Green Space and Communities: A Life's Work (Morning Session)


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Green Space and Communities: A Life's Work (Morning Session)

  1. 1. 05/11/2012 1
  2. 2. Video: Incredible Edible Todmordon
  3. 3. 05/11/2012 3
  4. 4. Regenerating the post industrial communities of North West England Professor John Handley Green Space and Communities: a life’s work Reconnecting people and place in hard times Manchester Town Hall, Wednesday 31st October 2012
  5. 5. Green Space and Communities: a life’s work“…I’ve assumed that at least part of your narrativewill be about what happened in the North Westover a number of years and what that brings interms of learning and insight.” Conference brief
  6. 6. The nature of landscape “Landscape means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors.” European Landscape Convention, 2000 “Environment sustains us as creatures; landscape displays us as cultures.” Source: Meinig 1979
  7. 7. Three dimensions of landscape scale Temporal future present past Spatial national regional local pristine (agri)cultural Modification urbanic Source: Selman, 2006
  8. 8. The North West Region
  9. 9. Contrasting Regional Perspectives
  10. 10. Heritage LandscapesCoterill Clough, Manchester Castle Rigg Stone Circle, Cumbria
  11. 11. Degraded LandscapesAcornfield Plantation– before & after
  12. 12. The Environmental Legacy• Smoke & sulphur dioxide pollution• Water pollution of rivers & aquifer drawdown• Derelict & despoiled land
  13. 13. Dealing with the legacy• Strategic plan for the North West, 1971• Establishment of Government Office for the North West, 1972• Creation of Metropolitan Counties, 1974• Response to the Toxteth riots, 1981
  14. 14. Toxteth Riots – the aftermath The Scarman Report recognised that the 1981 riots (in Toxteth in Brixton) did reflect social problems, such as poverty and deprivation. Government responded by sending Michael Heseltine as a “Minister for Mersyside” to set up the Merseyside Task Force and launch a series of initiatives including Liverpool International Garden Festival, The Mersey Basin Campaign and Operation Groundwork.
  15. 15. The Mersey Basin CampaignA strategic long-term programme to:• Restore water quality• Promote waterside regeneration• Secure community engagementA public private partnership underpinned by political commitmentand European legislation.
  16. 16. Rivers in the Mersey catchment: a polluted and degraded resourceSource Manchester City Council
  17. 17. The Mersey Basin Campaign:Medlock and Tame River Valley Initiative
  18. 18. Sustainability and The Mersey Basin Campaign Environmental Sustainability (Water quality, biodiversity) Private Sector Public Sector Mersey Source: Wood, Basin Handley and Campaign Kidd,1999 Economic Social Sustainability Sustainability(Landward regeneration)| (Community networks) Voluntary Sector
  19. 19. “Operation Groundwork isbeing launched as a nationalexperiment to regenerateland blighted by industry andtown development. The firstproject is around St. Helensand Knowsley – others willfollow if it succeeds.” Source: Groundwork Prospectus, 1981/2
  20. 20. The Groundwork Trust will:• Co-ordinate capital programmes• Carry out small scale projects itself• Build a working partnership
  21. 21. “Operation Groundwork isbeing launched at a time whenpublic and private resourcesare scarce – indeed, the designof the project stems from theneed to devise new ways ofachieving social and economicobjectives when money is tight.The aim is to harness resourceswhich already exist in a localcommunity.” Source: Groundwork Prospectus 1981/2
  22. 22. Groundwork North WestIn July, 1982 Heseltine declares that this approach must now berolled out across North West England, with 5 more Groundworkprojects in the next wave: • Macclesfield • Salford and Trafford • Oldham and Rochdale • Wigan • Rossendale John Davidson establishes Groundwork North West
  23. 23. Rossendale Groundwork “The Rossendale Groundwork Trust was established to conserve and improve the landscape and environment of Rossendale andto promote the understanding and enjoyment of the countryside.”
  24. 24. Rossendale Groundwork Rossendale Groundwork projects: • Mending dry stone walls • Waymarking footpaths • Farm open days and tree planting • Training in countryside skills • Trails, footpath and bridleway guides • Conservation of natural features and older buildings • Developments of farm tourism • Countryside management schemes • Land reclamation schemes
  25. 25. Community involvement is central to the Groundwork approach“Each Groundwork Trust is established with a clear objective tobring about local environmental regeneration through apartnership with the local community. Local ownership is anessential asset of the Groundwork approach and individualTrusts develop their own programmes based on local needs.” Groundwork Foundation, 1992: Groundwork Operating System
  26. 26. Capturing the benefits of communityinvolvement in neighbourhood renewal “Measuring outcomes is the most meaningful exercise if we are interested in how far the goals of a project have been achieved or how long-lasting the difference will be.” New Economics Foundation, 2000
  27. 27. The challenge of sustaining community involvement in greeningChristine Bradley reviews community greening and concludesthat successful projects require a strategic approach:• Key worker strategy• Rules and rewards strategy• Controlled access strategy Christine Bradley 1986, Community Involvement in Greening, Groundwork Foundation
  28. 28. Community greening revisited In 2009, Emma Hewitt reviews the role of community green space projects in promoting sustainable community cohesion. Nine projects are reviewed against 10 indicators of community cohesion. Three types of project were included: • Parks and gardens • Community orchards and allotments • Street and local area greening initiatives All projects were in the operational phase.
  29. 29. Modes of engagement vs success of green space projects in promoting cohesion Source: Hewitt, 2009, University of Manchester
  30. 30. Effect of typology and scale in achieving community cohesion Source: Hewitt, 2009, University of Manchester
  31. 31. The challenge of managing restored landscapes “At the outset of Operation Groundwork reservations were expressed that the new landscapes created by land reclamation would place a heavy burden on the thinly spread resources of local authorities.” Groundwork Trust Annual Report, 1984/5
  32. 32. The Public Landscape System Land Labour Capital Local Landscape Management Authority Budget System Income Landscape Public Landscape UtilisationSource: Handley and Bulmer, 1987
  33. 33. Making the most of greenspaceMaximise landscape benefits whilst minimising costs through:• Encouraging a natural approach• Promoting community involvement• Introducing new sources of income• Improving landscape efficiency
  34. 34. Making the most of greenspaceMaking the most of greenspaceresonates with modern concepts suchas:• Landscape Benefit• Multi-functionality• Green Infrastructure• Ecosystem Services Fiddler’s Ferry Power Station
  35. 35. Capital andrevenue costs of reclaimed derelict land
  36. 36. The Mersey & Red Rose Forests –a strategic partnership in the Mersey Belt
  37. 37. Community Forestry provides a setting for redevelopment for housing… Courtesy of Richard Cass Associates
  38. 38. …and a multifunctional solution in its own right (Mersey Community Forest)
  39. 39. Bold Moss : a large-scale demonstration project by the Groundwork Trust
  40. 40. Working with peoplebefore during after
  41. 41. Frequency 0 5 10 15 20 2.0-2.5 2.6-3.0 3.1-3.5 3.6-4.0 4.1-4.5 4.6-5.0 meadow 5.1-5.5pH range 5.6-6.0 6.1-6.5 6.6-7.0 7.1-7.5 7.6-8.0 8.1-8.5 wetland Frequency 0 5 10 15 20 2.0-2.5 2.6-3.0 3.1-3.5 3.6-4.0 4.1-4.5 4.6-5.0 5.1-5.5 heathlandpH range 5.6-6.0 6.1-6.5 6.6-7.0 7.1-7.5 7.6-8.0 8.1-8.5 nature Working with
  42. 42. An ecological approach to land restoration: • works with the grain of natural recovery • regards physico-chemical variability as a positive asset – a template for biodiversity • recognises that humankind is ‘within nature as part of the natural eco-system’ • promotes meaningful social engagement through effective community involvement • seeks to achieve long-term sustainability of the restored landscape
  43. 43. Testing the Ecological ApproachTo examine the effectiveness of an ecologicalapproach (within Groundwork’s Changing PlacesProgramme) through evaluating:i. The effectiveness of community participation;ii. The extent to which natural processes are involved;iii. The long-term sustainability of the restored landscape.
  44. 44. Key lessons for building sustainable landscapes• Maintaining community involvement beyond short-term project implementation;• Developing a long-term ecological vision;• Devising a land management mechanism with an income stream. Source: Groundwork and University of Manchester Ecoregen project team, 2002
  45. 45. Land Management Model Non-market benefits Revenue Landscape Benefit TangibleSource: product Endowment CovenantedGroundwork funding Greenspaceand University ofManchester, 2002 Management intensity
  46. 46. Blue-print for a National Land Restoration Trust“English Partnerships,Groundwork, the ForestryCommission and the EnvironmentAgency will create the LandRestoration Trust to restore andmanage brownfield land that issuitable only for use as publicgreen space. The Trust will work inpartnership with localcommunities.” Source: ODPM, 2003, Planning for sustainable communities
  47. 47. The Land TrustTen years on The Land Trust is now an established charity with inexcess of £50 million endowed funding and a substantial estate,including the restored Liverpool Festival Gardens.
  48. 48. The virtuous circle underlying landscape condition • Investment in land care • Vibrant economy and customs • Adding to or sustaining built, natural and social capital Landscape Quality Virtuous Circle Quality Of Life • Enhancing personal well-being • Landscape character ’valorised’ • Land-care efforts sustain population base, socialSource: structures and traditionsSelman, 2006
  49. 49. Conclusion“The choice then is not between oldand new but between good landscapeand bad. But it is a choice, and eventhough it is sad that the old must go(as it always has been), the truetragedy is not that the old must go butthat the new should be bad.”Nan Fairbrother (1970) ‘New Lives, New Landscapes’
  50. 50. Acknowledgements Many thanks to Richard Sharland for inspirational discussions and to Jayne Mann ofGroundwork MSSTT for invaluable help with this presentation.
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  52. 52. TheBLACK COUNTRY
  53. 53. More GREEN and BLUEthan BLACK
  54. 54. Hints on BreathingPlaces for theMetropolis andcountry towns andvillages (1829) J.C. Loudon
  55. 55. “the destruction of forests leads to violent alternations of temperature and an increase of floods”
  56. 56. “The presence of trees, besides being pleasant to the eye, andrefreshing to tired workers, will improve the general health ofMidland Re-afforesting Association circa 1912
  57. 57. BLACK COUNTRY FIRSTS• The Endless Village, 1978• First Urban Wildlife Group, 1979• First nature conservation strategy, 1981• Black Country Urban Forest, 1990• Urban Nature Improvement Area (NIA) 2012
  58. 58. FUTURE CHALLENGES• Responding to climate change• Improving health & wellbeing
  59. 59. Climate changeand modern livingput the environment- and people -under much more stress
  60. 60. Business as usualwill not be enough
  61. 61. recreation
  62. 62. GROUNDWORK• Impressive track record• Exceptional alumni
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  64. 64. Creating a New Vision for The Valleys ‘Maximising the social and economic potential of the natural and cultural heritage’ David Llewellyn Valleys Regional Park 31st October 2012, Manchester
  65. 65. PASTHow did we get here? Personal reflectionsPRESENTWhere are we? The ChallengesFUTUREThe vision: how are we going to get there? (Re-) Connnection 2012, Manchester st 31 October
  66. 66. The Valleys 1913 - Peak of production and manpower57 million tonnes of coal produced - >30% of the world’s coal exports 232,800 men employed - >200 deep mines 31st October 2012, Manchester
  67. 67. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Cwmtillery 1972 31st October 2012, Manchester
  68. 68. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Cwmtillery 1962 31st October 2012, Manchester
  69. 69. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Cwmtillery 1972 31st October 2012, Manchester
  70. 70. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Cwmtillery 1972 31st October 2012, Manchester
  71. 71. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Cwmtillery 1972 31st October 2012, Manchester
  72. 72. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Cwmtillery 2012 31st October 2012, Manchester
  73. 73. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Cwmtillery 2012 Cwmtillery 2012 31st October 2012, Manchester
  74. 74. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Cwm Darran, 1972 31st October 2012, Manchester
  75. 75. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Cwm Darran, 2012 31st October 2012, Manchester
  76. 76. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Blaenrhondda, 1947 31st October 2012, Manchester
  77. 77. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Blaenrhondda, 2012 31st October 2012, Manchester
  78. 78. Aberfan Friday October 21st 1966144 people killed - 116 children 31st October 2012, Manchester
  79. 79. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Rhondda Valleys Development Plan, 19681960-1966: 40 ha (4 schemes)1976-1987: 3618 haDavies CS, Environmental Management (1988) 12, 479-490 31st October 2012, Manchester
  80. 80. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes1985-91: Large scale closures of deep mines in south Wales1994: Closure of Tower Colliery, the last deep-mine in south Wales 31st October 2012, Manchester
  81. 81. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes 31st October 2012, Manchester
  82. 82. The Valleys: Changing LandscapesContinue reclamation of derelict land: Working with Nature• Landscape strategies Working with People• Countryside Strategies Conserving local identity• Objective 1 EU funding (2000-2006) Commitment to design & innovation1997 - Partnership between CCW, EAW, WDA, FCW, WTB and local authorities Groundwork Wales co-ordination 31st October 2012, Manchester
  83. 83. The Valleys: Changing Landscapes Taf Bargoed Valley Commended 31st October 2012, Manchester
  84. 84. The Valleys: the Legacies and Challenges 1913 - Peak of production and manpower:57 million tonnes of coal produced - > 30% of the world’s coal exports 232,800 men employed – > 200 deep mines 31st October 2012, Manchester
  85. 85. The Valleys: the Legacies and Challenges“A 13 mile journey between Abertillery and Abergavenny should notmean a potential life expectancy difference of four years”Dr. Tony Jewell – former Chief Medical Officer for Wales BMJ 2008; 337: a2805 31st October 2012, Manchester
  86. 86. The Valleys: the Legacies and Challenges5000040000300002000010000 0 1881 1921 1961 2001 2011• high levels of economic inactivity/low quality of jobs and opportunities• low educational attainment and skills levels• high incidence of long-term health problems• declining population (demographic change)• an unfavourable image• poorly equipped town centres and a lack of quality housing• limited transport and poor telecommunications in some areas 31st October 2012, Manchester
  87. 87. The Valleys: (Re) Connecting People and Place 31st October 2012, Manchester
  88. 88. The Valleys: A Future Vision?1934 Special Areas Act – South Wales Valleys“Nothing is more important than the problems of the Regionshould be fully understood by its own people...out ofwhich, let us hope... action will come.”South Wales needs a plan (1935)HA MarquandProfessor of Industrial Relations Lloyd and Jackson 1949University College, Cardiff 31st October 2012, Manchester
  89. 89. The Valleys: A Future Vision? Valleys Regional Parks Proposal • 4 areas suggested • “....should have good pathway systems, with adequately planned bus stations, car parks, shelters andLloyd and Jackson 1949 restaurants.” • Shared funding approach st 31 October 2012, Manchester
  90. 90. The Valleys: A Future Vision? Valleys Regional Park Parc Rhanbarthol y Cymoedd• Change the image and perception of the Valleys• Generate jobs and business based on the environment, culture and sustainable tourism• Create an environment that stimulates enterprise and investment• Increase training opportunities and help improve education standards• Improve the quality of life and health for valleys’ citizens• Develop strong, cohesive communities 31st October 2012, Manchester
  91. 91. The Valleys: A Future Vision? Valleys Regional Park Parc Rhanbarthol y Cymoedd Framework 2005-2007> 500 consultees > 30 organisations Partnership Action Plan 31st October 2012, Manchester
  92. 92. The Valleys: A Future Vision? Valleys Regional Park Parc Rhanbarthol y CymoeddWECAN VRP KESS £22M 31st October 2012, Manchester
  93. 93. The Valleys: A Future Vision?Themes ObjectivesTransformational Landscapes for Visitors Strategic landscape initiativesEnhancing our visitor centres Country parks, nature reservesLoops and Links Cycling, walking, riding - accessCommunity Pride Total Focus Clean, pleasant environmentCommunity Tourism Grassroots tourismTraining the ambassadors (ESF) Trained AdvocatesEvents Programme Additional attractionsManagement and project deliveryTOTAL £22 M Valleys Regional Park Parc Rhanbarthol y Cymoedd 44 infrastructure projects funded - 40 interpretation projects* Economic Analysis by WERU/Cardiff Business School ERDF E4G convergence funding 2009-2013 31st October 2012, Manchester
  94. 94. The Valleys: (Re) Connecting People and PlaceThe Future: (Re-)Connection/ConnectivityStrategic planning – local delivery (communities at the heart)Opportunities and challenges• Sustainable tourism• Local food production – how do we scale up?• Housing – affordable high-quality social housing and environment• Vibrant town centres with sustainable transport and connected countryside• Green Spaces used for health• Energy production• Climate change – uplandsMore robust evidence base• Health – KESSCommunication – language 31st October 2012, Manchester
  95. 95. The Valleys: A Future Vision - Prosperous Communities Sustainable Tourism • Community Tourism Ambassadors • Guardians 31st October 2012, Manchester
  96. 96. The Valleys: A Future Vision - Prosperous Communities Green Jobs and Skills 31st October 2012, Manchester
  97. 97. The Valleys: A Future Vision - Prosperous Communities Local Energy production 31st October 2012, Manchester
  98. 98. The Valleys: A Future Vision - Healthier Communities CAERAU MARKET GARDEN • Groundwork Bridgend & Neath Port Talbot • Caerau Development Trust • Valleys 2 Coast Housing • Bridgend CBC • Federation of City Farms and GardensSUDS; Skills development; Multiagency; Sustainable through revenue generation;First Caerau • Communities Fitwith valley Eco-connectivity; schools involvement; Evaluate community engagement; • Valleys Regional Park WECANIncreased biodiversity. st 31 October 2012, Manchester
  99. 99. The Valleys: A Future Vision - Improved housing and environment LLYNFI VALLEY Valleys 2 Coast Housing Steve CurryEkostaden Augustenborg, MalmöEnvironmental improvements have transformedAugustenborg from a neighbourhood in decline to anexemplar of an environmentally adapted urban area - anattractive place to live and work 31st October 2012, Manchester
  100. 100. The Valleys: A Future Vision - Healthier Communities Translating Exercise-Derived Health Benefits From The Laboratory To The Community Jane Thompson, Paul Hewlett, Barry MacDonnell, Richard Webb Regular participation in a green-exercise programme is beneficial in improving systemic health. • Mental wellbeing was improved • CVD risk was reduced via reductions in both arterial stiffness and total blood cholesterol levels • Expression of genes (CD36 and ABCA1) Metformin costconversion £60.5 million involved in the to NHS - of LDL (bad-) to HDL (good-cholesterol) 31st October 2012, Manchester
  101. 101. The Valleys: A Future Vision - Developing new opportunities Working together for1) Assess the economic and social potential Economically-prosperous2) Improve corporate engagement Communities through3) Evaluate Visitor Payback4) Stimulate the Social Economy Assets of (Community Engagement/Enterprise) Natural heritage 31st October 2012, Manchester
  102. 102. The Valleys: A Future Vision - Developing new opportunitiesGreen Infrastructure Valuation Toolkit Blue Green Gym Corporate/Community partnershipsA framework for assessing thepotential economic and wider returnsfrom investment in natural assets andlandscape improvements Natural Economy Northwest free open source resource Proofing/Welsh values (CCW/FCW)Qualitative:Community evaluation (resource planning)*VRP PILOTSSUDS – Market GardenNative Tree Nursery 31st October 2012, Manchester
  103. 103. The Valleys: (Re) Connecting People and Place 31st October 2012, Manchester
  104. 104. The Valleys: A Future VisionRegional Green Infrastructure Plan City Region(s) Connectivity 31st October 2012, Manchester
  105. 105. “To be truly radical is to makehope possible, rather than despairconvincing.” Raymond Williams Diolch yn fawr iawn am eich sylw - Thanks very much for your attention TWITTER - @VRPvalleys 31st October 2012, Manchester
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  107. 107. Video: Stroud Woodland Cooperative