Figure 10.5: Major subdivisions of the hypothalamus and pituitary . (Source: After Nieuwenhuys, Voogd, & vanHuijzen, 1988)
Figure 10.16: People with untreated diabetes eat much but lose weight . Because of their low insulin levels, the glucose in their blood cannot enter the cells, either to be stored or to be used. Consequently, they excrete glucose in their urine while their cells are starving.
Figure 10.22: Pathways from the lateral hypothalamus . Axons from the lateral hypothalamus modify activity in several other brain areas, changing the response to taste, facilitating ingestion and swallowing, and increasing food - seeking behaviors. Also (not shown), the lateral hypothalamus controls stomach secretions.
The main signal to stop eating is the distention of the stomach.
The vagus nerve conveys information about the stretching of the stomach walls to the brain.
The splanchnic (splank-nik ) nerves convey information about the nutrient contents of the stomach.
The duodenum ( doo-a-deenum) is the part of the small intestine where the initial absorption of significant amounts of nutrients occurs and also releases the hormone cholecystokinin (cola-sista-keye-nin) (CCK) , which helps to regulate hunger. ++++