Chemistry 1st Quarter Exam Branches Of Chemistry
Analytical - is the study of the chemical composition of natural and artificial materials.
Nuclear - is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties.
Inorganic - is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds.
Organic - is a discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds that contain carbon.
Physical - is the explanation of macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical concepts; sometimes using the principles, practices and concepts of physics like thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and dynamics.
Industrial - Is a branch of chemistry which deals with converting raw materials to another raw material.
BioChemistry - is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules.
Scientific Notation – is a way of writing numbers that accommodates values too large or too small to be conveniently written in standard decimal notation. Ordinary Decimal NotationScientific Notation 3003x102 5,720,000,0005.72x109 Significant Figures
All non zero digits = Significant
Ex. 555 – 3sf
All zeros between non zero digit – S
Ex. 100,001 – 6sf
All zeros to the right of a decimal pt. but to the left of a non zero digit are not significant.
Ex. 0.0005 – 1sf
All zeros to the right of a decimal pt & to the right of a non zero digit.
Temperature Eng – F > rankine (R) Metric – C > kelvin (K) Conversion F>CC= (F-32)x5/9 C>FF= 9x(c)/5+32 Absolute Temperature R= F+460 K= C+273 Conversion (Metric Ladder) Milli = 1/1000 (m) Centi = 1/100(c) Deci = 1/10 -------STANDARD------- Deca = 10(da) Hecto = 100(h) Kilo = 1000(k) Accuracy & Precision Accuracy
High accuracy, but low precision Precision High precision, but low accuracy Percent Error Expt. Value – True Value True Value Matter – anything that has mass and occupies space Mass – is a measure of the quantity of matter Weight – is a measure of the force of gravity between two objects. Volume for irregular objects M = D*V D = M V V = M D rogeneous(non-uniform) SolutionSuspension Coarse Mixture Colloids Mixture - Matter that containts two or more different materials. Homogeneous - Uniform Through Out Heterogeneous - Composed of more than one phase Solution - A homogeneous mixture composed of solute and solvent Suspension - A dispersion of particles > 100nm(nanometers) in a continuous medium. Coarse Mixture - Reactions / Mixtures which is visible to the eye. Colloids - a dispersion of particles from 1nm to 100nm in at least one dimension in a continuous medium. Pure Substances - One material only Element - a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons in the nucleus. Metal - an element that tends to lose electrons in chemical reactions. Metalloid - An element that has properties, characteristics of a metal and a non metal. Non metal - an element that tends to gain electrons in chemical reactions. Compound - A substance composed of atoms of two or more elements linked by chemical bonds. Acid - a substance that produce hydrogen ions in water solution ; proton donor. Base - a substance that produces hydroxide ions ions in water solution ; proton acceptor. Oxide - Substance that tends to gain electrons. Salt - An ironic solution used to complete an electric circuit in a voltaic cell. Physical and Chemical Properties Physical - a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured w/o changing the condition or identitiy of the substance Observable 1.Color 2.Solubility 3.Odor 4.Hardness Measureable 1.Density 2.Mass 3.Volume 4.Freezing Point 5.Boiling Point Intensive - Does not depend on the amount of the substance. Extensive - Does depend on the amount of the substance. Chemical - The ability of the substance to undergo chemical reaction and to produce a new product/new Substance. These are observed only when the substance undergo chemical reaction. Physical/Chemical Change Physical - A change in appearance and a change in the state of the substance. Ex. Dissolve, Freeze, Boil, Break, Split, Crush Signify physical Change. Chemical - Change in the state, Appearance, & Composition. As a resulty, a new substance is Produced. Ex. Decompose, Ferment, Corrode, Rot, Decay, Grow signify chemical Change. Endothermic Reaction – The substance absorbs heat ; heat is absorbed by the system. Exothermic Reaction – Heat is released by the system. Properties Of Water Boiling pt = 100deg. Condensation pt = 100deg. Freezing pt = 0deg Melting pt = 0deg H2O Solid LiquidLiquid GasGas LiquidLiquid Solid -10deg 25deg25deg 101deg101deg 90deg90deg -5deg EndothermicEndothermicExothermicexothermic Conditions to consider
As the temperature increases, the state of the substance remains constant.