Sustainable Communities


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Keynote speech at the Global Parternship Workshop: Research in Sustainable Community Development. 13-14 April University of Pittsburgh, USA. (powerpoint presentation)

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Sustainable Communities

  1. 1. Sustainable Community Development: some thoughts Global Partnership Workshop: Research in Sustainable Community Development Center for Latin American Studies University of Pittsburg April 13-14 2007 Prof. Gilberto M. Jannuzzi University of Campinas and International Energy Initiative
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Energy as a cross cutting issue: urban and rural development </li></ul><ul><li>Basic needs, poverty alleviation and sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Energy shaping future urban design </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sustainable Urban Development?
  4. 4. Electricity consumption around the world From: Modi et. al. (2005)
  5. 5. Population without electricity access in developing regions up to 2030 From: Modi et. al. (2005)
  6. 6. Human Development Index (UN HDR, 2004) vs. Annual Per Capita Commercial Energy Consumption For the poorest countries small increments in energy services boost significantly their living conditions From: Modi et. al. (2005)
  7. 7. Traditional fuels consumption From: Modi et. al. (2005)
  8. 8. Population without access to modern cooking fuels From: Modi et. al. (2005)
  9. 9. Brazil: The saturation levels of LPG (% total HH)
  10. 10. Evolution of LPG demand: total and average per capita consumption (1990=100) Oil sector de-regulation Ends LPG uniform pricing, subsidies and government control (partial and gradual)
  11. 11. Gender: time spent and transport burden Highest burden on women: firewood, water collection
  12. 12. Challenges <ul><li>Modern energy services needed! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 billion people without electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 billion people without clean cooking fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We have the technologies and $ to solve the above!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing urbanization in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand for “energy services” (direct and indirect), leisure, mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious implications: space design and climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of implications to developing countries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World’s demand for goods drives China’s growing energy demand and GHGs emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World’s demand for biofuels and bio-trade may distort developing countries domestic needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Aiming at sustainable energy system affects spatial design Source: Moffatt (2007)
  14. 14. Aiming at spatial design affects future energy system Source: Moffatt (2007)
  15. 15. Regional Systems Building Stock Transportation Systems Natural Gas Electricity Agriculture ICT Ecosystems Security Industry Land Use Roads Sewerage Waste Housing Parks Lighting Transit Water Municipal Services Office Buildings Environmental Management System Fleet Mgt. Purchasing Corporate Operations
  16. 16. Energy from “underground” -> Small spatial claims Source: Moffatt (2007)
  17. 17. Future energy supply increasingly surface bound -> Large spatial claims Source: Moffatt (2007)
  18. 18. Elements: Fire , Water, Soil, Air Solar potential Source: Moffatt (2007)
  19. 19. Elements: Fire, Water , Soil, Air Water potential Source: Moffatt (2007)
  20. 20. Elements: Fire, Water, Soil , Air Subsoil potential
  21. 21. Elements: Fire, Water, Soil, Air Wind potential Source: Moffatt (2007)
  22. 22. Elements: Fire, Water, Soil, Air Biomass potential
  23. 23. Potential mix: Fire, Water, Soil, Air Source: Moffatt (2007)
  24. 24. Integration of energy-scape with landscape Source: Moffatt (2007)
  25. 25. Integration of energy systems with all other urban systems Source: Moffatt (2007) Storm Water
  26. 26. Distributed, Clustered, Interconnected, Integrated, Adaptable, Low-impact, Service-Oriented, Multipurpose Source: Moffatt (2007)
  27. 27. Multi-fuel Multi-modal Alternative Energy & Transportation Hub Source: Moffatt (2007)
  28. 28. Summing up <ul><li>Daunting task!! But possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies, more R&D, more $ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination public policies & market mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation and integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability means several things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight poverty increase material development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase future energy security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantee “basic needs” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What other needs are “basic”? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge: efficient system with net low or no GHGs emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The build environment is key contributor towards a more sustainable energy system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable lifestyle to all </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>Moffatt, S. “Urban Efficiency: case study” presented at the Workshop Scaling-up Energy Efficiency: Bridging the Action Gap. International Energy Agency, Paris, 2-3 April 2007. see also </li></ul><ul><li>Fulkerson, W., M. D. Levine, et al. (2005). &quot;Sustainable, efficient electricity service for one billion people.&quot; Energy for Sustainable Development IX(2): 26-34. </li></ul><ul><li>Modi, V., S. McDade, et al. (2005). “Energy Services for the Millennium Development Goals”. New York, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank/ESMAP, United Nations Development Programme: 116. </li></ul><ul><li>Jannuzzi, G. M. and G. A. Sanga (2004). &quot;LPG subsidies in Brazil: an estimate.&quot; Energy for Sustainable Development VIII(3): 127-129. </li></ul><ul><li>Goldemberg, J., T. Johansson, et al. (2004). &quot;A global clean cooking fuel initiative.&quot; Energy for Sustainable Development VIII(3): 5-12. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Thank you! [email_address]