Chemistry <ul><li>The study of  </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Matter   </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Properties of matter. </li></ul><ul><...
Scientific Method <ul><li>A systematic approach to solving problems. </li></ul>
Qualitative Observation <ul><li>An observation that does not involve any numerical information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carb...
Quantitative Observation <ul><li>An observation involving numerical values in a measurement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon ...
Matter <ul><li>Anything that has mass and takes up space. </li></ul>
Matter <ul><li>Atoms  are the building blocks of matter. </li></ul>
Matter <ul><li>Atoms are the building blocks of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Each  element  is made of the same kind of atom....
Matter <ul><li>Atoms are the building blocks of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Each element is made of the same kind of atom. <...
Classification of Matter <ul><li>Elements (Pure) </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds (Pure) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures (Impure) </...
Elements <ul><li>Elements are the  simplest form  of matter that can exist under conditions that we normally encounter in ...
Elements <ul><li>113 Elements have been identified. </li></ul><ul><li>82 Elements  occur naturally  on Earth </li></ul><ul...
Elements <ul><li>Elements can exist in either the  atomic  or  molecular  forms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neon Ne </li></ul><...
States of Matter
Compound <ul><li>A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in  fixed  propor...
Compounds <ul><li>A compound does not change its identify in physical changes but can be broken down into its  constituent...
Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>44.01 grams of carbon dioxide contains 12.01 grams of carbon and 32.00 grams of oxygen.  (2.66 : 1....
Compounds <ul><li>Carbon dioxide   CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium oxide   MgO </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Phosphate   Na 3 ...
Mixtures <ul><li>Mixture  – A combination of two or more substance in which the substances retain their distinct identitie...
Characteristics of Mixtures <ul><li>Variable composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable physical properties. </li></ul><ul><l...
Homogenous vs. Heterogeneous <ul><li>Homogeneous  –  Uniform throughout sample; no boundaries and separate phases. </li></...
Classification of Matter
Classification of Matter
Classification of Matter
Classification of Matter
Classification of Matter
Classification of Matter
Classification of Matter
Classification of Matter
Classification of Matter
Classification of Matter
Mixtures and Compounds
Properties of Matter <ul><li>Intensive Properties : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent of the amount of the substance that ...
Properties of Matter <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul>
Physical Properties <ul><li>Physical Properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be observed without changing a substance into a...
Chemical Properties <ul><li>Chemical Properties : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only be observed when a substance is changed i...
Changes of Matter <ul><li>Physical Changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in matter that do not change the composition of...
Chemical Changes <ul><li>Chemical Changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A change in which one or more kinds of matter is transfo...
Chemical Reactions <ul><li>In the course of a chemical reaction, the reacting substances are converted to new substances. ...
Chemical Reactions
Compounds <ul><li>Compounds can be broken down into more elemental particles. </li></ul>
Electrolysis of Water
Example of Chemical Change <ul><li>Magnesium metal combusts to produce the white ash, magnesium oxide. </li></ul><ul><li>2...
Example of Chemical Change <ul><li>Sodium reacts vigorously with water to produce hydrogen gas and an aqueous solution of ...
Separation of Mixtures
Distillation: <ul><li>Separates homogeneous mixture on the basis of differences in boiling point. </li></ul>
Distillation
Filtration: <ul><li>Separates solid substances from liquids and solutions. </li></ul>
Chromatography: <ul><li>Separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent. </li></ul>
Measurements <ul><li>Numerical Value </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Units </li></ul>
Significant Figures <ul><li>When physical quantities are used in arithmetic, it is important that the number of digits rep...
Significant Figures <ul><li>Rule #1:   Any digit that is not zero is significant. </li></ul><ul><li>12.345 grams </li></ul...
Significant Figures <ul><li>Rule #3:   Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are not significant. </li></ul><ul><li...
Significant Figures <ul><li>Rule #5:   If a number is less than “1”, then only the zeros that are at the end of the number...
Significant Figures <ul><li>The term  significant figures  refers to digits that were measured. </li></ul><ul><li>When rou...
Significant Figures -  Multiplication or Division <ul><li>The number of significant figures in the result of multiplicatio...
Significant Figures <ul><ul><li>  0.0608  x  1025.40 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25.06 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=  2.4878...
Significant Figures -  Addition or Subtraction <ul><li>The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal poin...
Significant Figures <ul><li>When addition or subtraction is performed, answers are rounded to the  least significant decim...
Exact Numbers <ul><li>Numbers from definitions or numbers of objects are considered to have an  infinite number of signifi...
Uncertainty in Measurements <ul><li>Different measuring devices have different uses and different degrees of accuracy. </l...
Accuracy versus Precision <ul><li>Accuracy  refers to the proximity of a measurement to the true value of a quantity. </li...
SI Units <ul><li>Système International d’Unités </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a different base unit for each quantity </li></ul>
Metric System <ul><li>Prefixes convert the base units into units that are appropriate for the item being measured. </li></ul>
Volume <ul><li>The most commonly used metric units for volume are the liter (L) and the milliliter (mL). </li></ul><ul><ul...
Conversion Factors <ul><li>Length  ---  1 meter = 39.37 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Mass  ---  453.6 grams = 1 pound </li></u...
Dimensional Analysis Method of Solving Problem <ul><li>Determine which unit conversion factor(s) are required. </li></ul><...
Temperature <ul><li>A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample. </li></ul>
Temperature <ul><li>In scientific measurements, the Celsius and Kelvin scales are most often used. </li></ul><ul><li>The C...
Temperature <ul><li>The Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on the properties of gases. </...
Temperature <ul><li>The Fahrenheit scale is not used in scientific measurements. </li></ul><ul><li> F = 9/5(  C) + 32 </...
Density <ul><li>Physical property of a substance </li></ul>d = m V
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Chapter #1 Spring 2008

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Chapter #1 Spring 2008

  1. 1. Chemistry <ul><li>The study of </li></ul><ul><li>1. Matter </li></ul><ul><li>2. Properties of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Changes that matter undergoes. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Scientific Method <ul><li>A systematic approach to solving problems. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Qualitative Observation <ul><li>An observation that does not involve any numerical information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soap is slippery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold does not rust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum has a low density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tin is a shiny, gray metal </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Quantitative Observation <ul><li>An observation involving numerical values in a measurement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide freezes at -78 ºC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The density of aluminum is 2.70 grams/mL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sample of gold weighs 34.6 grams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chemical reactions liberates 45.5 calories of energy </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Matter <ul><li>Anything that has mass and takes up space. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Matter <ul><li>Atoms are the building blocks of matter. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Matter <ul><li>Atoms are the building blocks of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Each element is made of the same kind of atom. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Matter <ul><li>Atoms are the building blocks of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Each element is made of the same kind of atom. </li></ul><ul><li>A compound is made of two or more different kinds of elements. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classification of Matter <ul><li>Elements (Pure) </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds (Pure) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures (Impure) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Elements <ul><li>Elements are the simplest form of matter that can exist under conditions that we normally encounter in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical methods . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Elements <ul><li>113 Elements have been identified. </li></ul><ul><li>82 Elements occur naturally on Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold, Aluminum, Lead, Oxygen, Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>31 Elements have been created by scientists. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technetium, americium, seaborgium </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Elements <ul><li>Elements can exist in either the atomic or molecular forms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neon Ne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen H 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromine Br 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus P 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur S 8 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. States of Matter
  14. 14. Compound <ul><li>A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions (by either mass or atoms). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Compounds <ul><li>A compound does not change its identify in physical changes but can be broken down into its constituent elements by chemical methods . </li></ul><ul><li>The simplest unit of a compoud is the molecule or ion-pair . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>44.01 grams of carbon dioxide contains 12.01 grams of carbon and 32.00 grams of oxygen. (2.66 : 1.00 ratio of oxygen to carbon). </li></ul><ul><li>1 molecule of carbon dioxide contains 1 atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide contains 27.29% carbon and 72.71% oxygen (by mass). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Compounds <ul><li>Carbon dioxide CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium oxide MgO </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Phosphate Na 3 PO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose C 12 H 22 O 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillin C 14 H 21 N 3 O 6 S </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mixtures <ul><li>Mixture – A combination of two or more substance in which the substances retain their distinct identities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seawater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronze alloy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian salad dressing </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Characteristics of Mixtures <ul><li>Variable composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable physical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Separated into their components by physical methods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decanting </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Homogenous vs. Heterogeneous <ul><li>Homogeneous – Uniform throughout sample; no boundaries and separate phases. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous – Non-uniform throughout sample; boundaries and multiple phases are present. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Classification of Matter
  22. 22. Classification of Matter
  23. 23. Classification of Matter
  24. 24. Classification of Matter
  25. 25. Classification of Matter
  26. 26. Classification of Matter
  27. 27. Classification of Matter
  28. 28. Classification of Matter
  29. 29. Classification of Matter
  30. 30. Classification of Matter
  31. 31. Mixtures and Compounds
  32. 32. Properties of Matter <ul><li>Intensive Properties : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent of the amount of the substance that is present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Density, boiling point, color, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensive Properties : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon the amount of the substance present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass, volume, energy, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Properties of Matter <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul>
  34. 34. Physical Properties <ul><li>Physical Properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be observed without changing a substance into another substance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical state (gas, liquid, solid) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Color/Luster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melting point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Chemical Properties : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flammability or combustibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactivity with acid, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Changes of Matter <ul><li>Physical Changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in matter that do not change the composition of a substance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolving sugar in water` </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Chemical Changes <ul><li>Chemical Changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A change in which one or more kinds of matter is transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes that result in new substances . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical composition is altered . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposition etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Chemical Reactions <ul><li>In the course of a chemical reaction, the reacting substances are converted to new substances. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Chemical Reactions
  40. 40. Compounds <ul><li>Compounds can be broken down into more elemental particles. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Electrolysis of Water
  42. 42. Example of Chemical Change <ul><li>Magnesium metal combusts to produce the white ash, magnesium oxide. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Mg(s) + O 2 (g) -> 2 MgO(s) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Example of Chemical Change <ul><li>Sodium reacts vigorously with water to produce hydrogen gas and an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Na(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) -> H 2 (g) + 2 NaOH(aq) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Separation of Mixtures
  45. 45. Distillation: <ul><li>Separates homogeneous mixture on the basis of differences in boiling point. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Distillation
  47. 47. Filtration: <ul><li>Separates solid substances from liquids and solutions. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Chromatography: <ul><li>Separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Measurements <ul><li>Numerical Value </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Units </li></ul>
  50. 50. Significant Figures <ul><li>When physical quantities are used in arithmetic, it is important that the number of digits reported represents the uncertainty in the original measurements. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Significant Figures <ul><li>Rule #1: Any digit that is not zero is significant. </li></ul><ul><li>12.345 grams </li></ul><ul><li>Rule #2: Zeros between nonzero digits are significant. </li></ul><ul><li>20.05 mL </li></ul>
  52. 52. Significant Figures <ul><li>Rule #3: Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are not significant. </li></ul><ul><li>0.0125 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Rule #4: If a measured number is greater than “1”, then all zeros to the right of the decimal point are significant. </li></ul><ul><li>2.500 meters </li></ul>
  53. 53. Significant Figures <ul><li>Rule #5: If a number is less than “1”, then only the zeros that are at the end of the number and in the middle of nonzero digits are significant. </li></ul><ul><li>0.2500 grams </li></ul><ul><li>0.06050 tons </li></ul>
  54. 54. Significant Figures <ul><li>The term significant figures refers to digits that were measured. </li></ul><ul><li>When rounding calculated numbers, we pay attention to significant figures so we do not overstate the accuracy of our answers. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Significant Figures - Multiplication or Division <ul><li>The number of significant figures in the result of multiplication or division is set by the original number that has the smallest number of significant figures. </li></ul><ul><li>4.51 x 3.6666 = 16.536366 </li></ul><ul><li>16.5 </li></ul>
  56. 56. Significant Figures <ul><ul><li> 0.0608 x 1025.40 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25.06 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>= 2.487802075 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.49 </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Significant Figures - Addition or Subtraction <ul><li>The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers possess. </li></ul><ul><li>89.332 + 1.1 = 90.432 </li></ul><ul><li>90.4 </li></ul>
  58. 58. Significant Figures <ul><li>When addition or subtraction is performed, answers are rounded to the least significant decimal place . </li></ul><ul><li>When multiplication or division is performed, answers are rounded to the number of digits that corresponds to the least number of significant figures in any of the numbers used in the calculation. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Exact Numbers <ul><li>Numbers from definitions or numbers of objects are considered to have an infinite number of significant figures. </li></ul><ul><li>(i.e. conversion factors, counting numbers </li></ul><ul><li>The average of three measured lengths: 7.65 m, 7.49 m, and 7.60 m. </li></ul><ul><li>(7.65 + 7.49 + 7.60)/3 = </li></ul><ul><li>7.58 not 8 </li></ul>
  60. 60. Uncertainty in Measurements <ul><li>Different measuring devices have different uses and different degrees of accuracy. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Accuracy versus Precision <ul><li>Accuracy refers to the proximity of a measurement to the true value of a quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>Precision refers to the proximity of several measurements to each other. </li></ul>
  62. 62. SI Units <ul><li>Système International d’Unités </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a different base unit for each quantity </li></ul>
  63. 63. Metric System <ul><li>Prefixes convert the base units into units that are appropriate for the item being measured. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Volume <ul><li>The most commonly used metric units for volume are the liter (L) and the milliliter (mL). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A liter is a cube 1 dm long on each side. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A milliliter is a cube 1 cm long on each side. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Conversion Factors <ul><li>Length --- 1 meter = 39.37 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Mass --- 453.6 grams = 1 pound </li></ul><ul><li>Volume --- 1 liter = 1.056 quarts </li></ul>
  66. 66. Dimensional Analysis Method of Solving Problem <ul><li>Determine which unit conversion factor(s) are required. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry units through calculation. </li></ul><ul><li>If all units cancel except for the desired unit(s), then the problem was solved correctly. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Temperature <ul><li>A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Temperature <ul><li>In scientific measurements, the Celsius and Kelvin scales are most often used. </li></ul><ul><li>The Celsius scale is based on the properties of water. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0  C is the freezing point of water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100  C is the boiling point of water. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Temperature <ul><li>The Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on the properties of gases. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no negative Kelvin temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>K =  C + 273.15 </li></ul>
  70. 70. Temperature <ul><li>The Fahrenheit scale is not used in scientific measurements. </li></ul><ul><li> F = 9/5(  C) + 32 </li></ul><ul><li> C = 5/9(  F − 32) </li></ul>
  71. 71. Density <ul><li>Physical property of a substance </li></ul>d = m V

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