Glucose english


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for diabetes regular monitering of blood glucose level is
Hence everybody should know what are the normal blood glucose levels.

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Glucose english

  1. 1. A/L BIOLOGY<br />W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />For SriLankan Science Student<br /><br />
  2. 2. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Glucose and Diabetes<br />Part 1<br /><br />
  3. 3. Glucoseis a hexose monosaccharide which belongs to Carbohydrates, a<br />Group of organic compounds found in living organisms.<br />Chemical formulae - C6H12O6<br />Structural formulae <br />W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />
  4. 4. Glucose found in many ripened fruits<br />W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />By eating these fruits your body gets glucose <br />
  5. 5. The other sources of glucose are Tubers like potatoes and yams, grains such as rice, wheat ect. Or food made out of their flour.<br />They contain starch, a form of stored carbohydrates which are digested and converted in to glucose in the digestive system and are absorbed to the blood. <br />W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />
  6. 6. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Sucrose or the ordinary Table sugar is an another carbohydrate which is turned into glucose within the body. <br />Sucrose, is probably the single most abundant pure organic chemical in the world and the one most widely known carbohydrate.<br />Sucrose is present in pure state in sugar cane and sugar beets<br />sugar beets<br />sugar cane <br />
  7. 7. Carbohydrates are digested in the elementary canal as follows..<br /> a).In the mouth<br /> Starch SalivaryAmylaseMaltose<br />b).In small intestine<br /> Starch Amylase Maltose<br /> Maltose Maltase Glucose <br /> SucroseInvertase Glucose + Fructose<br />W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />
  8. 8. Sugars such as galactose, glucose, and fructose that are found naturally in foods or are produced by the breakdown of disaccharides and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ) enter into absorptive intestinal cells of villi in the small intestine<br />W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />absorptive intestinal cells <br />Small inteestine<br />Villus<br />
  9. 9. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />After absorption, they are transported to the liver <br />where galactose and fructose are converted to glucose and released into the bloodstream.<br />Glucose is used by the body as a primary source of energy.<br />The glucose may be sent directly to organs that need energy<br />Excess amounts of glucose in the body is converted to glycogon in the liver <br />or muscles, or it may be converted to and stored as fat for later use.<br />
  10. 10. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />
  11. 11. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Homeostasis<br />Cells need a stable environment to survive. <br />Homeostasis is the mechanism that allows living organisms to maintain <br />relatively constant levels of temperature, pH, ions and water balance.<br />Cells derive their energy from glucose, and it is vital that glucose levels be tightly regulated<br />Too much glucose is toxic to cells while too little glucose leads to starvation<br />. <br />
  12. 12. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />What is the normal range for blood sugar levels,<br />The blood sugar level is the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. <br />It is expressed as millimoles per litre (mmol/l). Or milligrams per deci litre (mg /dl.)<br />Normally blood glucose levels stay within narrow limits throughout the day: 4 – 8 mmol/l. <br />(70 - 150 mg. /dl.)<br />Levels typically are lower in the morning, and rise after meals. <br />Therefore three blood glucose levels are defined.<br />
  13. 13. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Blood sugar levels<br />1.Fasting Blood Sugar –FBS<br />2.Post prandrial Blood Sugar- PBS<br />3.Random Blood Sugar-RBS<br />Fasting Blood Sugar- <br />The'fasting blood sugar' test checks glucose levels after an 8- 10 hour fast.<br />The blood sample is collected in the morning, before the breakfast. <br />This is the first test performed when checking for diabetes<br />The normal FBS range is 82 - 110 mg/dl<br /> ( 4.4 - 6.1 mmol/l& <br />(But some say it is 70-120 mg/dl)<br />
  14. 14. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Postprandial Blood Sugar<br />The ‘postprandial blood sugar' test<br /> measures glucose levels two hours after eating a meal.<br />Normal glucose levels for this test fall between<br /> 70 and 145 mg/dl<br /><br />
  15. 15. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Random blood sugar <br />Random blood sugar testing checks glucose levels randomly throughout the day, regardless of meal times.<br />. Several random measurements may be taken throughout the day. <br />This levels vary widely,. <br />RBS levels should be between 70 and 125 mg/dlin order to be considered normal for random testing.<br />Random testing is useful because glucose levels in healthy people do not vary widely throughout the day. <br />Random Blood glucose levels that vary widely may mean a problem. <br />This test is also called a casual blood glucose test.<br />
  16. 16. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />How Does the Body Control Blood Sugar Levels?<br />Glucose concentrations in the blood stream are primarily controlled <br />by the action of two antagonistic pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon.<br />Glucose is first detected in the bloodstream by glucose transporter receptors expressed on the surface of specialized pancreatic cells known as alpha- and beta-cells<br />
  17. 17. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />.<br />After you have eaten a meal,<br /> the blood glucose levels will begin to rise because the carbohydrates in the food are digested and absorbed.<br />Beta-cells respond to rising levels of blood glucose by secreting the hormone insulin<br />This insulin then binds to receptor proteins in cell membranes (particularly in the liver).<br />This causes more channels in the plasma membrane to open so that more glucose can enter the cell.<br />
  18. 18. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Insulin restores normal levels of glucose in the blood by signaling body tissues to take up glucose for energy, <br />or to convert glucose to glycogen and lipids <br />as future energy stored in the liver, muscle and fat cells. <br />All these reactions work together to lower the glucose levels back to normal<br />
  19. 19. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />If you have been doing a lot of exercise, and glucose is being used up, the blood glucose level fall below the normal range.<br />Then alpha cells will recognize this and stimulate alpha cells to produce glucagon. <br /><ul><li> This causes the release of an enzyme that breaks </li></ul> glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis ) in muscle cells and liver cells.<br /><ul><li> Glucagon also stimulate adipose tissue to digest lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
  20. 20. Glucagon also stimulates the liver to synthesize</li></ul> glucose from glycerol in the blood<br />All these reactions work together to raise glucose levels back to normal. <br />
  21. 21. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Blood sugar levels rising consistently above 150 mg/dl are indicative of<br /> Diabetes mellitus<br />Diabetes mellitus<br />Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin action, insulin production, or both<br />
  22. 22. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Diabetes mellitus (the medical term) is commonly referred to as Diabetes (common name).<br />It was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world.<br />Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. <br />
  23. 23. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />The primary Clinical signs of Diabetes mellitus is,<br />.Hyperglycemia(high blood glucose level).<br />This is generally a glucose level higher than 10 mmol/l (180 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15-20 mmol/l (270-360 mg/dl). However, chronic levels exceeding 7 mmol/l (125 mg/dl) can produce organ damage.<br />
  24. 24. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />The following symptoms may be associated with acute or chronic diabetes.<br /><ul><li>Polyphagai - frequent hunger, especially pronounced hunger </li></ul> Polydpsia - frequent thirst, especially excessive thirst <br />Polyuria - frequent urination, especially excessive urination <br />Blurred vision <br />Fatigue(sleepiness). <br />Weight Loss <br />Poor wound healing (cuts, scrapes, etc.) <br /> Dry mouth<br />Dry or itchy skin<br />Tingling in feet or heels <br />Impotence(male)<br /> Recurrent infectionssuch as<br />vaginal yeast infections,<br /> groin rash, <br /> external ear infections (swimmer's ear) <br /> Cardiao vascular arrhythmia<br />
  25. 25. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Uncontrolled hyperglycemia or diabetes mellitus over time damages the following organs.<br />Eyes, Nerves, <br /> Blood vessels,<br /> Kidneys, Heart,<br /> causing organ dysfunction and failure.<br />Risk Factors <br />A number of risk factors are attributed to the incidence of diabetes, including family history, age, ethnicity, and social group characteristics, as well as behavioral , lifestyle, psychological , and clinical factors<br />
  26. 26. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Types of Diabetes<br />There are three main types of diabetes(as indicated in the Wikipedia)<br />Type 1 diabetes:results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.) <br />Type 2 diabetes:results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, (previously known as non- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or NIDDM and adult-onset diabetes)<br />Gestational diabetes:is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM. <br />
  27. 27. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Diabetes At A Glance<br />Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. <br />Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. <br />Absence or insufficient production of insulin causes diabetes. <br />The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). <br />Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst and hunger as well as fatigue. <br />Diabetes is diagnosed by blood sugar (glucose) testing. <br />The major complications of diabetes are both acute and chronic. <br />Acutely: dangerously elevated blood sugar, abnormally low blood sugar due to diabetes medications may occur. <br />Chronically: disease of the blood vessels (both small and large) which can damage the eye, kidneys, nerves, and heart may occur <br />
  28. 28. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br />Risk factors and monitoring Diabetes will be discussed next secession<br />Disclaimer-<br />All information available here is for Educational purposes only and not for diagnostic purposes. If you have or suspect you have health problem , you should consult your family doctor <br />
  29. 29. W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI<br /> FOR THE NET COMMUNITY-<br />Please comment<br /> I am a high school Biology teacher<br />THANK YOU <br />