Slides Sustainable Urban Environments


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The newly released book Sustainable Urban Environments - An Ecosystem Approach ‘helps the reader grasp opportunities for integration of knowledge and technologies in the design, construction and management of the built environment.’ In the first edition of the Delft Environment Initiative Lecture Series on 21-09-2011 several contributors to Sustainable Urban Environments discussed their views on the most pressing challenges facing us in the urban environment today and how they should be integrated in education. These are the slides accompanying the ‘elevator pitches’ they gave.

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  • Make use of local opportunitiesSignificantly reduce resource flows (and reuse)Look for synergies, also in connection with agricultureIn collaboration with people living in the area and actors (public and private) deciding on the area
  • Built environment requires bulk amounts of material. A large chain of problems is affected by such demand during its life cycle such as transport, land use, biodiversity, toxicity, material scarcity
  • Through Urban Metabolism Models, building materials is on the top relevant material flows in every urbanized area together with energy, water and food items.
  • The bigger art of the Randstad consists of the Dutch lowlands are below seal level, excepting the natural rivers. But why are the Dutch lowlands so low. The following slides will give you explanation.
  • The bigger art of the Randstad consists of the Dutch lowlands are below seal level, excepting the natural rivers. But why are the Dutch lowlands so low. The following slides will give you explanation.
  • Slides Sustainable Urban Environments

    1. 1. September 21, 2011<br />1<br />Lokatie/evenement<br />Naam auteur<br />Vermelding onderdeel organisatie<br />
    2. 2. September 21, 2011<br />2<br />Cities as ecosystems<br />Source: Girardet, 1990<br />
    3. 3. Optimizing flows in a building<br />September 21, 2011<br />3<br />Source: Wortmann and Kruseman, 2005<br />
    4. 4. Optimizing urban form<br />September 21, 2011<br />4<br />Source: Marc Ottele<br />Source: Heat Island Group<br />
    5. 5. Relationships between sub-systems: look for synergies<br />September 21, 2011<br />5<br />Source: Tjallingii, 1996<br />
    6. 6. Peopleare part of urban systems<br />September 21, 2011<br />6<br />Source: Machiel van Dorst<br />Source: WBCSD, 2007<br />
    7. 7. Conclusions / outlook<br />September 21, 2011<br />7<br />Source: Arjan van Timmeren<br />
    8. 8. Chapter 2(Eco)system thinking: ecologicalprinciplesfor buildings, roads, industrialandurbanareas<br />Hein van Bohemen<br />Former lecturer Ecological Engineering<br />At present: EcoEngineeringConsultancy<br />
    9. 9. Passion for Ecoengineering<br />Integration of civil and ecological engineering (example roads in the landscape, green roofs and green façades)<br />Based on EcoSystemThinking (inspiration: H.T.Odum, William Mitsch and John Todd)<br />Realization of Value for humans as well as for nature <br />
    10. 10. EcoSystemThinking<br />Representation of a simple system<br />Humanity is based on ecosystem goods and ecosystem services<br />
    11. 11. Different levels of scale<br />A road on different levels of scale<br />Representation of flows of materials on different levels of scale<br />
    12. 12. Example of Integration: solar panels on a green roof<br />
    13. 13. Challenge: Realizationof full integration of as many aspects (env., ecol., econ. ,social, cultural) as possible on all levels of scalesbased on symbioticrelationshipbetween humans andtheirnatural environment<br />
    14. 14. Chapter 3Urban ecology, scale and identity<br /> Taeke M. De Jong<br />motivation:<br />‘Architecture is a kind of ecology, design is differentiation’ <br />
    15. 15. Differentiation is a risk cover for life<br />The number of plant species per km2 in Zoetermeer is related to its physical diversity<br />The more physicaldiversity, the more species willfind a fitting place<br />
    16. 16. Judging ecological quality<br />
    17. 17. Quality(diversity) and a scale paradox<br />Scale-paradox<br />
    18. 18. Identity is difference with the rest and continuity in itself<br />What is the difference with other regions? (30km radius)<br />What is the difference with other conurbations? (10km)<br />What is the difference with other townships? (3km)<br />What is the difference with other districts? (1km)<br />What is the difference with other neighbourhoods? (300m)<br />What is the difference with other ensembles? (100m)<br />Anyone looking for a location will ask such questions,<br />Designers have to answer them.<br />
    19. 19. Built environment Chapter 6<br />Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research<br />Roughly 75% of waste is land filled<br />Average within the European Union 25% of the waste is recycled (however, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium already achieved recycling rates of more than 80%).<br />Building industry is one of the largest consumers of natural resources_average40% (Kibert 2002).<br />Most of the considered dangerous waste is not always separated from other forms of waste and thus contaminate land fills or recycled inert wastes (European Commission 2000).<br />Nearly three tons used annually for each person on the planet. (WBCSD 2002)<br />Cement industry contributes to about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2emissions_____50% is from the chemical process_______40% from burning fuel ______10% electricity and transport (WBCSD 2002; (Worrell et al. 2001). <br />Cement manufacturing requires mainly mineral extraction from quarries<br />(besides water and energy for its production).<br />
    20. 20. Dutch building LCA<br />Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research<br />Level of building decree (EBI 200)<br />High Tech building (EBI 500)<br />Energy Neutral building (EBI 1000)<br />A building considered to be sustainable according to<br />Dutch regulations in 2010 [equivalent to an Environmental Building Index (EBI). <br />A building in which high-tech<br />methods have been used to radically reduce energy consumption (equivalent to an EBI of 500).<br />An energy-neutral building (equivalent to an EBI<br />of 1,000) which has no environmental impact in terms of energy.<br />Haas 2009<br />
    21. 21. Urban Metabolism_ studies illuminate basic trends in human energy and material fluxes. <br />Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research<br />Decker et al. (2000) <br />More self reliant<br />By mapping flows of materials it is possible to propose closed loop solutions leading to less input/ and less output leading to more efficient and therefore a more self sufficient urban structure.<br />Integrated solutions<br />Combining flows of materials with different coefficients and indicators of a city-region requires consideration of the complex interactions between economic, environmental, and social factors. <br />Support for future prognostics<br />Caring capacity estimated through time line; avoiding exhaustion of materials and consequent region decay.<br />Detects consumer, households, industrial and commercial behavior and consequences.<br />Intra and interrelationships among other regions (resource dependency or waste dependency).<br />Pollution prevention (from cars or industrial activities, etc.)<br />Food and water security.<br />Diagnosis<br />As a living organism, it is assumed that by using UMM it is possible to detect pathologic cycles, environmental, and even economic.<br />
    22. 22. Understanding available resources<br />Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research<br />Mapping and ACCOUNTING<br />DOCOMOMO<br />Bologna, 1969. Urban conservation Plan. Building typologies.<br />Coal waste<br />2009 in Solving Global Warming<br /><br />where_for_art_thou_coal_ash.html<br />World Resource Institute_ GHG Emissions<br />
    23. 23. Designingas baking a cake? <br />Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research<br />Substituting or innovating?<br />2012 Building façade<br />
    24. 24. Dynamic balance<br />Sustainable Urban Metabolism_ Towards use of resources design strategies and constructive solutions Loriane M. Icibaci PhD research<br />
    25. 25. Waterflows and Urban PlanningSybrand Tjallingii<br />
    26. 26. water flows / systems<br />
    27. 27. guiding principles<br />rainwater:from down the drain to first retain<br />groundwater:from pumping to careful use and recharge<br />river waters:from taming the stream to space for the river<br />drinking water:from shortage and wastage to sufficient and efficient<br />waste water:from problem solving to pollution prevention<br />
    28. 28. guiding models<br />region<br />urban<br />building<br />
    29. 29. NATURE RESI- DENTIAL<br />TRANSPORT PRO-DUCTION<br />synergy<br />GUIDING<br />EXPLOITING<br />carrying structures<br />activities<br />
    31. 31. Chapter 5: Energy in the built environment<br />Laure Itard, <br />Research Institute OTB<br />Delft University of Technology<br />
    32. 32.
    33. 33. Start EPC regulations<br />Energy use in dwellings<br />Gas consumption per m2 area (2004/2005)<br />Construction year<br />
    34. 34. Understanding the system<br /><ul><li> Comfort & Health
    35. 35. Building design
    36. 36. Building physics
    37. 37. Heat transfer
    38. 38. Ventilation & air movements
    39. 39. HVAC systems
    40. 40. Sustainable Energy generation</li></ul>Pollutants<br />
    41. 41. DO YOU WANT TO KNOW WHY:<br /><ul><li>Your house will use more gas if you use energy-saving light bulbs?
    42. 42. Using large window areas on the North Façade may save a lot of energy?
    43. 43. Using a high efficiency condensing boiler is non-sense?</li></ul>Then read<br />Chapter 5: Energy in the built environment<br />
    44. 44. Urban transport and sustainability<br />Bert Van Wee – DUT<br />Perspective: transport is fantastic, but comes at high costs. What is ‘good’ policy? Difficult, but very challenging and important question<br />
    45. 45.
    46. 46.  <br />
    47. 47.
    48. 48. Achieved:<br /><ul><li>Much safer
    49. 49. Better air quality
    50. 50. Better control of traffic flows
    51. 51. More comfort
    52. 52. Maintaining strong position of bicycle</li></li></ul><li>Challenges:<br /><ul><li>CO2
    53. 53. Dependence on fossil fuels
    54. 54. Noise
    55. 55. Accessibility
    56. 56. Acceptance of ‘unpopular policy measures’ (pricing, less parking, paid parking everywhere, car free zones, ISA, ..)</li></li></ul><li>Chapter 7: Air quality and human health<br />Arjen Meijer<br />Background: Environmental Scientist (Nijmegen University)<br />Researcher on Sustainable and Healthy Housing<br /> OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment<br /> Department of Housing Quality<br />
    57. 57. Highlights<br />Indoor and outdoor air pollutants<br />Chemical pollutants<br />Biological pollutants<br />Other indoor environmental aspects<br />Thermal comfort<br />Noise<br />Lighting<br />
    58. 58. Outdoor air quality<br />Shift in attention towards issues<br />Past<br />Acid rain<br />(acidification)<br />Ozone layer<br />depletion<br />Present<br />Euthrophication<br />Particulate<br />matter<br />CO2 emissions<br />(climate change)<br />
    59. 59. Indoor air quality<br />Contradiction?<br />Energy saving<br />Good indoor<br />air quality<br />
    60. 60. Indoor environment<br />More than indoor air quality<br />Thermal<br />comfort<br />Low noise<br />levels<br />It is not only costs, not only the planet, not only personal comfort<br />Integrated approach<br />?<br />?<br />?<br />?<br />Energy<br />saving<br />Indoor air<br />quality<br />Indoor air<br />quality<br />
    61. 61. Chapter 10<br />Sustainable Urban Form<br />Sustainable Urban Environments<br /> An Ecosystem Approach<br /> Jody Milder<br />
    62. 62. The world is urbanizing<br />More than half of the world’s populations now lives in cities<br />
    63. 63. Urban form types<br />
    64. 64. Compact cities<br />
    65. 65. People are the key<br />
    66. 66. Chapter 11: Environmental strategies & tools for integrated environmental design<br />Laure Itard, <br />Research Institute OTB<br />Delft University of Technology<br />
    67. 67. (Eco) system approach<br />
    68. 68. Environmental impact when producting 1 MJ heat<br />
    69. 69. Environmental impacts electricity production<br />
    70. 70. <ul><li>There is more than CO2
    71. 71. Strategies are needed… but are not enough to built sustainable buildings
    72. 72. Up-cycling costs material & energy</li></ul>Chapter 11: Environmental strategies & tools for integrated design<br />
    73. 73. Chapter 13 Governance ToolsLorraine Murphy<br /> MSc Environmental Science<br /> Trinity College Dublin, Ireland<br />Is Dublin a City Moving Towards Sustainable Development?<br /> PhD Candidate <br /> OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment<br />‘Energy performance’ policy instruments for existing dwellings<br />
    74. 74. Chapter Overview<br />Government to governance<br />International –Supranational-National-Local<br />Tools with examples:<br />Tools and ecosystem thinking<br />
    75. 75. Some Achievements………..<br />Covenants/Agreements<br />Economic Tools<br />Communication<br />Regulation<br />
    76. 76. Some challenges……..<br />Compliance & enforcement<br />Monitoring <br />& evaluating<br />
    77. 77. Chapter 14 Managing ChangeAnke van Hal & Ellen van Bueren<br />
    78. 78. How to get multiple actors to agree on a common direction?<br />
    79. 79. Variety of approaches – all needed<br />New forms of collaboration & contracting<br />Involve end-users<br />Identify business opportunities<br />Stimulate, diffuse & learn from innovation<br />
    80. 80. Sustainable Urban EnvironmentsAn Ecosystem ApproachChapter 15Conclusions / Integrated Design <br />September 21, 2011<br />64<br />Dutch Green Building Week, TU Delft, 22. September 2011 <br />Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze<br />
    81. 81. Pulling together all chapters<br />September 21, 2011<br />65<br /><ul><li>Drawing conclusions
    82. 82. Discussion of future perspectives based on recent research results (integrated design)
    83. 83. Ecosystem thinking                        
    84. 84. Urban ecology  
    85. 85. Water                                                    
    86. 86. Energy                                                 
    87. 87. Materials/resources                    
    88. 88. Air quality and human health     
    89. 89. Liveability                                           
    90. 90. Urban transport                               
    91. 91. Governance                                 
    92. 92. Managing change                           </li></ul>Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze<br />
    93. 93. September 21, 2011<br />66<br />Perspectives – Achievements<br /><ul><li>Sustainable development is feasible now!
    94. 94. Enough know-how & resources for total change
    95. 95. Coverage of energy demand with 100% renewable is technically and economically feasible until 2050
    96. 96. C02 & Hydrogen can replace oil based production</li></ul>                   <br />Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze<br />
    97. 97. September 21, 2011<br />67<br />Perspectives – Challenges<br /><ul><li>We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them (Einstein)
    98. 98. Paradigm shift: support by companies, politics & society
    99. 99. Limited non renewable resource stock – requires 3R! 
    100. 100. Strategic resources require political stability and global cooperation                      </li></ul>Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze<br />
    101. 101. 68<br />Zero M - Model<br />local closed loop recycling economy                      <br />Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze<br />
    102. 102. September 21, 2011<br />69<br />Thank you very much for your attention!<br />[Vincent Callebaut]<br />Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze<br />