Chem Reviewer


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Chem Reviewer

  1. 1. Chemistry <br />1st Quarter Exam<br />Branches Of Chemistry<br /><ul><li>Analytical - is the study of the chemical composition of natural and artificial materials.
  2. 2. Nuclear - is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties.
  3. 3. Inorganic - is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds.
  4. 4. Organic - is a discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds that contain carbon.
  5. 5. Physical - is the explanation of macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical concepts; sometimes using the principles, practices and concepts of physics like thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and dynamics.
  6. 6. Industrial - Is a branch of chemistry which deals with converting raw materials to another raw material.
  7. 7. BioChemistry - is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules.</li></ul>Scientific Notation – is a way of writing numbers that accommodates values too large or too small to be conveniently written in standard decimal notation.<br />Ordinary Decimal NotationScientific Notation<br />3003x102<br />5,720,000,0005.72x109<br />Significant Figures<br /><ul><li>All non zero digits = Significant</li></ul>Ex. 555 – 3sf<br /><ul><li>All zeros between non zero digit – S</li></ul>Ex. 100,001 – 6sf<br /><ul><li>All zeros to the right of a decimal pt. but to the left of a non zero digit are not significant.</li></ul>Ex. 0.0005 – 1sf<br /><ul><li>All zeros to the right of a decimal pt & to the right of a non zero digit.
  8. 8. Ex. 0.5000 – 4sf
  9. 9. All zeros to the left of an indicated decimal point and to the right of a non zero digit
  10. 10. Ex. 5000. – 4sf
  11. 11. All zeros to the left of an understood decimal pt but to the right of a non zero digit are not significant.
  12. 12. Ex. 5,000,000 – 1sf</li></ul>Temperature<br />Eng – F > rankine (R)<br />Metric – C > kelvin (K)<br />Conversion<br />F>CC= (F-32)x5/9<br />C>FF= 9x(c)/5+32<br />Absolute Temperature<br />R= F+460<br />K= C+273<br />Conversion (Metric Ladder)<br />Milli = 1/1000 (m)<br />Centi = 1/100(c)<br />Deci = 1/10<br />-------STANDARD-------<br />Deca = 10(da)<br />Hecto = 100(h)<br />Kilo = 1000(k)<br />Accuracy & Precision<br />Accuracy<br /> <br />High accuracy, but low precision<br />Precision<br />High precision, but low accuracy<br />Percent Error<br />Expt. Value – True Value<br /> True Value<br />Matter – anything that has mass and occupies space<br />Mass – is a measure of the quantity of matter<br />Weight – is a measure of the force of gravity between two objects.<br />Volume for irregular objects<br />M = D*V<br />D = M<br /> V<br />V = M<br /> D<br />rogeneous(non-uniform)<br />SolutionSuspension<br />Coarse Mixture<br />Colloids<br />Mixture - Matter that containts two or more different materials.<br />Homogeneous - Uniform Through Out<br />Heterogeneous - Composed of more than one phase<br />Solution - A homogeneous mixture composed of solute and solvent<br />Suspension - A dispersion of particles > 100nm(nanometers) in a continuous medium.<br />Coarse Mixture - Reactions / Mixtures which is visible to the eye.<br />Colloids - a dispersion of particles from 1nm to 100nm in at least one dimension <br /> in a continuous medium.<br />Pure Substances - One material only<br />Element - a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons in the nucleus.<br />Metal - an element that tends to lose electrons in chemical reactions.<br />Metalloid - An element that has properties, characteristics of a metal and a non metal.<br />Non metal - an element that tends to gain electrons in chemical reactions.<br />Compound - A substance composed of atoms of two or more elements linked by chemical bonds.<br />Acid - a substance that produce hydrogen ions in water solution ; proton donor.<br />Base - a substance that produces hydroxide ions ions in water solution ; proton acceptor.<br />Oxide - Substance that tends to gain electrons.<br />Salt - An ironic solution used to complete an electric circuit in a voltaic cell.<br />Physical and Chemical Properties<br />Physical - a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured <br /> w/o changing the condition or identitiy of the substance<br />Observable<br />1.Color<br />2.Solubility<br />3.Odor<br />4.Hardness<br />Measureable<br />1.Density<br />2.Mass<br />3.Volume<br />4.Freezing Point<br />5.Boiling Point<br />Intensive - Does not depend on the amount of the substance.<br />Extensive - Does depend on the amount of the substance.<br />Chemical - The ability of the substance to undergo chemical reaction and to produce a new product/new<br /> Substance. These are observed only when the substance undergo chemical reaction.<br />Physical/Chemical Change<br />Physical - A change in appearance and a change in the state of the substance.<br />Ex. Dissolve, Freeze, Boil, Break, Split, Crush Signify physical Change.<br />Chemical - Change in the state, Appearance, & Composition. As a resulty, a new substance is Produced.<br />Ex. Decompose, Ferment, Corrode, Rot, Decay, Grow signify chemical Change.<br />Endothermic Reaction – The substance absorbs heat ; heat is absorbed by the system.<br />Exothermic Reaction – Heat is released by the system.<br />Properties Of Water<br />Boiling pt = 100deg.<br />Condensation pt = 100deg.<br />Freezing pt = 0deg<br />Melting pt = 0deg<br />H2O<br />Solid LiquidLiquid GasGas LiquidLiquid Solid<br />-10deg 25deg25deg 101deg101deg 90deg90deg -5deg<br />EndothermicEndothermicExothermicexothermic<br />Conditions to consider<br /><ul><li>As the temperature increases, the state of the substance remains constant.
  13. 13. Q = mct
  14. 14. Wherein
  15. 15. Q = amount of heat released/absorbed by the substance
  16. 16. (calories, Calories[Kilo Calories], Joules)
  17. 17. 1cal = 4.184 Joules
  18. 18. 1Cal = 1000cal
  19. 19. m = mass of the substance (grams)
  20. 20. c = specific heat of the substance ; amount of heat needed to convert one gram of a substance by 1def w/o change in state.</li></ul>t = change in temperature (c)<br /><ul><li>As the state of the substance changes, the temperature remains the same. (constant)
  21. 21. Solid LiquidLiquid GasGas LiquidLiquid Solid
  22. 22. Q= mcfQ = mcvQ= mccQ=mcs
  23. 23. Q= cal
  24. 24. m= grams
  25. 25. cf = heat of fusion
  26. 26. cv= heat of vaporization
  27. 27. cc= heat of condensation
  28. 28. cs heat of solidification
  29. 29. Sp heat : (c)
  30. 30. Solid 0.5
  31. 31. Liquid 1.0
  32. 32. Gas 0.5
  33. 33. +cf = 80cal/g
  34. 34. +cv= 540cal/g
  35. 35. -cc= 540cal/g
  36. 36. -cs 80cal/g