Chemistry <br />1st Quarter Exam<br />Branches Of Chemistry<br /><ul><li>Analytical - is the study of the chemical composition of natural and artificial materials.
Nuclear - is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties.
Inorganic - is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds.
Organic - is a discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds that contain carbon.
Physical - is the explanation of macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical concepts; sometimes using the principles, practices and concepts of physics like thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and dynamics.
Industrial - Is a branch of chemistry which deals with converting raw materials to another raw material.
BioChemistry - is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules.</li></ul>Scientific Notation – is a way of writing numbers that accommodates values too large or too small to be conveniently written in standard decimal notation.<br />Ordinary Decimal NotationScientific Notation<br />3003x102<br />5,720,000,0005.72x109<br />Significant Figures<br /><ul><li>All non zero digits = Significant</li></ul>Ex. 555 – 3sf<br /><ul><li>All zeros between non zero digit – S</li></ul>Ex. 100,001 – 6sf<br /><ul><li>All zeros to the right of a decimal pt. but to the left of a non zero digit are not significant.</li></ul>Ex. 0.0005 – 1sf<br /><ul><li>All zeros to the right of a decimal pt & to the right of a non zero digit.
All zeros to the left of an understood decimal pt but to the right of a non zero digit are not significant.
Ex. 5,000,000 – 1sf</li></ul>Temperature<br />Eng – F > rankine (R)<br />Metric – C > kelvin (K)<br />Conversion<br />F>CC= (F-32)x5/9<br />C>FF= 9x(c)/5+32<br />Absolute Temperature<br />R= F+460<br />K= C+273<br />Conversion (Metric Ladder)<br />Milli = 1/1000 (m)<br />Centi = 1/100(c)<br />Deci = 1/10<br />-------STANDARD-------<br />Deca = 10(da)<br />Hecto = 100(h)<br />Kilo = 1000(k)<br />Accuracy & Precision<br />Accuracy<br /> <br />High accuracy, but low precision<br />Precision<br />High precision, but low accuracy<br />Percent Error<br />Expt. Value – True Value<br /> True Value<br />Matter – anything that has mass and occupies space<br />Mass – is a measure of the quantity of matter<br />Weight – is a measure of the force of gravity between two objects.<br />Volume for irregular objects<br />M = D*V<br />D = M<br /> V<br />V = M<br /> D<br />rogeneous(non-uniform)<br />SolutionSuspension<br />Coarse Mixture<br />Colloids<br />Mixture - Matter that containts two or more different materials.<br />Homogeneous - Uniform Through Out<br />Heterogeneous - Composed of more than one phase<br />Solution - A homogeneous mixture composed of solute and solvent<br />Suspension - A dispersion of particles > 100nm(nanometers) in a continuous medium.<br />Coarse Mixture - Reactions / Mixtures which is visible to the eye.<br />Colloids - a dispersion of particles from 1nm to 100nm in at least one dimension <br /> in a continuous medium.<br />Pure Substances - One material only<br />Element - a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons in the nucleus.<br />Metal - an element that tends to lose electrons in chemical reactions.<br />Metalloid - An element that has properties, characteristics of a metal and a non metal.<br />Non metal - an element that tends to gain electrons in chemical reactions.<br />Compound - A substance composed of atoms of two or more elements linked by chemical bonds.<br />Acid - a substance that produce hydrogen ions in water solution ; proton donor.<br />Base - a substance that produces hydroxide ions ions in water solution ; proton acceptor.<br />Oxide - Substance that tends to gain electrons.<br />Salt - An ironic solution used to complete an electric circuit in a voltaic cell.<br />Physical and Chemical Properties<br />Physical - a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured <br /> w/o changing the condition or identitiy of the substance<br />Observable<br />1.Color<br />2.Solubility<br />3.Odor<br />4.Hardness<br />Measureable<br />1.Density<br />2.Mass<br />3.Volume<br />4.Freezing Point<br />5.Boiling Point<br />Intensive - Does not depend on the amount of the substance.<br />Extensive - Does depend on the amount of the substance.<br />Chemical - The ability of the substance to undergo chemical reaction and to produce a new product/new<br /> Substance. These are observed only when the substance undergo chemical reaction.<br />Physical/Chemical Change<br />Physical - A change in appearance and a change in the state of the substance.<br />Ex. Dissolve, Freeze, Boil, Break, Split, Crush Signify physical Change.<br />Chemical - Change in the state, Appearance, & Composition. As a resulty, a new substance is Produced.<br />Ex. Decompose, Ferment, Corrode, Rot, Decay, Grow signify chemical Change.<br />Endothermic Reaction – The substance absorbs heat ; heat is absorbed by the system.<br />Exothermic Reaction – Heat is released by the system.<br />Properties Of Water<br />Boiling pt = 100deg.<br />Condensation pt = 100deg.<br />Freezing pt = 0deg<br />Melting pt = 0deg<br />H2O<br />Solid LiquidLiquid GasGas LiquidLiquid Solid<br />-10deg 25deg25deg 101deg101deg 90deg90deg -5deg<br />EndothermicEndothermicExothermicexothermic<br />Conditions to consider<br /><ul><li>As the temperature increases, the state of the substance remains constant.
c = specific heat of the substance ; amount of heat needed to convert one gram of a substance by 1def w/o change in state.</li></ul>t = change in temperature (c)<br /><ul><li>As the state of the substance changes, the temperature remains the same. (constant)