. Sunday, March 30, 2014
ROUTING IPv6 v3.0
With Cisco and Quagga PC based
Routers using GNS3, Cisco IOS, PC,
freeBSD, Quag...
. Sunday, March 30, 2014
Table of Contents
1.Lab Setup.......................................................................
. Sunday, March 30, 2014
R9-ISP1 BGP Configuration...........................................................................
. Sunday, March 30, 2014
Check IS-IS neighbors...............................................................................
. Sunday, March 30, 2014
ISP2-R8.............................................................................................
. Sunday, March 30, 2014
Illustration Index
Illustration 1: Lab Setup........................................................
1.Lab Setup. Sunday, March 30, 2014
1. Lab Setup
The Lab runs OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 it is dual-stacked in Area 0 except R5 whi...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
main changes:
1.2. instances
For example, it is possible to run multiple, up to 16 ...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
1.4. Database Changes
Two New LSAs
• One new LSA...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
  Link State ID: 6 (Interface ID)
  Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3
  LS Seq Number: 8...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
• One Intra-Area Prefixes LSA.
The Router LSA does not provide any Prefix informati...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
Two LSAs have a new name
The ABR Summary LSA (Type 3) is now an Inter-Area Prefixes...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
    Area BACKBONE(0)
        Number of interfaces in this area is 6
        SPF alg...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
2. OSPF Basic Troubleshooting
© Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 14
Illustration...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
2.1 Cisco Logging Debug
debug ipv6 ospf adjacency output of a session restarting af...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
neighbors. The same command exist with ipv6 instead of ip which is for IPv4.
R3>sh ...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
    Neighbor: interface­id 15, link­local address FE80::C806:7CFF:FEFB:8
    Neighb...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
On a LAN interface, you only need to be adjacent with the Designated Router or DR a...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
On a Point-to-Point we must be adjacent with all the neighbors.
On a Multipoint we ...
2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014
  Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2
  LS Seq Number: 80000001
  Checksum: 0x2DAE
  Lengt...
3.OSPFv3 Architectures. Sunday, March 30, 2014
      Neighbor (DR) Interface ID: 6
      Neighbor (DR) Router ID: 10.0.0.4...
3.OSPFv3 Architectures. Sunday, March 30, 2014
        Attached Router: 10.0.0.4
        Attached Router: 10.0.0.3
The ABR...
3.OSPFv3 Architectures. Sunday, March 30, 2014
  Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1001::
  Prefix Length: 64, Options: None
  ...
3.OSPFv3 Architectures. Sunday, March 30, 2014
  LS Seq Number: 80000002
  Checksum: 0x6E70
  Length: 32
  Metric: 1 
  De...
4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014
4. Type of Area
The same types of Area exist in OSPFv3 from OSPFv2.
Regular Area re...
4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014
4.1 Stub Area
Then you got the Stub area which filter the External Routes related L...
4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014
R7#show ipv6 route
IPv6 Routing Table ­ Default ­ 20 entries
Codes: C ­ Connected, ...
4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014
This is the Inter Area Prefix generated by the ABR for the default route:
R8>sh ipv...
4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014
IPv6 route of a Totally Stubby Area Router
R8>show ipv6 route
IPv6 Routing Table ­ ...
4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014
     via FE80::C802:CFF:FEF0:70, GigabitEthernet1/0
C   2001:DB8:678:8200::/64 [0/0...
4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014
R8#conf t
R8(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1
R8(config­rtr)#no area 8 stub
R8(config­rtr...
A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014
A. Router Configurations
see http://www.ipv6forlife.com/Tutorial/labDS/
R...
A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014
 encapsulation dot1Q 2
 ip address 10.0.2.1 255.255.255.0
 ipv6 address 2...
A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014
R2
!
!
upgrade fpd auto
version 12.4
service timestamps debug datetime ms...
A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014
!
interface GigabitEthernet1/0.3
 encapsulation dot1Q 3
 ip address 10.0....
A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014
R3
upgrade fpd auto
version 12.4
service timestamps debug datetime msec
s...
A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014
!
interface GigabitEthernet1/0
 ip address 10.0.100.13 255.255.255.252
 n...
A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014
version 12.4
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps lo...
A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014
 glbp 22 ipv6 autoconfig
!
interface GigabitEthernet1/0
 ip address 10.0....
B. GLBP. Sunday, March 30, 2014
B. GLBP
GLBP enable more redundancy and load-balancing as up to 4 Forwarders can be active...
B. GLBP. Sunday, March 30, 2014
  Virtual IP address is FE80::7:B4FF:FE00:C00 (auto­configured)
  Hello time 3 sec, hold t...
C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014
C. BGP Connection
BGP Lab Topology
A new Neighbor has been added to simulate ano...
C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014
Usually we choose the Route Reflectors out of the forwarding path to act as rout...
C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014
R3#show bgp ipv6 unicast 2001:DB8:678:AB2::/64
BGP routing table entry for 2001:...
C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014
On R2
router bgp 100
 bgp log­neighbor­changes
 neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1000::5 re...
C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014
On R6
router bgp 64000
 no synchronization
 bgp log­neighbor­changes
 neighbor 2...
C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014
© Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 47
C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014
ROUTING IPv6
MP-BGPv6
Version 1.1
Routing IPv6 Part 2
http://www.ipv6forlife.com...
5.Introduction to MP-BGP lab. Sunday, March 30, 2014
5. Introduction to MP-BGP lab
http://www.ipv6forlife.com/Tutorial/lab...
6.Lab Setup. Sunday, March 30, 2014
6. Lab Setup
© Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 50
Illustration 8: OSPFv2, OSPFv3 a...
7.Lab BGP Configuration. Sunday, March 30, 2014
7. Lab BGP Configuration
7.1 Summary
For R6, IPv6 eBGP Session uses the in...
7.Lab BGP Configuration. Sunday, March 30, 2014
 set ipv6 next­hop 2001:DB8:678:C000::6
!         
R8-ISP2 BGP Configurati...
7.Lab BGP Configuration. Sunday, March 30, 2014
R7 BGP Configuration
router bgp 100
 bgp log­neighbor­changes
 neighbor 10...
7.Lab BGP Configuration. Sunday, March 30, 2014
  redistribute static
  no synchronization
 exit­address­family
!
ip route...
8.BGP Reminder. Sunday, March 30, 2014
For IPv6, the UPDATES send the IPv6 Prefixes in MP_REACH_NLRI or MP_UNREACH_NLRI.
N...
8.BGP Reminder. Sunday, March 30, 2014
There are two possible neighbor relationship with BGP: eBGP and iBGP.
8.2 eBGP Sess...
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A huge 4 parts lab to learn the path for a smooth transition.
This is volume one about Dual-Stack
The Volume 2 will be about Tunneling

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Routing ipv6 v3

  1. 1. . Sunday, March 30, 2014 ROUTING IPv6 v3.0 With Cisco and Quagga PC based Routers using GNS3, Cisco IOS, PC, freeBSD, Quagga, pfSense OSPF v2 for IPv4 & OSPF v3 for IPv6 Version 1.3 http://www.ipv6forlife.com/Tutorial/labDS/ Part 1 By Fred Bovy. Ccie #3013 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 1
  2. 2. . Sunday, March 30, 2014 Table of Contents 1.Lab Setup................................................................................................................................................7 2.Introduction.............................................................................................................................................7 1.2.instances..........................................................................................................................................8 1.3.Security............................................................................................................................................8 1.4.Database Changes............................................................................................................................9 Two New LSAs.................................................................................................................................9 Two LSAs have a new name..........................................................................................................12 1.5.Router ID.......................................................................................................................................12 2. OSPF Basic Troubleshooting..........................................................................................................14 2.1 Cisco Logging Debug....................................................................................................................15 2.1. OSPF Multicast Addresses...........................................................................................................17 2.2. OSPF Networks Types.................................................................................................................18 3.OSPFv3 Architectures...........................................................................................................................20 4.Type of Area..........................................................................................................................................25 4.1 Stub Area.......................................................................................................................................26 4.2 Totally Stuby Area.........................................................................................................................28 Configuration..................................................................................................................................28 IPv6 route of a Totally Stubby Area Router...................................................................................29 Not So Stubby Area.............................................................................................................................30 Totally Not So Stubby Area.................................................................................................................31 A. Router Configurations.........................................................................................................................32 R1........................................................................................................................................................32 R2........................................................................................................................................................34 R3........................................................................................................................................................36 R4........................................................................................................................................................37 B. GLBP...................................................................................................................................................40 C. BGP Connection..................................................................................................................................42 BGP Lab Topology..............................................................................................................................42 Differences with IPv6..........................................................................................................................43 Some useful commands.......................................................................................................................43 BGP Configuration..............................................................................................................................44 On R3..............................................................................................................................................44 On R2..............................................................................................................................................45 On R5..............................................................................................................................................45 On R6..............................................................................................................................................46 5.Introduction to MP-BGP lab.................................................................................................................49 6.Lab Setup..............................................................................................................................................50 7.Lab BGP Configuration........................................................................................................................51 7.1 Summary.......................................................................................................................................51 7.2 BGP Configuration........................................................................................................................51 R6 BGP Configuration....................................................................................................................51 R8-ISP2 BGP Configuration..........................................................................................................52 R7 BGP Configuration....................................................................................................................53 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 2
  3. 3. . Sunday, March 30, 2014 R9-ISP1 BGP Configuration..........................................................................................................53 8.BGP Reminder......................................................................................................................................54 8.1 BGP Connection Messages and States..........................................................................................54 8.2 eBGP Sessions...............................................................................................................................56 eBGP Multihop...............................................................................................................................56 eBGP Routes dampening. Increasing Stability...............................................................................56 8.3 iBGP Sessions...............................................................................................................................56 Scaling iBGP..................................................................................................................................56 iBGP Stability.................................................................................................................................56 8.4 BGP Attributes...............................................................................................................................56 8.5 BGP Best Path Selection Algorithm..............................................................................................58 8.6 Scaling BGP .................................................................................................................................61 Route-Reflectors.............................................................................................................................61 Peer-Group......................................................................................................................................61 8.7 Security and MD5 Password.........................................................................................................62 9.Useful Cisco BGP IPv6 Commands Explained....................................................................................64 9.1. Show bgp ipv6 unicast summary..................................................................................................64 9.2. Show bgp ipv6 X:X:X...::X/X .....................................................................................................65 9.3. Show bgp ipv6 neighbor...............................................................................................................66 10.Checking data plane of BGP Recursive routes...................................................................................68 10.1 Mind the BGP Next-hop Rule.....................................................................................................68 R6 Configuration............................................................................................................................68 R7 Configuration............................................................................................................................69 10.2 Check the BGP data path on CISCO Routers (CEFv6)..............................................................70 11.Checking Redundancy.........................................................................................................................73 12.Routers Configurations.......................................................................................................................75 12.1 R1................................................................................................................................................75 12.2 R3................................................................................................................................................76 12.3 R4................................................................................................................................................77 12.4 R5 – BGP Route-Reflector..........................................................................................................79 12.5 R6................................................................................................................................................81 12.6 R7................................................................................................................................................82 12.7 R8-ISP2. AS 64000.....................................................................................................................84 12.8 R9-ISP1. AS 65000.....................................................................................................................85 13.Why a Migration to IS-IS?..................................................................................................................90 14.IS-IS Reminder...................................................................................................................................91 14.1 Introduction and history..............................................................................................................91 14.2 IS-IS Architecture........................................................................................................................92 14.3 Security........................................................................................................................................92 14.4 Neighbor Discovery....................................................................................................................92 14.5 Multipoint Networks...................................................................................................................92 14.6 Point to Point Networks..............................................................................................................94 15.Migration Steps...................................................................................................................................94 15.1. Backbone Configuration.............................................................................................................94 15.2 Verification that ISIS is running OK...........................................................................................94 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 3
  4. 4. . Sunday, March 30, 2014 Check IS-IS neighbors....................................................................................................................94 Check that all IS-IS are Up from the database...............................................................................95 Remove OSPF for IPv4 and check the IPv4 Routing table............................................................96 Check the Router data plane (CEF and CEFv6) ............................................................................98 Troubleshoot a bug with an Incomplete Adjacency. ......................................................................98 Remove OSPFv3 for IPv6 and check the RIBv6..........................................................................100 15.3. Backbone Migration strategies.................................................................................................101 16.ISIS Troubleshooting........................................................................................................................101 16.1 Optimization for GigabitEthernet P2P......................................................................................103 16.2 MP-BGP Checking....................................................................................................................105 Address-family IPv4.....................................................................................................................105 Address-family IPv6.....................................................................................................................107 17.Moving to Multiarea in the first Area................................................................................................111 17.1 Migration to Multiarea Procedure.............................................................................................111 17.2 IS-IS Multiarea Configuration...................................................................................................112 Configuring Multiarea on R1-R6-R5............................................................................................112 R1 Configuration......................................................................................................................112 R5 Configuration......................................................................................................................114 R6 Configuration......................................................................................................................116 18.Checking configuration ................................................................................................................117 18.1 Checking R5-R6-R1..................................................................................................................117 show clns neighbors......................................................................................................................117 Show ipv6 route ...........................................................................................................................118 Display R1 and R5 LSPs on R6....................................................................................................119 18.2 Configuring Multiarea on R3-R7-R4........................................................................................120 Configure Route Leaking for Loopbacks.....................................................................................121 19.Checking the migration.....................................................................................................................122 19.1 Check IS-IS...............................................................................................................................122 19.2 show ip route.............................................................................................................................122 19.2 show bgp connection to the RR.................................................................................................122 19.3 Checking IS-IS..........................................................................................................................123 19.4 Troubleshooting a bug...............................................................................................................123 19.4 Check BGP Resiliency..............................................................................................................125 19.5 Inspect IS-IS Database..............................................................................................................126 Level 1 Databases.........................................................................................................................126 Level 2 Database...........................................................................................................................128 19.6 Check the BGP Routers Resiliency ........................................................................................130 20.Multiarea final Configurations..........................................................................................................131 20.1 R6..............................................................................................................................................131 20.2 R1..............................................................................................................................................133 20.3 R5..............................................................................................................................................134 20.4 R3..............................................................................................................................................136 20.5 R4..............................................................................................................................................138 20.6 R7..............................................................................................................................................140 20.7 The ISP Routers R9 and R8 Configs.........................................................................................141 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 4
  5. 5. . Sunday, March 30, 2014 ISP2-R8........................................................................................................................................141 ISP1-R9........................................................................................................................................142 21.What is Quagga?...............................................................................................................................146 22.Quagga Configurations.....................................................................................................................147 /usr/local/etc/quagga/zebra.conf...................................................................................................148 Telnet to the Zebra daemon..........................................................................................................149 Check IP route .............................................................................................................................149 Check IPv6 Route.........................................................................................................................151 23.Quagga IS-IS Configuration.............................................................................................................151 IS-IS Configuration file................................................................................................................151 Telnet to IS-IS daemon.................................................................................................................153 Two Quagga installed...................................................................................................................158 From R1...................................................................................................................................158 From R1 all IS-IS Neighbors...................................................................................................159 24.Quagga BGP Configuration..............................................................................................................160 BGP Configuration file.................................................................................................................160 Telnet to the BGP daemon............................................................................................................161 25.Verifying the Routing is OK.............................................................................................................162 26.pfSense..............................................................................................................................................166 27.Final Configurations.........................................................................................................................167 27.1 The Core Level-1-2 Routers......................................................................................................167 R1..................................................................................................................................................167 R3..................................................................................................................................................169 R4..................................................................................................................................................171 R5..................................................................................................................................................172 26.2 The Customer Edge Level-1 Routers........................................................................................175 R6..................................................................................................................................................175 R7..................................................................................................................................................176 No change on ISP R8 and R9 see previous configurations..........................................................178 26.3 Quagga Configurations..............................................................................................................178 Quagga1 configuration files from /usr/local/etc/quagga/.............................................................178 Zebra config ...........................................................................................................................178 ISIS config...............................................................................................................................179 BGP Config..............................................................................................................................179 Quagga2 configuration files from /usr/local/etc/quagga/.............................................................180 Zebra Configuration.................................................................................................................180 ISIS Config..............................................................................................................................181 BGP Config..............................................................................................................................182 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 5
  6. 6. . Sunday, March 30, 2014 Illustration Index Illustration 1: Lab Setup.............................................................................................................................7 Illustration 2: OSPF Troubleshooting......................................................................................................14 Illustration 3: OSPF Network Types........................................................................................................19 Illustration 4: OSPF Regular Area...........................................................................................................25 Illustration 5: OSPF Stub Area.................................................................................................................26 Illustration 6: OSPF Totally Stubby Area................................................................................................29 Illustration 7: BGP Topology...................................................................................................................42 Illustration 8: OSPFv2, OSPFv3 and MP-BGP Setup.............................................................................50 Illustration 9: Show bgp ipv6 unicast xxxx:xxx...::/y Explained.............................................................65 Illustration 10: Final Lab Setup..............................................................................................................90 Illustration 11: IS-IS Architecture............................................................................................................91 Illustration 12: IS-IS 2 levels of Routing.................................................................................................92 Illustration 13: IS-IS Multiarea..............................................................................................................111 Illustration 14: Final Setup free9/Quagga and others PCs.....................................................................147 Illustration 15: My Working Station with GNS3 and Wireshark windows............................................151 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 6
  7. 7. 1.Lab Setup. Sunday, March 30, 2014 1. Lab Setup The Lab runs OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 it is dual-stacked in Area 0 except R5 which is in Area1. Linux machines can ping each other. We have 3 VLANs and at least one PC in each VLAN. The Left hand side uses only one but I configured two VLANs. I have also configured GLBP for IPv41 and IPv6. Configuration are available at the end of this document and on my web site with GNS3 files to copy it: http://www.ipv6forlife.com/Tutorial/labDS/ 2. Introduction Like IPv6 brought many improvements over IPv4, OSPFv3 also advertise them in the Routing Protocol. OSPFv3 is now fully optimized for IPv6 and adds new features. To summarize for those who don't have time to read more than one page here are the 1 There is a bug in my IOS and the GLBP configured for IPv4 is converted to IPv6 in the running-config. © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 7 Illustration 1: Lab Setup
  8. 8. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014 main changes: 1.2. instances For example, it is possible to run multiple, up to 16 instances of OSPFv3 which do not see each other on the same VLAN. This can be very useful if many customers share a link at some point of the network. The instance number is coded in the Hello so two routers will not form a neighbor relationship if not in the same instance. 1.3. Security As IPv6 should be provided with IPSec, the Authentication has been removed from OSPFv3 and is now supposed to be done by IPSec stack. Cisco has released Authentication and even Encryption of OSPFv3 traffic thanks to IPSec. IPSec is better than MD5 for Authentication as it changes the encryption key on a regular time basis and exchange it safely over the unsafe network thanks to Diffie-Helmann. Otherwise if you can capture enough traffic you can break the key and nobody will change them manually! Example on Cisco Router Interface between R2 and R5: ipv6 ospf encryption ipsec spi 1001 esp 3des  012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567 sha1  0123456789012345678901234567890123456789 R5#show ipv6 ospf interface g0/0 GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up    Link Local Address FE80::C807:7CFF:FEFB:8, Interface ID 5   Area 1, Process ID 1, Instance ID 0, Router ID 192.168.100.5   Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1   3DES encryption SHA­1 auth SPI 1001, secure socket UP (errors: 0)   Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1    Designated Router (ID) 192.168.100.5, local address FE80::C807:7CFF:FEFB:8   Backup Designated router (ID) 10.0.0.2, local address FE80::C803:7CFF:FEFB:A8   Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5     Hello due in 00:00:05   Index 1/1/1, flood queue length 0   Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)   Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 3   Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec   Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1      Adjacent with neighbor 10.0.0.2  (Backup Designated Router) © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 8
  9. 9. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014   Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 1.4. Database Changes Two New LSAs • One new LSA to advertise on the Link Only the Router Link-Local Address. R3>show ipv6 ospf database link adv­router 10.0.0.3             OSPFv3 Router with ID (10.0.0.3) (Process ID 1)                 Link (Type­8) Link States (Area 0)   LS age: 1351   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Link­LSA (Interface: GigabitEthernet0/0.2)   Link State ID: 15 (Interface ID)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   LS Seq Number: 8000000C   Checksum: 0x5207   Length: 56   Router Priority: 1   Link Local Address: FE80::C805:7CFF:FEFB:8   Number of Prefixes: 1   Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1006::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None   LS age: 1351   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Link­LSA (Interface: GigabitEthernet0/0.1)   Link State ID: 14 (Interface ID)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   LS Seq Number: 8000000C   Checksum: 0x3625   Length: 56   Router Priority: 1   Link Local Address: FE80::C805:7CFF:FEFB:8   Number of Prefixes: 1   Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1005::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None   LS age: 109   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Link­LSA (Interface: GigabitEthernet1/0) © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 9
  10. 10. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014   Link State ID: 6 (Interface ID)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   LS Seq Number: 8000000D   Checksum: 0x35E0   Length: 44   Router Priority: 1   Link Local Address: FE80::C805:7CFF:FEFB:1C   Number of Prefixes: 0   LS age: 109   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Link­LSA (Interface: GigabitEthernet2/0)   Link State ID: 7 (Interface ID)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   LS Seq Number: 8000000D   Checksum: 0x9563   Length: 44   Router Priority: 1   Link Local Address: FE80::C805:7CFF:FEFB:38   Number of Prefixes: 0   LS age: 110   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Link­LSA (Interface: GigabitEthernet3/0)   Link State ID: 8 (Interface ID)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   LS Seq Number: 8000000D   Checksum: 0xF5E5   Length: 44   Router Priority: 1   Link Local Address: FE80::C805:7CFF:FEFB:54   Number of Prefixes: 0 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 10
  11. 11. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014 • One Intra-Area Prefixes LSA. The Router LSA does not provide any Prefix information anymore, only topological information! So we got a LSA dedicated to advertise prefixes and a LSA to advertise topology like who are our neighbors and the status of our links. It is easier than before to figure out as we do not need to use tricks to advertise a subnet mask of a point-to-point Network like before.         R3>shOW ipv6 ospf database prefix adv­router 10.0.0.3             OSPFv3 Router with ID (10.0.0.3) (Process ID 1)                 Intra Area Prefix Link States (Area 0)   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 1686   LS Type: Intra­Area­Prefix­LSA   Link State ID: 14336   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   LS Seq Number: 8000000C   Checksum: 0x726D   Length: 44   Referenced LSA Type: 2002   Referenced Link State ID: 14   Referenced Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   Number of Prefixes: 1   Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1005::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None, Metric: 0   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 1686   LS Type: Intra­Area­Prefix­LSA   Link State ID: 15360   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   LS Seq Number: 8000000C   Checksum: 0x6A6F   Length: 44   Referenced LSA Type: 2002   Referenced Link State ID: 15   Referenced Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   Number of Prefixes: 1   Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1006::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None, Metric: 0 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 11
  12. 12. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014 Two LSAs have a new name The ABR Summary LSA (Type 3) is now an Inter-Area Prefixes LSA and the Type 4 Summary-LSA became Inter-Area-Router-LSAs R5#show ipv6 ospf database inter­area router              OSPFv3 Router with ID (192.168.100.5) (Process ID 1)                 Inter Area Router Link States (Area 1)   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 61   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Inter Area Router Links   Link State ID: 167772163   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2   LS Seq Number: 80000001   Checksum: 0x706F   Length: 32   Metric: 1    Destination Router ID: 10.0.0.3 1.5. Router ID No change with OSPFv2. You still need a Router ID in IPv4 format. The best recommendation is still to configure a loopback 0 interface with an IPv4 Interface. It will be used by many protocols like BGP. So even for an IPv6 Only Router, configure a loopback with a /32 IP address. Eventually you can also configure a /128 IPv6 Address for Router management. R2>show ipv6 ospf  Routing Process "ospfv3 1" with ID 10.0.0.2  It is an area border and autonomous system boundary router  Redistributing External Routes from,     static with metric 5  SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs  Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs  LSA group pacing timer 240 secs  Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs  Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs  Number of external LSA 2. Checksum Sum 0x00F2FA  Number of areas in this router is 2. 2 normal 0 stub 0 nssa  Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 12
  13. 13. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014     Area BACKBONE(0)         Number of interfaces in this area is 6         SPF algorithm executed 804 times         Number of LSA 20. Checksum Sum 0x0AD206         Number of DCbitless LSA 0         Number of indication LSA 0         Number of DoNotAge LSA 0         Flood list length 0     Area 1         Number of interfaces in this area is 1         SPF algorithm executed 4 times         Number of LSA 12. Checksum Sum 0x063391         Number of DCbitless LSA 0         Number of indication LSA 0         Number of DoNotAge LSA 0         Flood list length 0 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 13
  14. 14. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014 2. OSPF Basic Troubleshooting © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 14 Illustration 2: OSPF Troubleshooting
  15. 15. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014 2.1 Cisco Logging Debug debug ipv6 ospf adjacency output of a session restarting after IPSec configuration *Mar 14 18:54:09.919: OSPFv3: Rcv DBD from 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0 seq 0x534 opt 0x0013 flag 0x7  len 28  mtu 1500 state INIT *Mar 14 18:54:09.919: OSPFv3: 2 Way Communication to 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0, state 2WAY *Mar 14 18:54:09.919: OSPFv3: Neighbor change Event on interface GigabitEthernet0/0 *Mar 14 18:54:09.919: OSPFv3: DR/BDR election on GigabitEthernet0/0  *Mar 14 18:54:09.919: OSPFv3: Elect BDR 0.0.0.0 *Mar 14 18:54:09.919: OSPFv3: Elect DR 192.168.100.5 *Mar 14 18:54:09.919:        DR: 192.168.100.5 (Id)   BDR: none  *Mar 14 18:54:09.919: OSPFv3: GigabitEthernet0/0 Nbr 10.0.0.2: Prepare dbase exchange *Mar 14 18:54:09.919: OSPFv3: Send DBD to 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0 seq 0x112D opt 0x0013 flag 0x7  len 28 *Mar 14 18:54:09.923: OSPFv3: First DBD and we are not SLAVE *Mar 14 18:54:09.931: OSPFv3: Neighbor change Event on interface GigabitEthernet0/0 *Mar 14 18:54:09.931: OSPFv3: DR/BDR election on GigabitEthernet0/0  *Mar 14 18:54:09.931: OSPFv3: Elect BDR 10.0.0.2 *Mar 14 18:54:09.931: OSPFv3: Elect DR 192.168.100.5 *Mar 14 18:54:09.931:        DR: 192.168.100.5 (Id)   BDR: 10.0.0.2 (Id) *Mar 14 18:54:09.939: OSPFv3: Rcv DBD from 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0 seq 0x112D opt 0x0013 flag  0x2 len 328  mtu 1500 state EXSTART *Mar 14 18:54:09.939: OSPFv3: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the MASTER *Mar 14 18:54:09.939: OSPFv3: GigabitEthernet0/0 Nbr 10.0.0.2: Summary list built, size 13 *Mar 14 18:54:09.939: OSPFv3: Send DBD to 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0 seq 0x112E opt 0x0013 flag 0x1  len 288 *Mar 14 18:54:09.959: OSPFv3: Rcv LS REQ from 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0 length 40 LSA count 2 *Mar 14 18:54:09.959: OSPFv3: Send UPD to FE80::C803:7CFF:FEFB:A8 on GigabitEthernet0/0 length 72 LSA  count 2 *Mar 14 18:54:09.971: OSPFv3: Rcv DBD from 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0 seq 0x112E opt 0x0013 flag  0x0 len 28  mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE *Mar 14 18:54:09.971: OSPFv3: Exchange Done with 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0 *Mar 14 18:54:09.971: OSPFv3: Send LS REQ to 10.0.0.2 length 156 LSA count 13 *Mar 14 18:54:09.991: OSPFv3: Rcv LS UPD from 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0 length 496 LSA count 13 *Mar 14 18:54:09.991: OSPFv3: Synchronized with 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0, state FULL *Mar 14 18:54:09.991: %OSPFv3­5­ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 10.0.0.2 on GigabitEthernet0/0 from LOADING to  FULL, Loading Done *Mar 14 18:54:09.991: OSPFv3: GigabitEthernet0/0 Nbr 10.0.0.2: Clean­up dbase exchange You first need to be neighbor which means that you've got a bi-directional communication. You know it because you see your Router ID in the Hello sent by your Neighbor. So the first commands you need are show ip ospf interface and show ip ospf  © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 15
  16. 16. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014 neighbors. The same command exist with ipv6 instead of ip which is for IPv4. R3>sh ip ospf neighbor         Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface 10.0.0.4          1   FULL/BDR        00:00:39    10.0.6.2        GigabitEthernet0/0.2 10.0.0.4          1   FULL/BDR        00:00:39    10.0.5.2        GigabitEthernet0/0.1 10.0.0.4          1   FULL/DR         00:00:34    10.0.100.14     GigabitEthernet1/0 10.0.0.2          1   FULL/BDR        00:00:33    10.0.100.6      GigabitEthernet3/0 R3>show ip ospf neighbor detail   Neighbor 10.0.0.4, interface address 10.0.6.2    In the area 0 via interface GigabitEthernet0/0.2     Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes     DR is 10.0.6.1 BDR is 10.0.6.2     Options is 0x12 in Hello (E­bit, L­bit)     Options is 0x52 in DBD (E­bit, L­bit, O­bit)     LLS Options is 0x1 (LR)     Dead timer due in 00:00:39     Neighbor is up for 06:50:25     Index 5/5, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 0     First 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)     Last retransmission scan length is 0, maximum is 0     Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec R3>show ipv6 ospf interface g0/0.1     GigabitEthernet0/0.1 is up, line protocol is up    Link Local Address FE80::C805:7CFF:FEFB:8, Interface ID 14   Area 0, Process ID 1, Instance ID 0, Router ID 10.0.0.3   Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1   Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1    Designated Router (ID) 10.0.0.3, local address FE80::C805:7CFF:FEFB:8   Backup Designated router (ID) 10.0.0.4, local address FE80::C806:7CFF:FEFB:8   Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5     Hello due in 00:00:06   Index 1/4/4, flood queue length 0   Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)   Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 7   Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec   Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1      Adjacent with neighbor 10.0.0.4  (Backup Designated Router)   Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) R3>show ipv6 ospf neighbor  Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Interface ID    Interface 10.0.0.4          1   FULL/BDR        00:00:31    15              GigabitEthernet0/0.2 10.0.0.4          1   FULL/BDR        00:00:32    14              GigabitEthernet0/0.1 10.0.0.4          1   FULL/BDR        00:00:34    6               GigabitEthernet1/0 10.0.0.2          1   FULL/BDR        00:00:32    8               GigabitEthernet3/0 R3>show ipv6 ospf neighbor detail  Neighbor 10.0.0.4     In the area 0 via interface GigabitEthernet0/0.2  © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 16
  17. 17. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014     Neighbor: interface­id 15, link­local address FE80::C806:7CFF:FEFB:8     Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes     DR is 10.0.0.3 BDR is 10.0.0.4     Options is 0x000013 in Hello (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit)     Options is 0x000013 in DBD (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit)     Dead timer due in 00:00:36     Neighbor is up for 05:58:34     Index 1/4/4, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 24     First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)     Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 2     Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec  Neighbor 10.0.0.4     In the area 0 via interface GigabitEthernet0/0.1      Neighbor: interface­id 14, link­local address FE80::C806:7CFF:FEFB:8     Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes     DR is 10.0.0.3 BDR is 10.0.0.4     Options is 0x000013 in Hello (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit)     Options is 0x000013 in DBD (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit)     Dead timer due in 00:00:38     Neighbor is up for 05:58:49     Index 1/3/3, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 16     First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)     Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 2     Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec  Neighbor 10.0.0.4     In the area 0 via interface GigabitEthernet1/0      Neighbor: interface­id 6, link­local address FE80::C806:7CFF:FEFB:1C     Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes     DR is 10.0.0.3 BDR is 10.0.0.4     Options is 0x000013 in Hello (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit)     Options is 0x000013 in DBD (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit)     Dead timer due in 00:00:38     Neighbor is up for 06:10:38     Index 1/2/2, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 23     First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)     Last retransmission scan length is 0, maximum is 2     Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec  Neighbor 10.0.0.2     In the area 0 via interface GigabitEthernet3/0      Neighbor: interface­id 8, link­local address FE80::C803:7CFF:FEFB:54     Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 12 state changes     DR is 10.0.0.3 BDR is 10.0.0.2     Options is 0x000013 in Hello (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit)     Options is 0x000013 in DBD (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit)     Dead timer due in 00:00:35     Neighbor is up for 04:20:30     Index 1/1/1, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 7     First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)     Last retransmission scan length is 2, maximum is 5     Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec 2.1. OSPF Multicast Addresses Then you may be Adjacent if you synchronize your database with your neighbor. On a Point-to-Point all the neighbors need to be Adjacent. © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 17
  18. 18. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014 On a LAN interface, you only need to be adjacent with the Designated Router or DR and its Backup or BDR. With the other neighbors of the multipoint network you are Two-Way. On a Multipoint Network you are Adjacent with the DR and the BDR who have got a dedicated multicast address so you can send them a packet without having to duplicate. All OSPF routers use 224.0.0.5 and ff02::5. The DR and BDR have 224.0.0.6 for IPv4 and ff02::6 for IPv6 Multicast Addresses.. OSPF makes a difference between transit Networks and Stub Networks. When the hello is not successful to form a relationship, check the timers .It can often occurs when you mix interface type for instance having a Point-to-point interface in front of a Non-Broadcast interface. LAN interface Timers are 10/40 when WAN interfaces timers are 30/120. The first number is the HELLO interval and the second number is the DEAD interval. Interface with different timers will not form Neighbor relationship and will never be Adjacent. 2.2. OSPF Networks Types Many problems come from the ignorance of the different interface type that OSPF can deal with. The benefit and drawbacks from each. The two basics Network type for OSPF are Point-to-Point and Multipoint. The Multipoint Networks supports Broadcast and Multicast or Not (NBMA). They need a DR and a BDR to optimize the flooding and generates one LSA on the behalf of all nodes instead of repeating the same thing by all nodes. The Point-to-Point have CISCO modes to take the most of any partiaal meshed Architectures easily. This is Point-to-Multipoint and Point-to-Multipoint Non- Broadcast. The default for LAN interface is BROADCAST and for Serial Interface is Non-Broadcast. The Multipoint Interfaces needs a DR, the point-to-point don't. The Gigabit Interfaces are configured as Multipoints Interfaces by OSPF. I recommend if you use your Gig or 10Gig interface as a dedicated p2p between two routers to set them as Point-to-Point, the interface will not wait 40 Seconds before being activated when you do a no shut. Don't do it if the Gig interface is on a VLAN with multiple neighbors. © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 18
  19. 19. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014 On a Point-to-Point we must be adjacent with all the neighbors. On a Multipoint we must be adjacent with the DR and the BDR and two-Way neighbors with the others. When we are adjacent and neighbors with the right routers. We can check the Network LSA for each Multipoint interfaces: Broadcast or NBMA2 . Example: R3#show ipv6 ospf database network adv­router 10.0.0.2             OSPFv3 Router with ID (10.0.0.3) (Process ID 1)                 Net Link States (Area 0)   LS age: 62   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Network Links   Link State ID: 8 (Interface ID of Designated Router) 2 Non Broadcast Multiple Access © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 19 Illustration 3: OSPF Network Types DR and BDR
  20. 20. 2.Introduction. Sunday, March 30, 2014   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2   LS Seq Number: 80000001   Checksum: 0x2DAE   Length: 32         Attached Router: 10.0.0.2         Attached Router: 10.0.0.3 3. OSPFv3 Architectures There is no difference with OSPFv2 on the OSPF Architectures. The full topology is only available in the current Area with Router (Type 1) and Network (Type 2) LSA. R3#sh ipv6 ospf database router adv­router 10.0.0.4             OSPFv3 Router with ID (10.0.0.3) (Process ID 1)                 Router Link States (Area 0)   LS age: 1372   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Router Links   Link State ID: 0   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.4   LS Seq Number: 80000020   Checksum: 0xEC1F   Length: 88   Number of Links: 4     Link connected to: a Transit Network       Link Metric: 1       Local Interface ID: 15       Neighbor (DR) Interface ID: 15       Neighbor (DR) Router ID: 10.0.0.4     Link connected to: a Transit Network       Link Metric: 1       Local Interface ID: 14       Neighbor (DR) Interface ID: 14       Neighbor (DR) Router ID: 10.0.0.4     Link connected to: a Transit Network       Link Metric: 1       Local Interface ID: 7       Neighbor (DR) Interface ID: 7       Neighbor (DR) Router ID: 10.0.0.4     Link connected to: a Transit Network       Link Metric: 1       Local Interface ID: 6 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 20
  21. 21. 3.OSPFv3 Architectures. Sunday, March 30, 2014       Neighbor (DR) Interface ID: 6       Neighbor (DR) Router ID: 10.0.0.4 R3#show ipv6 ospf database network adv­router 10.0.0.4             OSPFv3 Router with ID (10.0.0.3) (Process ID 1)                 Net Link States (Area 0)   LS age: 1579   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Network Links   Link State ID: 6 (Interface ID of Designated Router)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.4   LS Seq Number: 80000002   Checksum: 0x4791   Length: 32         Attached Router: 10.0.0.4         Attached Router: 10.0.0.3   LS age: 1823   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Network Links   Link State ID: 7 (Interface ID of Designated Router)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.4   LS Seq Number: 80000012   Checksum: 0xFB9   Length: 32         Attached Router: 10.0.0.4         Attached Router: 10.0.0.2   LS age: 1579   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Network Links   Link State ID: 14 (Interface ID of Designated Router)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.4   LS Seq Number: 80000002   Checksum: 0xF6D9   Length: 32         Attached Router: 10.0.0.4         Attached Router: 10.0.0.3   LS age: 1580   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Network Links   Link State ID: 15 (Interface ID of Designated Router)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.4   LS Seq Number: 80000002   Checksum: 0xECE2   Length: 32 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 21
  22. 22. 3.OSPFv3 Architectures. Sunday, March 30, 2014         Attached Router: 10.0.0.4         Attached Router: 10.0.0.3 The ABR summarize the routes when they can or send each route one by one as a Distance-Vector Protocol with Inter Area LSA (Type 3). This is why all Areas MUST be connected to Area 0. If it is impossible it is possible to connect the remote Area across a Transit Area using a Virtual Link. R5>show ipv6 ospf database inter­area prefix              OSPFv3 Router with ID (192.168.100.5) (Process ID 1)                 Inter Area Prefix Link States (Area 1)   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 1388   LS Type: Inter Area Prefix Links   Link State ID: 0   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2   LS Seq Number: 80000008   Checksum: 0x6505   Length: 36   Metric: 1    Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1003::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 1388   LS Type: Inter Area Prefix Links   Link State ID: 1   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2   LS Seq Number: 80000008   Checksum: 0x4921   Length: 36   Metric: 1    Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1002::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 1391   LS Type: Inter Area Prefix Links   Link State ID: 2   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2   LS Seq Number: 80000008   Checksum: 0x2D3D   Length: 36   Metric: 1  © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 22
  23. 23. 3.OSPFv3 Architectures. Sunday, March 30, 2014   Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1001::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 1397   LS Type: Inter Area Prefix Links   Link State ID: 3   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2   LS Seq Number: 80000008   Checksum: 0x83DF   Length: 36   Metric: 2    Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1006::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 1398   LS Type: Inter Area Prefix Links   Link State ID: 4   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2   LS Seq Number: 80000008   Checksum: 0x67FB   Length: 36   Metric: 2    Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:1005::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None An Autonomous System Border Router connect your OSPF domain to another domain. For instance, a partner or the Internet. The ASBR generates a LSA Type 5 for each route that it advertizes and these LSA are flooded across the whole domain.To compute the route to the external route outside of the Area where the ASBR sits, the router needs the Inter- Area Router LSA to know how to reach the gateway. So, the ABR generates an Inter-Area Router LSA (Type 4) flooded across the whole domain for the other Area router to reach the Gateway. R5>show ipv6 ospf database inter­area router              OSPFv3 Router with ID (192.168.100.5) (Process ID 1)                 Inter Area Router Link States (Area 1)   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 732   Options: (V6­Bit, E­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Inter Area Router Links   Link State ID: 167772163   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 23
  24. 24. 3.OSPFv3 Architectures. Sunday, March 30, 2014   LS Seq Number: 80000002   Checksum: 0x6E70   Length: 32   Metric: 1    Destination Router ID: 10.0.0.3 R5#show ipv6 ospf data external              OSPFv3 Router with ID (192.168.100.5) (Process ID 1)                 Type­5 AS External Link States   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 291   LS Type: AS External Link   Link State ID: 0   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.2   LS Seq Number: 80000009   Checksum: 0x777D   Length: 32   Prefix Address: 2001:DB8::   Prefix Length: 32, Options: None   Metric Type: 2 (Larger than any link state path)   Metric: 5    LS age: 26   LS Type: AS External Link   Link State ID: 0   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.3   LS Seq Number: 8000000B   Checksum: 0x6D84   Length: 32   Prefix Address: 2001:DB8::   Prefix Length: 32, Options: None   Metric Type: 2 (Larger than any link state path)   Metric: 5  © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 24
  25. 25. 4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014 4. Type of Area The same types of Area exist in OSPFv3 from OSPFv2. Regular Area receives Type 3, 4 and 5 LSA. © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 25 Illustration 4: OSPF Regular Area
  26. 26. 4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014 4.1 Stub Area Then you got the Stub area which filter the External Routes related LSAs:Type 4 and 5. We still receive the Inter-Area LSA (Type 3). Below is a configuration and a Routing table of such Area. “default-information originate always” inject a default route in the Area. ipv6 router ospf 1  log­adjacency­changes  area 7 stub  default­information originate always © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 26 Illustration 5: OSPF Stub Area
  27. 27. 4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014 R7#show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table ­ Default ­ 20 entries Codes: C ­ Connected, L ­ Local, S ­ Static, U ­ Per­user Static route        B ­ BGP, M ­ MIPv6, R ­ RIP, I1 ­ ISIS L1        I2 ­ ISIS L2, IA ­ ISIS interarea, IS ­ ISIS summary, D ­ EIGRP        EX ­ EIGRP external        O ­ OSPF Intra, OI ­ OSPF Inter, OE1 ­ OSPF ext 1, OE2 ­ OSPF ext 2        ON1 ­ OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 ­ OSPF NSSA ext 2 OI  ::/0 [110/2]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:678:ABC:1000::/64 [110/3]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 C   2001:678:ABC:7000::/64 [0/0]      via GigabitEthernet1/0, directly connected L   2001:678:ABC:7000::7/128 [0/0]      via GigabitEthernet1/0, receive OI  2001:DB8:678::1/128 [110/3]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:DB8:678::2/128 [110/2]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:DB8:678::3/128 [110/2]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:DB8:678::4/128 [110/1]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:DB8:678:ABC:5::5/128 [110/3]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:DB8:678:1001::/64 [110/4]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:DB8:678:1002::/64 [110/3]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:DB8:678:1003::/64 [110/3]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:DB8:678:1005::/64 [110/2]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 OI  2001:DB8:678:1006::/64 [110/2]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 C   2001:DB8:678:7200::/64 [0/0]      via GigabitEthernet1/0, directly connected L   2001:DB8:678:7200::7/128 [0/0]      via GigabitEthernet1/0, receive OI  2001:DB8:678:8200::/64 [110/4]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 LC  2001:DB8:ABC:7::7/128 [0/0]      via Loopback0, receive OI  2001:DB8:ABC:8::8/128 [110/4]      via FE80::C803:DFF:FE03:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 L   FF00::/8 [0/0]      via Null0, receive © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 27
  28. 28. 4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014 This is the Inter Area Prefix generated by the ABR for the default route: R8>sh ipv6 ospf database inter­area prefix              OSPFv3 Router with ID (10.0.0.8) (Process ID 1)                 Inter Area Prefix Link States (Area 8)   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 1370   LS Type: Inter Area Prefix Links   Link State ID: 16   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.1   LS Seq Number: 80000003   Checksum: 0xA878   Length: 28   Metric: 1    Prefix Address: ::   Prefix Length: 0, Options: None And this is the Link LSA of R1: R8#sh ipv6 ospf data link adv­router 10.0.0.1             OSPFv3 Router with ID (10.0.0.8) (Process ID 1)                 Link (Type­8) Link States (Area 8)   LS age: 1741   Options: (V6­Bit, R­bit, DC­Bit)   LS Type: Link­LSA (Interface: GigabitEthernet1/0)   Link State ID: 9 (Interface ID)   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.1   LS Seq Number: 80000003   Checksum: 0xBA5B   Length: 56   Router Priority: 1   Link Local Address: FE80::C802:CFF:FEF0:70   Number of Prefixes: 1   Prefix Address: 2001:DB8:678:8200::   Prefix Length: 64, Options: None 4.2 Totally Stuby Area In these area, the ABR also filters the Inter-Area Prefixes and injecst a default route. Configuration ipv6 router ospf 1  area 8 stub no­summary © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 28
  29. 29. 4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014 IPv6 route of a Totally Stubby Area Router R8>show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table ­ Default ­ 5 entries Codes: C ­ Connected, L ­ Local, S ­ Static, U ­ Per­user Static route        B ­ BGP, M ­ MIPv6, R ­ RIP, I1 ­ ISIS L1        I2 ­ ISIS L2, IA ­ ISIS interarea, IS ­ ISIS summary, D ­ EIGRP        EX ­ EIGRP external        O ­ OSPF Intra, OI ­ OSPF Inter, OE1 ­ OSPF ext 1, OE2 ­ OSPF ext 2        ON1 ­ OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 ­ OSPF NSSA ext 2 OI  ::/0 [110/2] © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 29 Illustration 6: OSPF Totally Stubby Area
  30. 30. 4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014      via FE80::C802:CFF:FEF0:70, GigabitEthernet1/0 C   2001:DB8:678:8200::/64 [0/0]      via GigabitEthernet1/0, directly connected L   2001:DB8:678:8200::8/128 [0/0]      via GigabitEthernet1/0, receive LC  2001:DB8:ABC:8::8/128 [0/0]      via Loopback0, receive L   FF00::/8 [0/0]      via Null0, receive Here is the LSA for the default Route, R1 Loopback. #show ipv6 ospf data inter­area prefix              OSPFv3 Router with ID (10.0.0.8) (Process ID 1)                 Inter Area Prefix Link States (Area 8)   Routing Bit Set on this LSA   LS age: 1498   LS Type: Inter Area Prefix Links   Link State ID: 16   Advertising Router: 10.0.0.1   LS Seq Number: 80000002   Checksum: 0xAA77   Length: 28   Metric: 1    Prefix Address: ::   Prefix Length: 0, Options: None Not So Stubby Area Now, what if I have a Stub Area since I do not want to receive a long routing table made of External routes but I want to redistribute in my Area a couple of Networks because a group of users have a VSAT appliance only running RIP in their Lab for instance? In this case you can configure it as a NSSA or a Not So Stubby Area. In this case the redistributed routes will be LSA Type 7 because Type 5 are forbidden in a Stub Area. One ABR3 will be responsible to translate the LSA Type 7 to type 5 to connect the small group to the rest of the planet. The NSSA also permit the Inter-Area Prefix LSAa (Type 3) to see routes in other Area. If this is a Problem you can configure your area as a Totally Not So Stubby Area! 3 Area Border Router © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 30
  31. 31. 4.Type of Area. Sunday, March 30, 2014 R8#conf t R8(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1 R8(config­rtr)#no area 8 stub R8(config­rtr)#area 8 nssa R8(config­rtr)#redistribute connected Totally Not So Stubby Area And if you do not want to receive the Inter-Area Prefix (LSA Type 3) it is posssible to configure the area with tge no auto-summary option and have a TOTALLY Not So Stubby Area with “area 8 nssa no­summary” R8#conf t R8(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1 R8(config­rtr)#no area 8 nssa stub R8(config­rtr)#area 8 nssa no auto­summary R8(config­rtr)#redistribute connected © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 31
  32. 32. A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014 A. Router Configurations see http://www.ipv6forlife.com/Tutorial/labDS/ R1 ! ! upgrade fpd auto version 12.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password­encryption ! hostname R1 ! boot­start­marker boot­end­marker ! logging message­counter syslog ! no aaa new­model ip source­route ip cef ipv6 unicast­routing ipv6 cef ! multilink bundle­name authenticated archive  log config   hidekeys !  ! ! interface Loopback0  ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.255  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678::1/128 ! interface GigabitEthernet1/0.1  encapsulation dot1Q 1 native  ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1001::1/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0  glbp 1 ip 10.0.1.100  glbp 11 ipv6 autoconfig ! interface GigabitEthernet1/0.2 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 32
  33. 33. A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014  encapsulation dot1Q 2  ip address 10.0.2.1 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1002::1/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0  glbp 2 ip 10.0.2.100  glbp 12 ipv6 autoconfig ! interface GigabitEthernet1/0.3  encapsulation dot1Q 3  ip address 10.0.3.1 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1003::1/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0  glbp 3 ip 10.0.3.100  glbp 13 ipv6 autoconfig ! interface GigabitEthernet3/0  ip address 10.0.100.10 255.255.255.252  negotiation auto router ospf 1  log­adjacency­changes  network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 ! ip forward­protocol nd no ip http server no ip http secure­server ! ipv6 router ospf 1  log­adjacency­changes ! control­plane ! gatekeeper  shutdown ! line con 0  stopbits 1 line aux 0  stopbits 1 line vty 0 4  login ! end © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 33
  34. 34. A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014 R2 ! ! upgrade fpd auto version 12.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password­encryption ! hostname R2 ! boot­start­marker boot­end­marker ! logging message­counter syslog ! no aaa new­model ip source­route ip cef ! ipv6 unicast­routing ipv6 cef ! multilink bundle­name authenticated ! archive  log config   hidekeys ! interface Loopback0  ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.255  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678::2/128 interface GigabitEthernet1/0.1  encapsulation dot1Q 1 native  ip address 10.0.1.2 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1001::2/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0  Glbp 1 10.0.1.100  glbp 11 ipv6 autoconfig ! interface GigabitEthernet1/0.2  encapsulation dot1Q 2  ip address 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1002::2/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0  glbp 2 ip 10.0.2.100  glbp 12 ipv6 autoconfig © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 34
  35. 35. A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014 ! interface GigabitEthernet1/0.3  encapsulation dot1Q 3  ip address 10.0.3.2 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1003::2/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0  glbp 3 ip 10.0.3.100  glbp 13 ipv6 autoconfig ! interface GigabitEthernet2/0  ip address 10.0.100.2 255.255.255.252  negotiation auto  ipv6 enable  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! interface GigabitEthernet3/0  ip address 10.0.100.6 255.255.255.252  negotiation auto  ipv6 enable  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! interface GigabitEthernet4/0  ip address 10.0.100.17 255.255.255.252  negotiation auto  ipv6 enable  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! router ospf 1  log­adjacency­changes  network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 ! ip forward­protocol nd no ip http server no ip http secure­server ! ipv6 router ospf 1  log­adjacency­changes ! control­plane gatekeeper  shutdown ! line con 0  stopbits 1 line aux 0  stopbits 1 line vty 0 4  login ! End © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 35
  36. 36. A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014 R3 upgrade fpd auto version 12.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password­encryption ! hostname R3 ! boot­start­marker boot­end­marker ! logging message­counter syslog ! no aaa new­model ip source­route ip cef ! ipv6 unicast­routing ipv6 cef ! multilink bundle­name authenticated ! archive  log config   hidekeys ! interface Loopback0  ip address 10.0.0.3 255.255.255.255  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678::3/128  ipv6 enable ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0.1  encapsulation dot1Q 1 native  ip address 10.0.5.1 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1005::3/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0  glbp 1 ip 10.0.5.100  glbp 11 ipv6 autoconfig ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0.2  encapsulation dot1Q 2  ip address 10.0.6.1 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1006::3/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0  glbp 2 ip 10.0.6.100  glbp 22 ipv6 autoconfig © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 36
  37. 37. A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014 ! interface GigabitEthernet1/0  ip address 10.0.100.13 255.255.255.252  negotiation auto  ipv6 enable  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! interface GigabitEthernet2/0  ip address 10.0.100.9 255.255.255.252  negotiation auto  ipv6 enable  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! interface GigabitEthernet3/0  ip address 10.0.100.5 255.255.255.252  negotiation auto  ipv6 enable  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! router ospf 1  log­adjacency­changes  network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 ! ip local pool fred 10.0.5.100 10.0.5.140 ip forward­protocol nd no ip http server no ip http secure­server ipv6 router ospf 1  log­adjacency­changes ! control­plane ! gatekeeper  shutdown ! ! line con 0  stopbits 1 line aux 0  stopbits 1 line vty 0 4  login ! End R4 ! upgrade fpd auto © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 37
  38. 38. A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014 version 12.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password­encryption ! hostname R4 ! boot­start­marker boot­end­marker ! logging message­counter syslog ! no aaa new­model ip source­route ip cef ! ipv6 unicast­routing ipv6 cef ! multilink bundle­name authenticated archive  log config   hidekeys !  interface Loopback0  ip address 10.0.0.4 255.255.255.255  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678::4/128 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0  no ip address  duplex full  speed 1000  media­type gbic  negotiation auto ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0.1  encapsulation dot1Q 1 native  ip address 10.0.5.2 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1005::4/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0  glbp 1 ip 10.0.5.100  glbp 11 ipv6 autoconfig ! interface GigabitEthernet0/0.2  encapsulation dot1Q 2  ip address 10.0.6.2 255.255.255.0  ipv6 address 2001:DB8:678:1006::4/64  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0   glbp 2 ip 10.0.6.100 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 38
  39. 39. A. Router Configurations. Sunday, March 30, 2014  glbp 22 ipv6 autoconfig ! interface GigabitEthernet1/0  ip address 10.0.100.14 255.255.255.252  negotiation auto  ipv6 enable  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! interface GigabitEthernet2/0  ip address 10.0.100.18 255.255.255.252  negotiation auto  ipv6 enable  ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! router ospf 1  log­adjacency­changes  network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 ! ip forward­protocol nd no ip http server no ip http secure­server ! ipv6 router ospf 1  log­adjacency­changes ! control­plane ! gatekeeper  shutdown ! line con 0  stopbits 1 line aux 0  stopbits 1 line vty 0 4  login © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 39
  40. 40. B. GLBP. Sunday, March 30, 2014 B. GLBP GLBP enable more redundancy and load-balancing as up to 4 Forwarders can be active at the same time. It is just one line of command on the interface and the work station next hop will be a virtual address with a virtual MAC Address. With GLBP, the Active forwarders is based on a Weigth parameter. It is possible to track an object like a routing entry and decrement the Weigth if the route is gone for another router to take over. Show glbp …. GigabitEthernet1/0.2 ­ Group 2   State is Standby     1 state change, last state change 00:01:11   Virtual IP address is 10.0.2.100   Hello time 3 sec, hold time 10 sec     Next hello sent in 0.864 secs   Redirect time 600 sec, forwarder timeout 14400 sec   Preemption disabled   Active is 10.0.2.1, priority 100 (expires in 7.904 sec)   Standby is local   Priority 100 (default)   Weighting 100 (default 100), thresholds: lower 1, upper 100   Load balancing: round­robin   Group members:     ca04.0e68.001c (10.0.2.1)     ca06.0e77.001c (10.0.2.2) local   There are 2 forwarders (1 active)   Forwarder 1     State is Listen     MAC address is 0007.b400.0201 (learnt)     Owner ID is ca04.0e68.001c     Time to live: 14397.312 sec (maximum 14400 sec)     Preemption enabled, min delay 30 sec     Active is 10.0.2.1 (primary), weighting 100 (expires in 8.864 sec)   Forwarder 2     State is Active       1 state change, last state change 00:01:04     MAC address is 0007.b400.0202 (default)     Owner ID is ca06.0e77.001c     Preemption enabled, min delay 30 sec     Active is local, weighting 100 GigabitEthernet1/0.2 ­ Group 12   State is Active     2 state changes, last state change 00:12:05 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 40
  41. 41. B. GLBP. Sunday, March 30, 2014   Virtual IP address is FE80::7:B4FF:FE00:C00 (auto­configured)   Hello time 3 sec, hold time 10 sec     Next hello sent in 0.864 secs   Redirect time 600 sec, forwarder timeout 14400 sec   Preemption disabled   Active is local   Standby is FE80::C804:EFF:FE68:1C, priority 100 (expires in 9.408 sec)   Priority 100 (default)   Weighting 100 (default 100), thresholds: lower 1, upper 100   Load balancing: round­robin   Group members:     ca04.0e68.001c (FE80::C804:EFF:FE68:1C)     ca06.0e77.001c (FE80::C806:EFF:FE77:1C) local   There are 2 forwarders (1 active)   Forwarder 1     State is Listen       4 state changes, last state change 00:10:31     MAC address is 0007.b400.0c01 (learnt)     Owner ID is ca04.0e68.001c     Redirection enabled, 598.400 sec remaining (maximum 600 sec)     Time to live: 14398.400 sec (maximum 14400 sec)     Preemption enabled, min delay 30 sec     Active is FE80::C804:EFF:FE68:1C (primary), weighting 100 (expires in 8.608 sec)   Forwarder 2     State is Active       1 state change, last state change 03:08:52     MAC address is 0007.b400.0c02 (default)     Owner ID is ca06.0e77.001c     Redirection enabled     Preemption enabled, min delay 30 sec     Active is local, weighting 100 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 41
  42. 42. C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014 C. BGP Connection BGP Lab Topology A new Neighbor has been added to simulate another AS Advertising the same routes. R2 and R5 are directly connected with an IPv4 and an IPv6 Session, same for R3 and R6. The same routes are learned by R2 from AS 65000 and R3 from AS 64000. This is specific case with a few routes so redistribution of BGPv6 in OSPFv3 is possible. In the real life when BGP is used to learn a lot of routes like the Internet Routing Tables, there is no redistribution in OSPF. OSPF is only used to resolve the BGP next-hop. iBGP sessions are responsible to dispatch the routes into the backbone. We would use a pair of BGP Route Reflector to avoid a full mesh of iBGP sessions between all core routers. © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 42 Illustration 7: BGP Topology
  43. 43. C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014 Usually we choose the Route Reflectors out of the forwarding path to act as routes servers but here we could also choose to use R1 and R4 if they have enough resources of CPU and RAM to manage Internet Routing Tables processing. In our case there is an iBGP session between R2 and R3 only. I will make another guide for BGP and IPV6. Differences with IPv6 We can use a different session to carry each protocol. Like here we have an IPv6 session to carry IPv6 routes and an IPv4 session to carry IPv4. In the lab for R5-R2 there are two sessions one IPv4 for IPv4 routes and one IPv6 for IPV6 routes. On R6-R3 we only have an IPv6 session. We can also use Link-Local Addresses for eBGP sessions. Some useful commands The commands are the same than IPv4 with the addition of IPv6 in the CLI commands like: R2#show bgp ipv6 unicast summary  BGP router identifier 10.0.0.2, local AS number 100 BGP table version is 211, main routing table version 211 14 network entries using 2184 bytes of memory 28 path entries using 2128 bytes of memory 3/1 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 504 bytes of memory 2 BGP AS­PATH entries using 48 bytes of memory 0 BGP route­map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory 0 BGP filter­list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory Bitfield cache entries: current 1 (at peak 1) using 32 bytes of memory BGP using 4896 total bytes of memory BGP activity 84/70 prefixes, 126/98 paths, scan interval 60 secs Neighbor        V          AS MsgRcvd MsgSent   TblVer  InQ OutQ Up/Down   State/PfxRcd 2001:678:ABC:1000::5                 4      65000     271     266      211    0    0 00:54:46       14 2001:DB8:678::3 4        100      37      37      211    0    0 00:34:06       14 This is how a routes is learned from R2 and R3. One connect to AS 64000 and the other to AS 65000. For the connection to AS 65000 we did not touch the next-hop 2001:678:ABC:1000::5  which is learned by OSPFv3. For AS64000 we do not run OSPFv3 and could not reach the next-hop so we used the bgp router command next-hop-self to change it to our Router. © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 43
  44. 44. C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014 R3#show bgp ipv6 unicast 2001:DB8:678:AB2::/64 BGP routing table entry for 2001:DB8:678:AB2::/64, version 27 Paths: (2 available, best #2, table Default)   Advertised to update­groups:         1   65000     2001:678:ABC:1000::5 (metric 2) from 2001:DB8:678::2 (10.0.0.2)       Origin incomplete, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal   64000     2001:678:ABC:1001::6 (FE80::C80A:FFF:FE4D:1C) from 2001:678:ABC:1001::6 (10.0.0.6)       Origin incomplete, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, external, best R2#show bgp ipv6 unicast 2001:DB8:678:AB1::/64 BGP routing table entry for 2001:DB8:678:AB1::/64, version 210 Paths: (2 available, best #2, table Default)   Advertised to update­groups:         2   64000     2001:DB8:678::3 (metric 1) from 2001:DB8:678::3 (10.0.0.3)       Origin incomplete, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal   65000     2001:678:ABC:1000::5 (FE80::C809:FFF:FE4D:1C) from 2001:678:ABC:1000::5  (192.168.105.5)       Origin incomplete, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, external, best BGP Configuration On R3 router bgp 100  no synchronization  bgp log­neighbor­changes  neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1001::6 remote­as 64000  no neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1001::6 activate  neighbor 2001:DB8:678::2 remote­as 100  neighbor 2001:DB8:678::2 update­source Loopback0  no neighbor 2001:DB8:678::2 activate  no auto­summary  !  address­family ipv6   neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1001::6 activate   neighbor 2001:DB8:678::2 activate   neighbor 2001:DB8:678::2 next­hop­self  exit­address­family ! © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 44
  45. 45. C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014 On R2 router bgp 100  bgp log­neighbor­changes  neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1000::5 remote­as 65000  neighbor 2001:DB8:678::3 remote­as 100  neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote­as 65000  !  address­family ipv4   no neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1000::5 activate   no neighbor 2001:DB8:678::3 activate   neighbor 192.168.1.2 activate   no auto­summary   no synchronization  exit­address­family  !  address­family ipv6   neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1000::5 activate   neighbor 2001:DB8:678::3 activate  exit­address­family On R5 router bgp 65000  bgp log­neighbor­changes  neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1000::2 remote­as 100  neighbor 192.168.1.1 remote­as 100  !  address­family ipv4   no neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1000::2 activate   neighbor 192.168.1.1 activate   no auto­summary   no synchronization  exit­address­family  !  address­family ipv6   neighbor  activate   redistribute static   no synchronization  exit­address­family ! © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 45
  46. 46. C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014 On R6 router bgp 64000  no synchronization  bgp log­neighbor­changes  neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1001::4 remote­as 100  no neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1001::4 activate  no auto­summary  !  address­family ipv6   neighbor 2001:678:ABC:1001::4 activate   redistribute static   no synchronization  exit­address­family © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 46
  47. 47. C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 47
  48. 48. C. BGP Connection. Sunday, March 30, 2014 ROUTING IPv6 MP-BGPv6 Version 1.1 Routing IPv6 Part 2 http://www.ipv6forlife.com/Tutorial/labBGP By Fred Bovy CCIE #3013 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 48
  49. 49. 5.Introduction to MP-BGP lab. Sunday, March 30, 2014 5. Introduction to MP-BGP lab http://www.ipv6forlife.com/Tutorial/labBGP After the OSPF lab, there was an annex about BGP. In this document, this will be the opposite. I will focus on BGP and just explain the OSPF Setup. The Backbone is built on OSPFv2 for IPv4 and OSPFv3 for IPv6. There are 3 Area: 0, 1 and 2.Area 0 is in the Core: R1, R3, R4 and R5. R3, R4 are ABR for Area 1, R1 and R5 are ABR for Area 2 R1>show ipv6 ospf  Routing Process "ospfv3 1" with ID 10.0.0.1  It is an area border router  SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs  Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs  LSA group pacing timer 240 secs  Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs  Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs  Number of external LSA 1. Checksum Sum 0x00B177  Number of areas in this router is 2. 2 normal 0 stub 0 nssa  Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps     Area BACKBONE(0)         Number of interfaces in this area is 4         SPF algorithm executed 28 times         Number of LSA 37. Checksum Sum 0x0E9EB2         Number of DCbitless LSA 0         Number of indication LSA 0         Number of DoNotAge LSA 0         Flood list length 0     Area 2         Number of interfaces in this area is 1         SPF algorithm executed 6 times         Number of LSA 31. Checksum Sum 0x10ABAA         Number of DCbitless LSA 0         Number of indication LSA 0         Number of DoNotAge LSA 0         Flood list length 0 R6 and R7 are OSPF ASBR4 and connect the Internet via AS64000 and 65000. Then they relay the eBGP Update to the BGP Route-Reflector R5 which propagate the best BGP path to all the other BGP backbone routers. In the lab we set the BGP Local Preference of the BGP routes coming from AS65000 to 150 which is more than default 100. So, the exit point to the Internet will be AS65000 unless the route is no more learned from this path, then it will be using AS64000. 4 Autonomous System Border Router © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 49
  50. 50. 6.Lab Setup. Sunday, March 30, 2014 6. Lab Setup © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 50 Illustration 8: OSPFv2, OSPFv3 and MP-BGP Setup
  51. 51. 7.Lab BGP Configuration. Sunday, March 30, 2014 7. Lab BGP Configuration 7.1 Summary For R6, IPv6 eBGP Session uses the interface Global Unicast Addresses. For R7, IPv6 eBGP Session uses the interfaces Link-Local Addresses. On R6 and R7, we use two eBGP sessions with R8 and R9. One for IPv4 and one for IPv6. We use the same IPv4 iBGP Session to advertize IPv4 and IPv6 Routes to the BGP Route- Reflector and for all iBGP Sessions. As we do not want to advertize the IPv6 route to the R8 ISP Router into the backbone, the ISP Interface to resolve the BGP route, we use a Route-Map to advertize the route to the Route- Reflector using R6 Gateway loopback ipv6 address as the next-hop. For IPv4, using next-hop- self is enough. So, if we do not tweak the BGP IPv6 next-hop, as IPv6 route are learned over IPv4 session the IPv6 Next-hop are ::ffff:10.0.0.6 and ::ffff:10.0.0.7 which are Unreachable on remote peers. 7.2 BGP Configuration R6 BGP Configuration router bgp 100  bgp log­neighbor­changes  neighbor 10.0.0.5 remote­as 100  neighbor 10.0.0.5 update­source Loopback0  neighbor 2001:DB8:5A:F6::8 remote­as 64000  neighbor 172.16.1.2 remote­as 64000  !  address­family ipv4   neighbor 10.0.0.5 activate   neighbor 10.0.0.5 next­hop­self   no neighbor 2001:DB8:5A:F6::8 activate   neighbor 172.16.1.2 activate   no auto­summary   no synchronization  exit­address­family  !  address­family ipv6   neighbor 10.0.0.5 activate   neighbor 10.0.0.5 route­map fred out   neighbor 2001:DB8:5A:F6::8 activate  exit­address­family ! route­map fred permit 10 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 51
  52. 52. 7.Lab BGP Configuration. Sunday, March 30, 2014  set ipv6 next­hop 2001:DB8:678:C000::6 !          R8-ISP2 BGP Configuration router bgp 64000  bgp log­neighbor­changes  neighbor 2001:DB8:5A:F6::6 remote­as 100  neighbor 172.16.1.1 remote­as 100  !  address­family ipv4   redistribute static   no neighbor 2001:DB8:5A:F6::6 activate   neighbor 172.16.1.1 activate   no auto­summary   no synchronization  exit­address­family  !          address­family ipv6   neighbor 2001:DB8:5A:F6::6 activate   redistribute static   no synchronization  exit­address­family !          ip route 202.3.0.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.1.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.2.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.3.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.4.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.5.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.6.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.7.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.8.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.9.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ! ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC0::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC1::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC2::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC3::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC4::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC5::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC6::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC7::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC8::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC9::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABCA::/48 Null0 !          © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 52
  53. 53. 7.Lab BGP Configuration. Sunday, March 30, 2014 R7 BGP Configuration router bgp 100  bgp log­neighbor­changes  neighbor 10.0.0.5 remote­as 100  neighbor 10.0.0.5 update­source Loopback0  neighbor 172.16.1.6 remote­as 65000  neighbor FE80::9%GigabitEthernet3/0 remote­as 65000  !  address­family ipv4   neighbor 10.0.0.5 activate    neighbor 10.0.0.5 next­hop­self   neighbor 172.16.1.6 activate   no neighbor FE80::9%GigabitEthernet3/0 activate   no auto­summary   no synchronization  exit­address­family  !          address­family ipv6   neighbor 10.0.0.5 activate   neighbor 10.0.0.5 route­map fred out   neighbor FE80::9%GigabitEthernet3/0 activate   neighbor FE80::9%GigabitEthernet3/0 route­map setloc in  Exit­address­family ! route­map setloc permit 10  set local­preference 150 ! route­map fred permit 10  set ipv6 next­hop 2001:DB8:678:B000::1 ! R9-ISP1 BGP Configuration router bgp 65000  bgp log­neighbor­changes  neighbor 172.16.1.5 remote­as 100  neighbor FE80::7%GigabitEthernet1/0 remote­as 100  !  address­family ipv4   redistribute static metric 5   neighbor 172.16.1.5 activate   no neighbor FE80::7%GigabitEthernet1/0 activate   no auto­summary   no synchronization   redistribute static  exit­address­family  !  address­family ipv6    neighbor FE80::7%GigabitEthernet1/0 activate © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 53
  54. 54. 7.Lab BGP Configuration. Sunday, March 30, 2014   redistribute static   no synchronization  exit­address­family ! ip route 202.3.0.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.1.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.2.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.3.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.4.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.5.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.6.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.7.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.8.0 255.255.255.0 Null0 ip route 202.3.9.0 255.255.255.0 Null0                 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC0::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC1::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC2::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC3::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC4::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC5::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC6::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC7::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC8::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABC9::/48 Null0 ipv6 route 2001:DB8:ABCA::/48 Null0 8. BGP Reminder 8.1 BGP Connection Messages and States BGP connection takes place over TCP port 179. When the connection Open it uses an OPEN Message to start a session with its own AS number, its Router-ID and the Hold Time which is how long you consider a session active without hearing from a neighbor. If you have nothing to say you should send a KEEPALIVE to keep the session open. When the session has not hear anything when the Hold time expires, the BGP speaker sends a NOTIFICATION message which is an abort message telling the reason for the end of the session. If there is a parameter mismatch during the OPEN, the partner will also send a NOTIFICATION like wrong AS number. The routes are advertised or withdrawn in UPDATES Messages which must received an ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 54
  55. 55. 8.BGP Reminder. Sunday, March 30, 2014 For IPv6, the UPDATES send the IPv6 Prefixes in MP_REACH_NLRI or MP_UNREACH_NLRI. No.     Time        Source                Destination           Protocol Length Info     677 1209.406565 2001:db8:5a:f6::8     2001:db8:5a:f6::6     BGP      234    UPDATE Message Frame 677: 234 bytes on wire (1872 bits), 234 bytes captured (1872 bits) Ethernet II, Src: ca:0c:1b:4f:00:1c (ca:0c:1b:4f:00:1c), Dst: ca:0a:1b:64:00:54 (ca:0a:1b:64:00:54) Internet Protocol Version 6, Src: 2001:db8:5a:f6::8 (2001:db8:5a:f6::8), Dst: 2001:db8:5a:f6::6  (2001:db8:5a:f6::6) Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 62129 (62129), Dst Port: bgp (179), Seq: 73, Ack: 73, Len: 160 Border Gateway Protocol     UPDATE Message         Marker: 16 bytes         Length: 160 bytes         Type: UPDATE Message (2)         Unfeasible routes length: 0 bytes         Total path attribute length: 137 bytes         Path attributes             ORIGIN: INCOMPLETE (4 bytes)                 Flags: 0x40 (Well­known, Transitive, Complete)                 Type code: ORIGIN (1)                 Length: 1 byte                 Origin: INCOMPLETE (2)             AS_PATH: 64000 (9 bytes)                 Flags: 0x40 (Well­known, Transitive, Complete)                 Type code: AS_PATH (2)                 Length: 6 bytes                 AS path: 64000             MULTI_EXIT_DISC: 0 (7 bytes)                 Flags: 0x80 (Optional, Non­transitive, Complete)                 Type code: MULTI_EXIT_DISC (4)                 Length: 4 bytes                 Multiple exit discriminator: 0             MP_REACH_NLRI (117 bytes)                 Flags: 0x80 (Optional, Non­transitive, Complete)                 Type code: MP_REACH_NLRI (14)                 Length: 114 bytes                 Address family: IPv6 (2)                 Subsequent address family identifier: Unicast (1)                 Next hop network address (32 bytes)                     Next hop: 2001:db8:5a:f6::8 (16)                     Next hop: fe80::c80c:1bff:fe4f:1c (16)                 Subnetwork points of attachment: 0                 Network layer reachability information (77 bytes)                     2001:db8:abca::/48                     2001:db8:abc9::/48                     2001:db8:abc8::/48                     2001:db8:abc7::/48                     2001:db8:abc6::/48                     2001:db8:abc5::/48                     2001:db8:abc4::/48                     2001:db8:abc3::/48                     2001:db8:abc2::/48                     2001:db8:abc1::/48                     2001:db8:abc0::/48 © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 55
  56. 56. 8.BGP Reminder. Sunday, March 30, 2014 There are two possible neighbor relationship with BGP: eBGP and iBGP. 8.2 eBGP Sessions The two neighbors are in different Autonomous System. eBGP neighbor MUST be directly connected. BGP OPEN is sent with a TTL=2 to make sure that it will be dropped if it is routed. eBGP Multihop If you want to have more than one hop like doing loopback to loopback peering and have multiple parallel links for Load-balancing you need a neighbor multihop configuration. eBGP Routes dampening. Increasing Stability. To fight Internet instability we can use BGP Dampening for eBGP session. When a link flap the routes which are flapping got penalties. When a down level is reached the routes will not be advertise anymore even if the link comes back up. If the link stop flapping for long enough the route is advertized again. 8.3 iBGP Sessions The two neighbors are in the same Autonomous System. Scaling iBGP. iBGP MUST speakers MUST be fully meshed. This can be avoided with the use of Route Reflectors (RR) as full mesh does not scale. All the routers are usually neighbors with two RRs for redundancy. In the past Confederations were also used instead of RR. In a Confederation you have subAS that are connected together by iBGP session which behave like eBGP but does not change the Next-hop. This was another mean to avoid iBGP full mesh. It is no more popular as it is more complex than RR. iBGP Stability We always use a loopback interface for iBGP peering as we must use an interface which is always UP. The loopback interface address must then be advertize by the IGP5 . 8.4 BGP Attributes All the BGP Path information are called Attributes. The BGP Routes are called NLRI. The IPv6 NLRI are coded in MP_REACH_NLRI6 or MP_UNREACH_NLRI Attributes with other information like the Next- hop, the Address family.. The AS_PATH which contains the list of all the AS that have been crossed by these NLRI UPDATE is another Attribute. 5 IGP or Interior Gateway Protocol like IS-IS or OSPF. BGP is an EGP or External Gateway Protocol. 6 Network Layer Reachable Information © Fred Bovy EIRL. IPv6 For Life. Page 56

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