><li>34 </li></ul><ul><li>128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 </li></ul><ul><li>= 32 + 2 </li></ul><ul><li>134 </li></ul><ul><li>128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 </li></ul><ul><li>= 128 + 4 + 2 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Binary back to Decimal <ul><li>1011 0011 </li></ul><ul><li>128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 </li></ul><ul><li>= 128 + 32 + 16 + 2 + 1 </li></ul><ul><li>= 179 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Binary Bingo <ul><li>42 </li></ul><ul><li>81 </li></ul><ul><li>21 </li></ul><ul><li>16 </li></ul><ul><li>121 </li></ul><ul><li>73 </li></ul><ul><li>101 </li></ul><ul><li>75 </li></ul><ul><li>127 </li></ul><ul><li>128 </li></ul><ul><li>13 </li></ul><ul><li>209 </li></ul><ul><li>32 </li></ul><ul><li>56 </li></ul><ul><li>175 </li></ul><ul><li>192 </li></ul><ul><li>186 </li></ul><ul><li>176 </li></ul><ul><li>121 </li></ul><ul><li>250 </li></ul><ul><li>34 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Aims of Lesson 2 <ul><li>Data Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bits/Bytes etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Floating Point Representation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Storage Capacities 0 or 1 = 1 bit 8 bits = 1 byte 1024 bytes = 1 Kilobyte 1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte 1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte 1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte
  13. 13. Representing Non Whole Numbers <ul><li>How do we represent the number 128.75 in binary? </li></ul><ul><li>128 + 0.5 + 0.25 </li></ul><ul><li>= 128.75 </li></ul>128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.0625 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
  14. 14. Mantissa and Exponent <ul><li>Mantissa </li></ul><ul><li>Exponent </li></ul><ul><li>8 </li></ul><ul><li>8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1 0 0 0 </li></ul>128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.0625 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
  15. 15. <ul><li>Mantissa </li></ul><ul><li>Exponent </li></ul><ul><li>6 </li></ul><ul><li>8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>0 1 1 0 </li></ul>1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 How do we represent the number 38.125 using floating point 32 16 8 4 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.0625
  16. 16. Representing Non Whole Numbers <ul><li>Mantissa relates to the precision of the number you can represent i.e 34.44454321 </li></ul><ul><li>Exponent relates to the position of the decimal point </li></ul>8 4 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.075 0.0375 0.01875 0.009375
  17. 17. Aims of Lesson 3 <ul><li>Representing Graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphics Calculations </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pixels/Resolution <ul><li>Pixel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stands for Picture Element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pixel is a dot on the screen. It is a graphic segmented up into its simplest form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the numbers of pixels there are per inch (dpi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the resolution the higher the quality of the image </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. BIT Map Graphics SCREEN MEMORY PIXEL MEMORY REQUIRED 8 BITS X 8 BITS = 64 BITS = 8 BYTES Bit Map = the graphic is made up from a series of pixels
  20. 20. Graphics Resolution <ul><li>The smaller the size of the pixels, the finer the detail of the image </li></ul><ul><li>800 x 600 pixels lower quality than 1024 x 768 </li></ul><ul><li>As the number of pixels increases so does the storage space required </li></ul>Pixel Pattern using 8x8 grid Pixel Pattern using 16x16 grid
  21. 21. Calculating Storage Capacities of Bit Mapped Images <ul><li>Storage Requirements = total number of pixels * number of bits used for each pixel </li></ul><ul><li>This picture of Mr Haggarty has a resolution of 300dpi. The image is 2 inches by 4 inches in 128 colours </li></ul><ul><li>300 X 2 = width 600 pixels </li></ul><ul><li>300 X 4 = height 1200 pixels </li></ul><ul><li>Total pixels = 600 X 1200 = 720,000 pixels </li></ul><ul><li>Each pixel = 7 bits i.e. 2 = 128 colours </li></ul><ul><li>720,000 X 7 = 5,040,000 bits / 8 = 630,000 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>630,000 / 1024 = 615Kb </li></ul>7
  22. 22. Aims of Lesson 4 <ul><li>Last Lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Representing whole numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decimal to Binary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary to Decimal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-whole numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floating Point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Units </li></ul><ul><li>Representing Graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphics Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s Lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Representing Text </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of using binary </li></ul>
  23. 23. How is Text Represented <ul><li>ASCII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each key on the keyboard is converted into a binary code using 7 bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using 7 bits i.e 2 = 128 characters can be represented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Character Set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A list of all the characters which the computer can process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes 0 to 31 are non printable characters, for example tab, return, alt </li></ul></ul>7 Character Binary Decimal tab 000 1001 9 return 000 1101 13 space 010 0000 32 ! 010 0001 33 ‘ 010 0010 34 1 011 0001 49 A 100 0001 65 a 110 0001 97
  24. 24. Binary Message <ul><li>1010100 1001000 1001001 1010011 </li></ul><ul><li>0100000 1010111 1000101 1000001 </li></ul><ul><li>1010100 1001000 1000101 1010010 </li></ul><ul><li>0100000 1001001 1010011 0100000 </li></ul><ul><li>1001000 1001111 1010010 1010010 </li></ul><ul><li>1001001 1000010 1001100 1000101 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Advantages of Using Binary <ul><li>Computers are 2 state e.g. on and off and Binary is a 2 state counting system e.g. 1010 </li></ul><ul><li>If there is any drop in voltage (degradation) the pixel etc is still represented as a 1 (black) </li></ul>

×