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Nutritional Ergogenic Aids and Nutrient Timing for Optimal Performance

Nutritional Ergogenic Aids and Nutrient Timing for Optimal Performance

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Nutritional Ergogenic Aids and Nutrient Timing for Optimal Performance Nutritional Ergogenic Aids and Nutrient Timing for Optimal Performance Presentation Transcript

  • Nutritional Ergogenic Aids and Nutrient Timing for Optimum Performance Ellen Coleman. MA, MPH, RD, CSSD Nutrition Consultant The Sport Clinic
  • Primary Considerations
    • Two most critical questions: is the supplement safe and effective? 1
    • Safety:
      • Primum non nocere – “First, do no harm”
    • Effectiveness:
      • Biological plausibility/mechanism of action for purported ergogenic effect
    • Considering risks/benefits of use requires information on safety and effectiveness
  • Primary Considerations
    • Doping:
      • Will supplement cause individual to test positive for a prohibited substance?
    • Quality:
      • Identity
      • Potency
      • Purity
      • Availability
  • Creatine
    • Claims:
      • Improves high power performance lasting less than 30 seconds
      • Increases lean body mass
    • Biological plausibility/mechanism of action:
      • Creatine phosphate provides energy for high power performance via phosphagen system
      • Creatine increases muscle fiber hypertrophy and cell volume
  • Creatine Safety
    • Represents a safe method to enhance muscle size and strength responses to resistance training 2
    • No strong scientific evidence to support any adverse effects but no studies address issue of long-term creatine supplementation 3
    • Creatine supplementation lasting 1 to 4 years does not result in adverse health effects 4
  • Creatine Effectiveness: High-Power Performance
    • Short-term creatine supplementation (20 g/day for 5-7 days) increases or improves: 5
      • Total creatine content by 10-30%
      • Phosphocreatine stores by 10-40%
      • Maximal power/strength by 5-15%
      • Sets of maximal effort muscle contractions by 5-15%
      • Single effort sprint performance by 1-5%.
      • Repetitive sprint performance by 5-15%.
  • Creatine Effectiveness: Lean Mass
    • Increases body mass by 2 to 5 lb during 4-12 weeks of resistance training
    • 6 g/day for 12 weeks during training increased: 6
      • Fat free mass
      • Thigh volume
      • Muscle strength
      • Myofibrillar protein content
  • Creatine Effectiveness: Lean Mass 28 days of creatine supplementation increased fat-free mass by 5.4 lb 7
  • Creatine and Thigh Volume 3 days of creatine supplementation increased thigh volume by 6.6% 8
  • Arginine for “Nitric Oxide”
    • Claims:
      • Increases lean body mass
      • Improves muscle strength
    • Biological plausibility/mechanism of action:
      • Nitric oxide synthase enzyme catalyzes oxidation of arginine to produce nitric oxide and subsequent vasodilation
      • Increases blood flow, oxygen transport, and delivery of nutrients to muscle
  • Arginine Safety
    • 9 g of arginine/day for 1 week was associated with minimal adverse side effects 9
    • 10 out of 12 subjects experienced GI distress at 21 g arginine/day for 1 week 9
    • 12 g of arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per day for 8 weeks appeared to be safe and well tolerated 10
    • No significant adverse effects from 9 g arginine/day for 12 weeks 11
  • Arginine Effectiveness: Lean Mass and Strength
    • 12 g arginine/day for 8 weeks: 10
      • Improved 1RM bench press
      • Improved Wingate peak power
      • No effect on body composition
      • No effect on aerobic capacity
    • No proof that arginine influences nitric oxide levels in muscles 9
  • Arginine Effectiveness: Strength and Peak Power
    • 6 g arginine + 8 g creatine/day or 8 g creatine/day for 10 days: 12
      • Arginine + creatine and creatine increased bench press repetitions over 3 sets versus placebo
      • Arginine + creatine improved Wingate peak power – no change in creatine or placebo
    • More research required for effectiveness
  • Arginine Effectiveness: Vascular Disease
    • May improve nitric oxide formation and endothelium-dependent vasodilation
    • Arginine may benefit patients with endothelial dysfunction:
      • Heart failure (8 g/day for 4 weeks) 13
      • Claudication (6.6 g/day for 8 weeks) 14
      • Angina (6 g/day for 3 days) 15
  • “ Nitric Oxide” Supplement SUPPLEMENT FACTS: Serving Size: 3 Caplets Servings Per Container: 60 Amount Per Serving: VASODILASE: 1.8 g -L-arginine hydrochloride -L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate STIMUGROW: 1 g - Creatine monohydrate -L-leucine -L-valine                                                                                                                     
  • Directions
    • Directions for men and women: Please refer to the dosing chart below. Based upon your gender and bodyweight, take one serving (2 to 5 caplets) with an 8 fl. oz. glass of water, 2 times daily. On days of your workout, take 1 of these servings 30 to 60 minutes before your workout. Do not exceed 10 caplets in a 24-hour period. Consume ten 8 fl. oz. glasses of water daily for general good health.
    http://www.nitroxy3.com/product_info/faqs.shtml
  • Whey Protein
    • Claims:
      • Increases lean body mass and strength
      • Enhances immunity
    • Biological plausibility/mechanism of action:
      • High biological value and rapid digestion rate
      • Elevates glutathione levels (due to high cysteine content) – reduces oxidative stress
      • Contains bioactive components lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, and alpha-lactalbumin
  • Whey Protein Safety
    • 20% of milk protein
    • As a constituent of milk, whey protein is presumed to be safe
    • People with allergies to milk are likely to be allergic to whey (even partially hydrolyzed forms) 15
  • Whey Protein Effectiveness: Strength
    • Compared to casein, 20 g whey/day for 3 months (no training) increased: 16
      • peak power
      • work capacity
      • glutathione levels
    • May enhance performance by reducing oxidative stress and subsequent muscular fatigue
  • Effectiveness of Whey Protein Compared to Casein
    • Subjects consumed 1.5 g/kg/day of whey or casein during 10 weeks of resistance training 17
    • Whey supplementation promoted:
      • Greater gain in lean mass
      • Greater decrease in fat mass
      • Greater improvements in strength, even when expressed relative to body weight
  • Effectiveness of Whey Protein Compared to Soy
    • Subjects consumed 1.2 g/kg/day of whey, soy, or isocaloric placebo during 6 weeks of resistance training 18
    • Compared to placebo, protein supplementation (independent of source) increased:
      • Lean mass
      • Strength
  • Effectiveness of Whey Protein Compared to Casein
    • Based on digestion rate, whey is “fast” protein and casein is a “slow” protein
    • 20 g whey or casein ingested 1 hour after resistance exercise: 19
      • Different patterns of arterial amino acid responses
      • Similar amino acid uptake relative to amount ingested
      • Similar increases in muscle protein synthesis
  • Whey Protein Effectiveness: Lean Mass and Strength
    • Subjects consumed 1.2 g/kg/day of whey, whey and creatine (0.1 g/kg/day), or isocaloric placebo during 6 weeks of resistance training 20
    • Whey increased knee extension peak torque and lean mass more than placebo
    • Creatine and whey increased bench press and lean mass more than whey or placebo
    • No differences in squat strength and knee flexion peak torque between creatine and/or whey and placebo
  • Whey Protein Effectiveness: Immunity
    • Whey processed using ion exchange methodology appears to retain bioactive components purported to enhance immune function
    • “ Immune support” claims are largely speculative and have not been adequately proven in human subjects
  • Beta-Alanine
    • Claims:
      • Increases aerobic and anaerobic performance
    • Biological plausibility/mechanism of action:
      • Non-essential amino acid; substrate for carnosine which buffers lactic acid
      • May enhance performance by increasing buffering capacity due to elevated carnosine levels 21-24
  • Beta-Alanine
    • 28 days of supplementation (3.2 g/day for 7 days, 6.4 g/day thereafter) in untrained young women:
      • improved submaximal cycle performance (delayed onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold)
      • improved time to exhaustion during maximal cycle performance 21
  • Beta-Alanine
    • Supplementation for 4 –10 weeks (4 g/day for 1st week, 6.4 g/day thereafter) in untrained young men:
      • increased muscle carnosine levels and total work done at 110% of Wmax by 13% at 4 wk; further increase of 3.2% at 10 wk
      • increase in exercise capacity followed increase in muscle carnosine 22
  • Beta-Alanine
    • Supplementation of 4.8 g/day for 4 wk in sprint trained athletes: 23
      • improved muscle torque in knee extension exercises
      • did not improve 400 meter sprint times or isometric endurance
    • Supplementation of 4.8 g/day for 30 days in resistance-trained men significantly increased number of repetitions of squat exercises 24
  • Beta-Alanine Adverse Reactions
    • Can cause dose-dependent flushing and paresthesias 25,26
    • Starts on the scalp within 20 minutes of the dose 25,26
    • Spreads to most of the body and lasts for about an hour 25,26
  • Beta-Alanine
    • Most likely beneficial in high-intensity exercise, strength training, and weight lifting, where anaerobic metabolism causes a greater degree of muscle acidosis and fatigue 26
    • Insufficient reliable evidence to rate effectiveness 26
    • Possibly safe when used appropriately short-term 26
  • HMB
    • Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB): metabolite of essential amino acid leucine
    • May be responsible for the well-known anticatabolic actions of leucine 27
    • May protect against muscle damage or improve muscle repair 27
    • May maintain muscle cell integrity during periods of stress 27
  • HMB and Untrained Subjects
    • 1.5 to 3 g/day increased fat-free mass and strength in a dose dependent manner – not statistically significant 27
    • Significantly decreased exercise-induced rise in muscle proteolysis 27
    • Significantly increased fat-free mass by 0.28% and strength by 1.4% per week 28
    • May have greater effects on lean body mass and muscle strength when combined with creatine 29
  • HMB and Athletes
    • No effect on muscular strength or body composition in college football players 30
    • No effect on fat-free mass, strength, or catabolism in resistance trained males 31
    • HMB may increase muscle mass and strength in untrained individuals but not athletes
  • Glutamine
    • Major fuel for cells of immune system and gut
    • Conditionally essential during metabolic stress, critical illness
    • Claims:
      • reduces muscle catabolism
      • promotes tissue repair
      • increases muscle cell volume
      • reduces infections 32
  • Glutamine and Athletes
    • Benefits for preventing illness not well-established 33
    • 0.9 g glutamine/kg/day for 6 weeks: no effect on body composition, catabolism, or performance 34
    • Adequate calorie, protein, and CHO intake:
      • maintain normal glutamine status
      • boost immunity
      • stimulate muscle synthesis
  • Caffeine
    • May improve performance during: 35
      • short-term intense aerobic exercise
      • prolonged endurance exercise
    • No effect on sprint exercise lasting less than 90 seconds 35
    • Ergogenic effect best explained by caffeine’s role as a CNS stimulant 35
  • Caffeine
    • Does not increase risk of dehydration 36
    • Usual dose: 3-6 mg caffeine/kg 1 hour before exercise; benefits may occur at lower doses 37
    • Coffee not an ideal source due to: 35
      • variable caffeine content
      • presence of other chemicals that may impair performance
    • Most research studies have used pure caffeine 35
  • Caffeine
    • Since ephedra ban, caffeine content of many energy drinks and supplements has risen
    • Products may contain synthetic and/or herbal caffeine (guarana, kola nut, mate)
  • Caffeine Adverse Effects
    • Tremors, palpitations, headache, disrupted sleep 35
    • Increases action of other stimulants 38
    • Combination of citrus aurantium and caffeine has significant cardiovascular stimulant actions that are similar to ephedra 38
    • Determine dose that elicits greatest benefits and least adverse effects 35
  • Supplements and Doping
    • Some supplements contain prohibited substances (anabolic steroids and their pro-hormones; ephedrine) not declared on label 39
    • Contamination due to poor manufacturing practices or deliberate adulteration 39
    • Strict liability applies: innocent ingestion of a prohibited substance is not an acceptable excuse 39
    • Athletes who test positive are liable to penalties (loss of medals and eligibility to compete) 39
  • Country # of Products # of Positives % of Positives Netherlands 31 8 25.8 % Austria 22 5 22.7 % UK 37 7 18.9 % USA 240 45 18.8 % Italy 35 5 14.3 % Spain 29 4 13.8 % Germany 129 15 11.6 % Belgium 30 2 6.7 % France 30 2 6.7 % Norway 30 1 3.3 % Switzerland 13 - - Sweden 6 - - Hungary 2 - - Total 634 94 14.8 % Analysis of Non-Hormonal Nutritional Supplements for Anabolic Steroids 40
  • Informed-Choice Study
    • 58 supplements purchased from popular retail outlets and internet sites in US: 41
    • 25% (13) contained small amounts of steroids
    • 11.5% (6) contained banned stimulants
    • Highest incidence of contamination in “testosterone boosters” – 67% of products
    • 2nd highest incidence in “weight loss” category – 29% of products
    • 3 rd highest incidence in “muscle building” category – 24% of products
  • Safety and Effectiveness
    • “ First, do no harm” (Hippocratic Oath)
    • Is purported action of supplement biologically plausible?
    • If product is unfamiliar, visit websites that sell supplement to determine ingredients and supposed method of action
    • Meticulously examine quality and quantity of studies that support the supplement’s safety and effectiveness
  • Internet Resources
    • National Library of Medicine database: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed
    • Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database: www.naturaldatabase.com
    • ConsumerLab: www.consumerlab.com
    • Natural Products Encyclopedia by EBSCO: www.alleghanyregional.com/healthcontent. asp?page=/choice/demonstration/TheNaturalPharmacist-Consumer
    • Dietary Supplement Information Bureau: www.supplementinfo.org
  • Doping Concerns
    • Will supplement cause individual to test positive for a prohibited substance?
    • NSF International: www.nsf.org:
      • National Football League and National Football League Players Association (NFLPA) supplement certification
    • ConsumerLab: www.consumerlab.com
      • Athletic Banned Substances Screening Program
    • Informed-Choice: www.informed-choice.org
  • Quality Concerns
    • Products eligible for ConsumerLab seal of approval:
      • www.consumerlab.com
    • Products that have USP (United States Pharmacopeia) on the supplement label:
      • www.usp.org
    • Products that are NSF certified:
      • www.nsf.org
  • Nutrient Timing
  • Pre-Exercise Meal
    • Restores liver glycogen and raises blood glucose after overnight fast 42
    • Improves performance by 12.5-15% compared to fasted state 43,44
    • Recommendations:
      • carbohydrate-rich foods and fluids
      • small amount of high-quality protein
      • reduce size of meal close to exercise (e.g. 1 g of carbohydrate/kg one hour before; larger meal two to three hours before)
  • Recovery Nutrition
    • Effective refueling strategies optimize recovery and promote desired training adaptations 45
    • Recommendations:
    • 0 to 4 hours after glycogen- depleting exercise:
      • 1 g of carbohydrate/kg/hr 45-47
      • Start feeding immediately after exercise 45-47
  • Recovery Nutrition
    • 10 to 20 g high quality protein (6-10 g EAA) promotes net muscle protein balance, muscle tissue repair, and synthesis of new proteins 45
    • Recovery meals/snacks count towards total protein requirements of 1.2-1.7 g/kg and daily carbohydrate requirements of 5-12 g/kg 45
  • Nutrient Timing for Skeletal Muscle Growth
    • Muscle protein synthesis must exceed muscle protein degradation 48
    • Most potent initiators: combination of resistance exercise and availability of amino acids 48
    • Carbohydrate reduces muscle protein degradation 49
  • Nutrient Timing: 24 Hours
    • Drink provided 35 g carbohydrate and 6 g essential amino acids 50
    • Subjects consumed drink immediately before or after resistance training
    • Blood amino acid (phenylalanine) levels significantly increased 130% in both trials
  • Muscle Protein Gain
    • Greater delivery of amino acids to leg when drink consumed pre-exercise versus post-exercise 50
  • Amino Acid Delivery
    • Percentage of phenylalanine update into the leg greater when drink consumed pre-exercise versus post-exercise 50
  • Nutrient Timing: 10 Weeks
    • Supplement (protein, creatine, and glucose) consumed immediately before and after strength training or morning and late evening 51
    • Consuming supplement immediately before and after exercise significantly increased:
      • Lean body mass
      • 1 RM strength
      • Type II muscle fiber area
  • Practical Application
    • Eat meal or snack 1 hour before resistance training and within 30 minutes after
      • Protein – increases muscle protein synthesis
      • Carbohydrate – decreases muscle protein degradation
    • Consume adequate calories, carbohydrate and protein throughout day to maintain anabolic state
  • When evaluating supplements, try to keep an open mind, but not so open that your brain falls out Thank you! [email_address]
  • References
    • 1) Sports nutrition: a practice manual for professionals. 4 th ed. Marie Dunford editor. American Dietetic Association, 2006
    • 2) Volek JS, Rawson ES. Nutrition 20:609-614, 2004
    • 3) Bemben MG, Lamont HS. Sports Med.35:107-125, 2005
    • 4) Schilling BK et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 33:183-188, 2001
    • 5) Kreider RB. Mol Cell Biochem. 244:89-94, 2003
    • 6) Willoughby DS, Rosene J. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 33:1674-1681, 2001
    • 7) Kreider RB et al.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 30:73-82,1998
    • 8) Ziegenfuss TN et al. Nutrition.18:397-402, 2002
    • 9) Evans RW et al. J Nutr Biochem. 15:534-539, 2004
  • References
    • 10) Campbell B et al. Nutrition.22:872-881, 2006
    • 11) Oka RK et al. Vasc Med. 10:265-274, 2005
    • 12) Little JP et al. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 18: 493-508, 2008.
    • 13) Hambrecht R et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 35:706-713, 2000
    • 14) Maxwell AJ et al. Vasc Med. 5:11-19, 2000
    • 15) Bednarz B et al. Int J Cardiol.75:205-210, 2000
    • 15) Caffarelli C et al Clin Exp Allergy. 32:74-79, 2002
    • 16) Lands LC et al. J Appl Physiol. 87:1381-1385, 1999
    • 17) Cribb PJ et al. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 16:494-509, 2006
  • References
    • 18) Candow DG et al Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 16:233-424, 2006
    • 19) Tipton KD et al Med Sci Sports Exerc. 36:2073-2081, 2004
    • 20) Burke DG et al. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 11:349-64, 2001
    • 21) Stout J et al. Amino acids. 32:381-6, 2007
    • 22) Hill CA et al. Amino acids. 32:225-33, 2007
    • 23) Derave W et al. J Appl Phsyiol. 103:1736-43, 2007
    • 24) Hoffman J et al. Int J Sports Med. 29:952-8, 2008
    • 25) Harris RC. Amino Acids. 30:279-289, 2006
    • 26) Beta-alanine monograph: www.naturaldatabase.com
    • 27) Nissen S et al. J Appl Physiol. 81: 2095-2014,1996
    • 28) Nissen S, Sharp. J Appl Physiol. 94:651-9, 2003
  • References 29) Jowko E et al. Nutrition. 2001; 17:558-66 30) Ransone J et al. J Strength Cond Res. 17:34-9, 2003 31) Kreider R et al. Int J Sports Med. 20:503-9, 1999 32) Castell LM et al. Eur J Appl Phys. 7388-490, 1996 33) Castell LM et al.Eur J Appl Phys , 75:47-53, 1997 34) Candow DG et al. Euro J Appl Physiol. 86:142-9, 2001 35) Burke L et al. Supplements and sports foods. Clinical Sports Nutrition. 3 rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Australia, 2006 36) Armstrong L et al. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 15:252-65, 2005
  • References 37) Cox G et al. J Appl Physiol. 93:990-9, 2002 38) Haller C et al. Am J Med.118:998-1003, 2005 39) Maughan R. J Sports Sci. 23:883-889, 2005 40) Geyer H et al. Int J Sports Med. 25:124-129, 2004 41) www.informed-choice.org 42) Burke L et al. Preparation for competition. Clinical Sports Nutrition. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Australia, 2006 43) Sherman W et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 54:866-870, 1991 44) Sherman W et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc.12:598-604,1989 45) Burke L et al. Nutrition for recovery after training and competition. Clinical Sports Nutrition. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Australia, 2006
  • References
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    • 47) Ivy J et al. J Appl Physiol. 65: 2018-2023, 1988
    • 48) Tipton K, Wolfe R. Int J Sports Nutr 11:109-128, 2001
    • 49) Tarnolpolsky M. Protein and amino acid needs for bulking up. Clinical Sports Nutrition. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Australia, 2006
    • 50) Tiption et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 281: E197-206, 2001
    • 51) Cribb P et al. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 38:1918-1925, 2006