Sustainable Cities

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How can cities be made greener, sustainable.

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Sustainable Cities

  1. 1. Sustainable Cities G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14th Edition Chapter 25 Shohail Motahir Choudhury
  2. 2. <ul><li>Why urban areas are attracting more and more people? </li></ul><ul><li>About one half of the world’s people live in cities/densely populated urban areas, drawn there for better jobs and a better life . </li></ul><ul><li>Cities provide jobs, food, housing, a better life, entertainment, and freedom from the religious, racial, and political conflicts of village life . </li></ul><ul><li>3. People are pushed to cities by poverty, no land, declining work, famine, and war. Developing into centers of poverty . </li></ul>Urbanization and Urban Growth
  3. 3. Los Angeles 13.3 million 14.5 million Mexico City 18.3 million 20.4 million Sao Paulo 18.3 million 21.2 million Buenos Aires 12.1 million 13.2 million New York 16.8 million 17.9 million Cairo 10.5 million 11.5 million Lagos 12.2 million 24.4 million <ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>2001(estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>2015 (projected) </li></ul>Mumbai (Bombay) 16.5 million 22.6 million Karachi 10.4 million 16.2 million Dhaka 13.2 million 22.8 million Calcutta 13.3 million 16.7 million Jakarta 11.4 million 17.3 million Beijing 10.8 million 11.7 million Tokyo 26.5 million 27.2 million Shanghai 12.8 million 13.6 million Osaka 11.0 million 11.0 million Manila 10.1 million 11.5 million Cities at night
  4. 4. Figure 25-4a Page 566
  5. 5. 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 Year 4.5 3.0 1.5 0 Population (billions) Developing Countries Developed Countries Projections
  6. 6. <ul><li>1. Most huge urban areas are in developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of large cities (a million or more people) is increasing rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Megacities or megalopolises contain 10 million+ people. </li></ul><ul><li>A megalopolis is a merger of a city (or cities) and adjacent urban areas; </li></ul><ul><li>Two such areas are Bowash (Boston–Washington) and Chipitts (Chicago–Pittsburgh). </li></ul>Urban trends that affect urban growth
  7. 7. Boston Springfield Hartford Providence Newark Allentown Harrisburg New York Philadelphia Baltimore Washington Detroit Cleveland Pittsburgh Toledo Akron Chicago Chipitts (Chicago to Pittsburgh) Bowash (Boston to Washington)
  8. 8. <ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>Air and water quality </li></ul><ul><li>City services </li></ul><ul><li>Older cities ? </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty in cities ? </li></ul>Urban life’s quality in America Unemployment
  9. 9. <ul><li>Low-density development is growing and encouraging dependence on cars. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprawl is a byproduct of affordable land, cars, poor urban planning, and cheap gas. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems caused have been decreased energy efficiency; increased urban flooding ; destruction of cropland, forest, and open space; and longer travel time . </li></ul>Urban sprawl
  10. 10. Impacts of Urban Sprawl
  11. 11. Urban Resource and Environmental Problems Air and water pollution; waste management Reduction in vegetation Importation of food, energy, and materials Noise pollution Climate impacts: urban heat islands Impacts on surrounding rural areas
  12. 12. Inputs Outputs Energy Food Water Raw materials Manufactured goods Money Information Solid wastes Waste heat Air pollutants Water pollutants Greenhouse gases Manufactured goods Noise Wealth Ideas
  13. 13. <ul><li>Slums </li></ul><ul><li>Squatter settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Shantytowns </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty and unemployment </li></ul>Urban Poor in Developing Countries
  14. 14. Transportation and Urban Development Individual transit Mass transit Buses Trains Automobiles Advantages Disadvantages More flexible than rail system Can be rerouted as needed Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail system Can greatly reduce car use and pollution Can lose money because they need low fares to attract riders Often get caught in traffic unless operating in express lanes Commit riders to transportation schedules Noisy Buses Trade-Offs Advantages Disadvantages
  15. 15. Urban Land-Use Planning and Control Land-use planning Property taxes Zoning Smart growth Urban growth boundary Cluster development Greenbelts
  16. 16. Limits and Regulations <ul><li>Limit building permits </li></ul><ul><li>Urban growth boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Green belts around cities </li></ul><ul><li>Public review of new development </li></ul>Zoning <ul><li>Encourage mixed use </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate development along mass transportation routes </li></ul><ul><li>Promote high-density cluster housing developments </li></ul>Planning <ul><li>Ecological land-use planning </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated regional planning </li></ul><ul><li>State and national planning </li></ul>Protection <ul><li>Preserve existing open space </li></ul><ul><li>Buy new open space </li></ul><ul><li>Buy development rights that prohibit certain types of development on land parcels </li></ul>Taxes <ul><li>Tax land, not buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Tax land on value of actual use (such as forest and agriculture) instead of highest value as developed land </li></ul>Tax Breaks <ul><li>For owners agreeing legally to not allow certain types of development (conservation easements) </li></ul><ul><li>For cleaning up and developing abandoned urban sites (brownfields) </li></ul>Revitalization and New Growth <ul><li>Revitalize existing towns and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Build well-planned new towns and villages </li></ul><ul><li>within cities </li></ul>Smart Growth Tools Solutions
  17. 17. Major highways Greenbelt Urban center Satellite towns
  18. 18. Undeveloped land Marsh Creek
  19. 19. Figure 25-18b Page 579 Typical housing development
  20. 20. Cluster housing development Cluster Creek Pond Cluster
  21. 21. <ul><li>Ecocities are people-oriented, preserve biodiversity, and emit low pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>High energy-efficient Buildings, vehicles, and appliances meet </li></ul><ul><li>Native trees for noise buffers, pollution reduction, and animal sanctuaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban sprawl is not allowed to gobble up. </li></ul><ul><li>Food is raised in the city in community gardens, garden rooftops and and solar greenhouses. </li></ul><ul><li>There are ecocities all over the world: Waitakere City in New Zealand, Leicester in England, Portland in Oregon, and Chattanooga in Tennessee. </li></ul>Making Urban Areas More Livable and Sustainable
  22. 22. <ul><li>Chattanooga, Tennessee, is one of the United States most sustainable and livable cites. </li></ul><ul><li>1. In the 1950s, Chattanooga was an industrial wasteland with highly polluted air and toxic water. </li></ul><ul><li>Local officials and citizens transformed Chattanooga into a beautiful city with zero-emission industry, </li></ul><ul><li>zero-emission electric buses, </li></ul><ul><li>satellite parking with bus service, </li></ul><ul><li>extensive recycling programs, </li></ul><ul><li>and new tourist attractions. </li></ul>Example of a good city
  23. 23. Water Resources, Pollution and its Prevention Next Class Chapter 22

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