Outline Moving Toward Sustainable TransportFrom Light Green to Sustainable Buildings Growing a Sustainable Future
“In this now universal contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister and little-recognized partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world- the very nature of life.” -Rachel Carson, “Obligation to Endure”
How Chapters Fit Together Moving towards a sustainable future through agriculture, buildings and transportation.All aspects include reducing pollution and being more efficient with our resources.
Vandana Shiva talks about the World Future Council http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BbnfJl9ULa8 A woman we are now all familiar with from our readings and the “FLOW” film talks about the issues concerning agriculture, sustainable wateruse, sustainable cities, sustainable food systems, and sustainable energy.
Relation to Our Course Associated directly with course goals:-knowing issues about sustainability as it relates to the ecological features -analyzing and evaluating ecological issues -understanding sustainability, environmental education, and ecological literacy
Chapter 4 – Moving Toward Sustainable Transport There is an increasing need to progress towards demonstrating the viability andpotential to sustainable transport strategies to meet the growing economies while reducing costs and harm to the environment. Transportation gives people access to jobs, markets and schools Agenda 21 – an international action plan onsustainable development that includes language to support sustainable transport
The Problem Today there are nearly 800 million cars on the worlds roads Expected to increase to 2-3 billion by 2050 Bulk of this growth occurring in developing countries Rio Earth Summit 1992 International Action Plan for Sustainable Development No commitments, targets, other forms of transport were created Most transport investments are geared toward unsustainable forms or transport: high capacity highways
The Problem Cont. Unsustainable transport systems create heath hazards Increased risk of diseases related to airborne pollution Congestion in cities and on highways Forces people to spend more time in traffic Wastes fuel Increases the cost of transporting goods More than 1.2 million people are killed each year on the worlds roads 90% of these deaths occur in developing countries
The Problem Cont. Transportation systems get worse as a country becomes more prosperous Massive growth in demand for transportation systems in the next 20 years Growth increases the air pollutants 80% of harmful air pollutants in developing countries are caused by transportation
Global Transport Energy Use Has grown 2-2.5 percent a year since 1970 and is forecastto grow even quicker.For every vehicle onthe roads today there will be 3-4 for every one by 2050 If trend continues will lead to catastrophic climate change and impose health and environmental costs
The Problem Cont. Unsustainable transportation systems also harm the environment Transportation is the fastest growing source of global emissions Greenhouse gas emissions are expected to increase 250% by 2050 Carbon dioxide emissions are expected to increase 300% by 2050 These increases are primarily in the developing world
Moving Forward International Agreements have all failed to create sustainable transportation systems 1992 Rio conference 1997 Kyoto Protocol 2000 Millennium Development Goals “Bottom-up Approach” Nations create their own sustainability goals and commitments Financing comes from industrialized countries
Moving Forward Cont. Sustainability Paradigm Avoid unnecessary trips with smarter planning, congestion pricing, and telecommunications Shift trips to more sustainable modes with sound, incentives, information, and investments Improve vehicle efficiency with cleaner fuels, better operated networks, and vehicle technology that is better adapted to individual environments
Looking Ahead If managed, sustainable transport can meet the growing demand Urban development and transportation should be planned and adapted International agreements need to contain specific sustainability goals and targets Public transportation needs to be utilized in urban and city settings decrease congestion meet the needs of the growing population
Looking Ahead Cont.Agenda 21 suggests “efficient and cost effective approaches such as integrated land use and transportation planning, high occupancy public transport, safe cycleways and footpaths, international information exchange and reevaluation of present consumption and production patterns.”
Principles for Transport in Urban Life (Box 4.2)-Walk: Develop neighborhood that promote walking-Cycle: Make cycle networks and secure cycle parking a priority-Connect: Create dense networks of streets and paths-Transit: Support high quality transit-Mix: Plan for mixed uses-Compact: Create dense regions with short commutes-Shift: Increase mobility by regulating parking and road use
Chapter 10 – From Light Green to Sustainable Buildings We live in the, “Built Environment” Construction accounts for 1/3 of resources consumedglobally 12% of all fresh water usage 25-40% of produced energy used by construction Accounts for 30-40% of CO2 emissions and solid waste
In 2030, 1.4 billion more people will live in cities rather than rural areas Soon there will be more construction on the planet than ever before causing long term impacts Even though it’s impact is minimal, “Green building” is becoming popular Alternative energy sources (Solar ad public transportation)
Policies at Work: Sticks, Carrots, and Tambourines Land use and building acts and codes are“Sticks” Policies can control, motivate, or call for attentionvia regulations and incentives Most regulation acts and codes only formulatemandatory requirements and minimum standards
It should mandate “Prescriptive Regulation”: Ideal Solution Expected Performance (Ex: how long a buildinghas to resist fire before collapse) Prohibiting specific materials (asbestos, illegaltimber, etc.)
“Carrots” are incentives to motivate companies togo beyond the bare minimum requirements Subsidies Green mortgages Direct public investment Taxation policies
“Tambourines” are tools that raise awareness tosustainable buildings Informs people of the best traditional andcontemporary solutions Ex: Newsletters, websites, and publicitycampaigns Car-Free days organized by cities
In Search of a Best Policy Specific policies are the cheapest and mostefficient ways to achieve sustainable construction Must include measurable and attainable goals Sustainable Infrastructure – Sustainable BuildingAlliance
Six core indicators presented to SBA GHG Emissions – CO2eq Primary Energy Water Wastes (Hazardous, Nonhazardous, Inert and Nuclear) Thermal Comfort Indoor Air Quality (CO in ppm and Formaldehyde in 2micrograms per cubic meter) These points cover main aspects of resources andemissions but it not complete list The main goal is complete, sustainable use of resourcesand restriction of emissions
Chapter 13 – Growing a Sustainable Future The state of agriculture today Conventional agriculture-a dominant way of thinkingabout agriculture. Examples: increasing water abstraction, only ahandful of high-yielding crop varieties, andusing petrochemical fertilizers and pesticides In 2011, 1 in 7 individuals worldwide was chronicallyundernourished. The global food system is both contrition to degradationof the natural resource base and being squeezed bycompeting demands.
The key role of small-scale producers in a sustainable food system Changes are required across the whole foodsystem, including critical shifts in large-scaleproduction. Almost 2 billion people are fed by produce fromthe 500 million farms in developing countries. 80% of hungry people live in rural areas Supporting small-scale food producers can buildsustainability and resilience to climate shocks.
The importance of addressing gender inequalities In Africa, women conduct 60% of the harvestingand marketing activities, 80% of storage andtransport, 90% of hoeing and weeding, and 100%of processing of basic foods. If woman had the same level of access as men,their farm output would increase by 20-30% andglobal hunger would decline by 12-17%(according to the U.N. Food and AgricultureOrganization).
The need for better access Although land and water rights are often tied,access to water resources is essential in its ownright. Community-based integrated water resourcemanagement can help communities keep wateruse within ecological limits While access to resources is critical, knowledgeand information can increase productivity
Moving forward Without government intervention to direct a morerapid transition, markets and the vested intereststhat govern them will not lead us toward asustainable agriculture future. There is no perfect blueprint for sustainableagriculture globally Several practical approaches exist
Analysis With the focus on increasing the quantity and quality of investment in small-scale food production, applying a gender lens to investments, and addressing issues of accessalongside intentional cultivation of a more agro-ecological approach to farming, we could indeed grow a food system that achieves food security while sustaining Earth’s systems and maintaining ecosystem diversity.
Alternative Solutions Plant a garden. Drive a hybrid vehicle. Use public transportation. Buy local grown produce and local raised meat products. Use Energy Star appliances. Improve your home’s insulation. Purchase a high-efficiency AC unit. Use a solar power system for you pool.
Want To Know More? http://www.nahbgreen.org/-Describes US standards and measures for green construction.http://www.earthtimes.org/encyclopaedia/environmental-issues/sustainable-tra -Gives an overview of sustainable transportation and alternative fuel methods. http://foodalliance.org/-Has resources for consumer, farmers http://www.umb.edu/serc/-University of Mass. Website has research on environmental sustainability. http://www.itssd.org/-Institute for Trade, Standards, and Sustainable Development, organization that promotes and implements a positive paradigm of sustainable development. http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/-Global non-profit founded in 1988.http://www.breeam.org/-Design and assessment methods for sustainable building. http://www.echonet.org/-Non-profit organization that researches sustainable solutions to world hunger.
Conclusion It is important to understand all aspects of sustainability to make an impact. As a global community we are all responsible to usesustainable practices in order to preserve and protect our environment.