“Oriental & Other ReligiousPerspectives on Ecology & Environment”                       SFGS 6121             History & Ph...
Outline of PresentationDefinition: Oriental & ReligionOriental: Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism & Taoism on Ecology & E...
Definition• Oriental:―in or from (relating to) the East‖                             (kernermann bilingual dictionary)• Re...
East (Orient) & West (Occident)The East:He who knows himself and other,Will also recognize that East andWest cannot be sep...
Orientalist• orientalism‗refer to the range of attitudes that have been shown inthe West towards the traditional religious...
BuddhismImages taken from: http://ashwath0608.wordpress.com                                                           • Bu...
Buddhism &Environment• Explores the ecological and environmental  teachings of Buddha, particularly Dharma (nature)  and t...
Buddhism:Law of Karma•  Karma is the law that every cause has an effect,  i.e., our actions have results.• This simple law...
Buddhism:Noble 8 Fold Path• The noble eight fold path consists of right vision, right  thought, right speech, right action...
Buddhism & Environment• Rejection of Anthropocentrism• Buddhism is completely averse to the notion that   nature and all c...
Buddhism & Environment   • The interdependence of all things      o strongly emphasizes the interdependence of all entitie...
Buddhism & ethical view• Buddhist ethics are grounded in the truth and  experience of the Law of Dependent Co-Arising.• Si...
Confucianism• Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical  system developed from the teachings of the  Chinese phi...
Confucianism &Environment• Confucianism: a philosophy which also contains  profound environmental ethics through its  incl...
Confucianism &  Environment• Confucians maintain the oneness of humankind  and nature, the harmony and unity between  the ...
Hinduism• Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous  religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent.  Hinduism is known t...
Hinduism & Environment• Key concepts• · On a fundamental philosophical level, Hindus believe in  Brahman, an all pervading...
Hinduism &    Environment• Practices principles relating to the inevitability of the  consequences of ones actions, the  i...
Hinduism & Environment• 1. Ecological Awareness in Hinduism• It is clear that the most ancient texts on Hinduism demonstra...
Hinduism & Environment• 2.The Presence of the Divinity in all Things• An important feature of the Hindu worldview is that ...
Hinduism & Environment• 3. The interconnectedness of all things• Hindu law and philosophy : set in a cosmic view of the  u...
Hinduism & Environment• 4. The Need for Human Harmony with all forms of  Life• rich in its instructions on harmonious coex...
Hinduism & Environment• 4. The Sarva Bhuta Hita: The Notion of the Welfare of  All Beings• The highest ethical standard th...
Taoism• Taoism (also spelled Daoism) refers to a  philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic  concept is to e...
Taoism & Environment• Taoist propriety and ethics emphasize the Three  Jewels of the Tao: compassion, moderation, and  hum...
Taoism & Environment                                                       • Tao is the means, method, and ―way‖ of unity ...
Taoism & Environment                                                 • Taoist discipline respect for life to protectImages...
Islam:Perceptions and ConceptsIslam• the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur‘an, a text  considered by its adhere...
Sources of Islamic Perspective       Regarding the Environment•   The Quran•   The Hadiths•   Ethical Codes•   The Syariah...
Islam & Environment• The Environment, as God’s Creation, Must Be  Respected• Islam, as a way of life expects human beings ...
Islam & Environment• Cleanliness of the Environment• There are several hadiths of the Prophet stating the  importance of p...
Islam & Environment• Productive Use of the Environment• “Whosoever plants a tree, he will be rewarded with  as much reward...
Islam & Environment• Living in Harmony with Nature• The ultimate objective of life for a Muslim is salvation  which is ach...
Christianity• an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the  life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded  in th...
Christianity &Environment                Some have sought a way forward from within a                transformed Christian...
Christianity &  EnvironmentPrinciple of Environmental Stewardship• God Expects Humans to be His Stewards with Nature Revel...
Judeo-Christian• Judeo-Christian is a term used in the United States  since the 1940s to refer to standards of ethics said...
Substitutes World View:  • The world views of naturalism and pantheism    have been offered as substitutes.  • Within the ...
Substitutes World View:• In the pantheistic world view, all of nature is equal  because all is god and god is all. This th...
Summary• As for Oriental, we talked about Hinduism,  Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism, we can  conclude that:  o Human an...
Summary•   As from perspectives of other religion such as Islam and Christianity    (monotheistic religions), we can deriv...
•    References    Geaney, Jane. ―Chinese Cosmology and Recent Studies in Confucian Ethics: A Review Essay.‖ Journal of   ...
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Oriental & Religious Perspectives on Ecology and the Environment 131211 updated

  1. 1. “Oriental & Other ReligiousPerspectives on Ecology & Environment” SFGS 6121 History & Philosophy of Science Lecturer: Professor M. Hazim Shah Abdul Murad Mohd Fadhli Rahmat Fakri SMB110010 Department of Science & Technology Studies, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya 1
  2. 2. Outline of PresentationDefinition: Oriental & ReligionOriental: Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism & Taoism on Ecology & EnvironmentOther/Religious Perspectives: Islam, Christian, Judeo Christian & its Substitutes World View on Ecology & EnvironmentConclusion 2
  3. 3. Definition• Oriental:―in or from (relating to) the East‖ (kernermann bilingual dictionary)• Religious:derived from the word religion:―a particular system of belief or worship, of aGod or gods. (kernermann bilingual dictionary) 3
  4. 4. East (Orient) & West (Occident)The East:He who knows himself and other,Will also recognize that East andWest cannot be separated. (Goethe)The West:Oh, East is East, West is West,And never the twain shall meet.Till Earth and Sky stand presently,At God’s great Judgement Seat. (Kipling) 4
  5. 5. Orientalist• orientalism‗refer to the range of attitudes that have been shown inthe West towards the traditional religious and philosophicalideas and systems of South and East Asia‘.• The term first appeared in France in the 1830s, and has been employed since then in a variety of different• ways: o to refer to Oriental scholarship, o to characterize a certain genre of romantic fantasy literature, o to describe a genre of painting, and o most significantly in recent times—to mark out a certain kind of ideological purview of the East which was a product of Western imperialism. o emphasizes the inextricable interconnectedness of things. 5
  6. 6. BuddhismImages taken from: http://ashwath0608.wordpress.com • Buddhism (Pali/Sanskrit: Bauddha Dharma) is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one"). • Implies the concept of anarchism ( belief that society should have no government, laws, police, or other authority, but should be a free association of all its members) • (Armstrong, Karen (2001). Buddha. Penguin Books. p. 187) 6
  7. 7. Buddhism &Environment• Explores the ecological and environmental teachings of Buddha, particularly Dharma (nature) and their relationships with Deep Ecology as well as with effective public participation.• Focuses on the Buddhist view of ―One‖ world that is home to all known life.• The Buddha told us in the sutras (Buddhist scripture)and precepts that we should take loving care of animals, and that we should not harm the grass and trees, but regard them as the home where sentient beings lead their lives. 7
  8. 8. Buddhism:Law of Karma• Karma is the law that every cause has an effect, i.e., our actions have results.• This simple law explains a number of things: inequality in the world, why some are born handicapped and some gifted, why some live only a short life.• Karma underlines the importance of all individuals being responsible for their past and present actions. How can we test the karmic effect of our actions? The answer is summed up by looking at (1) the intention behind the action, (2) effects of the action on oneself, and (3) the effects on others. 8
  9. 9. Buddhism:Noble 8 Fold Path• The noble eight fold path consists of right vision, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right efforts, right mindfulness and right concentration.• Buddhist teaching requires every person to consider the manner in which the performance of his duties as employee would impact on society and the future, e.g: Any employment which involves damage to the environment such as working in the nuclear industry, manufacturing toxic substances, and the exploitation and depletion of marine resources would be included in this prohibition. 9
  10. 10. Buddhism & Environment• Rejection of Anthropocentrism• Buddhism is completely averse to the notion that nature and all created things exist for the benefit of mankind. Mankind is part of the entire cosmic order but not in a position of dominance.• Humans are just as much subject to the natural order of the universe as any other form of sentient existence.―Buddhism is ecocentric rather than anthropocentricsince it views humans as an integral part of nature. 10
  11. 11. Buddhism & Environment • The interdependence of all things o strongly emphasizes the interdependence of all entities and events. There is no entity animate or inanimate and no event however trivial which is not in some way interconnected with every other. • Coexistence rather than Conquest o The aim that Buddhism instills in every individual mind is emancipation from suffering. o Conquest of the natural environment, of other species or of other groups of the human family is hence the very reverse of the ideals which Buddhism teaches. o Co-existence is vital and this requires a recognition and respect of those other species and groups and not an attempt at dominance. 11
  12. 12. Buddhism & ethical view• Buddhist ethics are grounded in the truth and experience of the Law of Dependent Co-Arising.• Sila, or guidelines for moral action, are central to Buddhist practice in all traditions.• The Three Pure Precepts are vows to refrain from actions that ignore interdependence, to make an effort to act out of understanding of interrelationship, and to serve all beings in the interdepending web.• The five (Theravada) prescriptive precepts to not kill, not lie, not steal, not abuse sexuality or intoxicants spring from a fundamental recognition of relationship. One aims to act as respectfully and inclusively as possible toward plant, animal, and human companions. 12
  13. 13. Confucianism• Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (Kǒng Fūzǐ, or Kung- fu-tzu, lit. "Master Kong", 551–478 BC).• Confucianism originated as an "ethical- sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han Dynasty.(Craig, Edward (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 7, Taylor & Francis) 13
  14. 14. Confucianism &Environment• Confucianism: a philosophy which also contains profound environmental ethics through its inclusiveness of Heaven, Earth and the Human order. These form the traditional Chinese trinity which configure the ultimate harmony.• Confucian thinkers characteristically regard nature as holistic, all things in nature depending on each other and forming an organic whole.• consider human beings as part of nature, an existence within it, emphasizing that people and nature are closely bound in a harmonious, not conflictual, primary relationship. 14
  15. 15. Confucianism & Environment• Confucians maintain the oneness of humankind and nature, the harmony and unity between the two.• The Doctrine of the Mean says: ―Attaining equilibrium, heaven and earth will be in their right places and all things will come into being.‖(20) o In handling relations between the human and natural worlds, people need to observe the principle of ‗equilibrium‘, so that the vitality and harmony of nature, the ecological balance of the natural environment, can be maintained properly.• Confucian tradition consistently describes the goal of becoming humane(ren) as not only involving respect for the values of other human beings, but also involving respect for natural phenomena such as animals. 15
  16. 16. Hinduism• Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as Sanātana Dharma (a Sanskrit phrase meaning "the eternal law", "the eternal law that sustains/upholds/surely preserves―), amongst many other expressions.• Hinduism is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder. Among its direct roots is the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India and, as such, Hinduism is often called the "oldest living religion― or the "oldest living major religion" in the world. 16
  17. 17. Hinduism & Environment• Key concepts• · On a fundamental philosophical level, Hindus believe in Brahman, an all pervading divine force. All Hindu Gods and Goddesses, and everything in the universe, is a manifestation of Brahman. To be Hindu, therefore, means to see divinity in everything.• · Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and effect, and reincarnation in both human and animal form. To perform one‘s dharma (duty) well means one will attain a more favorable rebirth and thus come closer to attaining moksha(enlightenment).• · The ultimate goal for a Hindu is to transcend the cycle of reincarnation so his individual soul (atman) can attain moksha (enlightenment) and become one with Brahman. Various paths to Brahman include Vedic ritual, bhakti (devotion to God), and yoga (meditation). 17
  18. 18. Hinduism & Environment• Practices principles relating to the inevitability of the consequences of ones actions, the interconnectedness of all things, the linkage between past, present and future, the harmony that is necessary between humanity and the natural order and many other.• Everything in the universe belongs to the Lord. Therefore take only what you need, that is set aside for you. Do not take anything else, for you know to whom it belongs. (Isa Upanishad) 18
  19. 19. Hinduism & Environment• 1. Ecological Awareness in Hinduism• It is clear that the most ancient texts on Hinduism demonstrate through the praise of the deities an ecological awareness and great respect for the natural world. “Do not cut trees, because they remove pollution.” (Rig Veda, 6:48:17) “Do not disturb the sky and do not pollute the atmosphere.” (Yajur Veda,5:43) Destruction of forests is taken as destruction of the state, and reforestation an act of rebuilding the state and advancing its welfare. Protection of animals is considered a sacred duty. (Charak Sanhita) 19
  20. 20. Hinduism & Environment• 2.The Presence of the Divinity in all Things• An important feature of the Hindu worldview is that the supreme deity resides in all things.• In the Upanishads: “after creating the Universe God entered into every object created.” Consequently his creations must be treated with respect.• This view of the relationship between God and creation inspires Hindus to maintain a harmonious relationship between human beings and nature. 20
  21. 21. Hinduism & Environment• 3. The interconnectedness of all things• Hindu law and philosophy : set in a cosmic view of the universe with eons of time spreading behind and before us.• Within that cosmic view there is also a view of the interconnectedness of all things. The nexus between things past, present and future is emphasized as is the causal relationship between them.• All of this flows from the concept that God pervades all things. Since the divine presence is everywhere all things have an integral connection with all others. 21
  22. 22. Hinduism & Environment• 4. The Need for Human Harmony with all forms of Life• rich in its instructions on harmonious coexistence with all forms of life.• This means a bond not only between humans and animals, but also between humans and all forms of vegetation.• In the Bhagavad Gita, Sri Krishna compares the world to a single banyan tree with unlimited branches under which all the species of animals, humans and demigods wander. 22
  23. 23. Hinduism & Environment• 4. The Sarva Bhuta Hita: The Notion of the Welfare of All Beings• The highest ethical standard that Hindus ought to apply, according to their dharma, is the concept of Sarva Bhuta Hita.• The tradition requires that the common good takes precedence over private advantage.• Includes: protection of the environment, the support of the poor and needy, the oppressed, the needs of children and those who are yet to be born and the welfare of other living beings. 23
  24. 24. Taoism• Taoism (also spelled Daoism) refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao, which is the mechanism of everything that exists.• The word "Tao" (or "Dao", depending on the romanization scheme) is usually translated as "way", "path" or "principle", although the word literally means "nature" as in the nature of all things as well as the natural world. 24
  25. 25. Taoism & Environment• Taoist propriety and ethics emphasize the Three Jewels of the Tao: compassion, moderation, and humility, while Taoist thought generally focuses on nature, the relationship between humanity and the cosmos; health and longevity; and wu wei (action through inaction).• Taoist principle of nature is wu-wei, “having no activity” or non-action. Wu-wei is sometimes interpreted as doing less to achieve an end, not over-doing. This principle emphasizes the importance of acting in accordance with natural forces or “following nature.” 25
  26. 26. Taoism & Environment • Tao is the means, method, and ―way‖ of unity andImages taken from :http://laaldeadelaselva.com harmony in the individual and the whole of reality, the One. • The action of tao is reversal or ―turning back.‖ This principle states that each thing moves to its extreme only to then revert back to its origin; ―To go further and further means to revert again.‖ • Reversal is a cyclic process of transformation, ever changing, yet always in balance => yin-yang o a circle composed of two undulating halves of dark and light flowing into each other even as each half contains a small dot or seed of its opposite. o The yin/yang figure, the Great Round, represents the inseparable connection of opposites: one extreme cannot exist without its complementary opposite— each one is necessary to define the other. 26
  27. 27. Taoism & Environment • Taoist discipline respect for life to protectImages taken from :http://laaldeadelaselva.com the environment according to Zhuangzi Commandment (2nd foundational text of the Daoist philosophical and religious tradition) • First: cherish, respect for all animal life is one of the Taoism thrust. Taoism also opposed a fright, cruelty to animals. o 172th commandment of Zhuang Zhi states: not terrified of animals and birds, • Second: cherish, respect for the plant life. Taoism believes that plants, and like people have a spiritual life, in a particular environment. 27
  28. 28. Islam:Perceptions and ConceptsIslam• the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur‘an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God.• Fitrah (‘disposition’, ‘nature’, ‘constitution’, or ‘instinct’)• Tauhid (Oneness)• Human’s place in nature (Vicegerent / Khalifah)• Ibadah (ultimate submission)• Salam (Peace)• Maqasid al-shariah (5 foundational goals to be preserved: Religion, Life, Lineage, Intellect & Property)• The relationship between man, nature and God 28
  29. 29. Sources of Islamic Perspective Regarding the Environment• The Quran• The Hadiths• Ethical Codes• The Syariah & Maqasid al-shariah• Cultural expressions o Proverbs o Poetry o Behaviour 29
  30. 30. Islam & Environment• The Environment, as God’s Creation, Must Be Respected• Islam, as a way of life expects human beings to conserve the environment for several reasons.• Some of the reasons why? o God is its creator. o humans act as the agents of God on earth o no other creature is able to perform this task. Humans are the only beings that God has "entrusted" with the responsibility of looking after the earth. This trusteeship is seen by Islam to be so onerous and burdensome that no other creature could accept it. 30
  31. 31. Islam & Environment• Cleanliness of the Environment• There are several hadiths of the Prophet stating the importance of protecting the environment and keeping it clean and fruitful:• Cleanliness is an important part of Islamic teaching which goes to great lengths in specifying principles of physical cleanliness.• This principle of cleanliness applies internally to the mind, physically to the body and externally to the environment.• In order to keep the environment free of pollution and therefore pleasant the Prophet has said: “Picking up a bone from the way is a Sadaqah (Charity)”. He further said “Removing a harmful and dangerous thing from the way is also Sadaqah.” 31
  32. 32. Islam & Environment• Productive Use of the Environment• “Whosoever plants a tree, he will be rewarded with as much reward as is relevant to its yields” (Bukhari).• The Concept of Vice-Regency• The human being, in the Islamic perspective is considered a vicegerent of the environment and this vice regency carries heavy responsibilities to the future.• "Behold, your Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vice-regents on earth." (Qur’an, 2:30) 32
  33. 33. Islam & Environment• Living in Harmony with Nature• The ultimate objective of life for a Muslim is salvation which is achieved through peace and harmony.• "Salam, the Arabic root of the word "Islam," means "peace and harmony". Therefore, Islamic theologians argue that an "Islamic way of life entails living in peace and harmony" at individual and social as well as ecological levels (Hadith). 33
  34. 34. Christianity• an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament.• However, states division between the spiritual and the natural worlds, 34
  35. 35. Christianity &Environment Some have sought a way forward from within a transformed Christian tradition based on the inspiration of St Francis of Assisi, or on the idea of stewardship. Principle of Environmental Stewardship • God Created the Earth and All of Nature in it John 1:3. Through Him all things were made: without Him nothing was made that has been made. • God Teaches Humans through Nature Isaiah 11:9. They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea.Images taken from: all-bali.com 35
  36. 36. Christianity & EnvironmentPrinciple of Environmental Stewardship• God Expects Humans to be His Stewards with Nature Revelation 11:18. The nations were angry and your wrath has come. The time has come for rewarding your servants theprophets and your saints and those who reverence your name,both small and great - and for destroying those who destroy the earth.• Scripture clearly states that God created, blessed, protected and made a covenant with the different species. As stewards of His creation, Christian believers are called to do no less. It is their scriptural and moral duty to protect species and their habitat. 36
  37. 37. Judeo-Christian• Judeo-Christian is a term used in the United States since the 1940s to refer to standards of ethics said to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity,• Some have blamed Judeo-Christian thought for our ecological problems. o That man is to have rule and dominion over the earth justifies the notion that what can be done should be done. o Many have suggested that the problem is not technological, but philosophical. The Judeo-Christian heritage of the West must be abandoned. Sources: Rob Bohl, from http://www.northave.org/MGManual/Environ/Envir1.htm 37
  38. 38. Substitutes World View: • The world views of naturalism and pantheism have been offered as substitutes. • Within the naturalistic world view, the ultimate value is human survival. o Man cannot survive without a healthy planet. o We must act to preserve our planet in order to rescue the future of our future generation. • This view is ultimately pragmatic*. o The value of nature is degraded to the whim of egoistic man. o This view will ultimately be destructive in the long run. • * a philosophical tradition centered on the linking of practice and theory. It describes a process where theory is extracted from practice, and applied back to practice to form what is called intelligent practice. Father of pragmatism: Charles Sanders Peirce, American Polymath 38
  39. 39. Substitutes World View:• In the pantheistic world view, all of nature is equal because all is god and god is all. This thinking will be prevalent among New Age enthusiasts.• Nature is respected and valued because it is a part of the essence of god.• According to pantheistic, ―Human must act to save their planet because it has equal value with man‖. o But while pantheism elevates nature, it subsequently degrades man and will ultimately degrade nature. o Man has no more value than a blade of grass. o In pantheism, it is the whole of nature that has meaning. The individual particulars of nature do not have intrinsic meaning or value. • Therefore, the will to care about a particular species, for example, is derived only by romanticizing nature. • In practice, pantheism has no answer for the two faces of nature: benevolent and destructive. 39
  40. 40. Summary• As for Oriental, we talked about Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism, we can conclude that: o Human and nature are interrelated and cannot be separated from one another. o The concept of balance of yin-yang in Taoism and the Law of Karma of Buddhism/Hinduism precisely teach us the human being to behave accordingly and beware of such misbehaving could lead to natural disaster. o It has the same historical and philosophical value as all other philosophical and religious doctrines: it offers interesting metaphysical, value-theoretical and ethical views, which we must reflect on seriously. 40
  41. 41. Summary• As from perspectives of other religion such as Islam and Christianity (monotheistic religions), we can derivatively found that: • They believe in the concept of One God which comprised on their holy book: Quran and Bible • Both religions taught its followers the concept of Vice-Regency (vicegerent/khalifah) and Environmental Stewardship (for Christianity). Finally, one holistic conclusion that can be concluded from all examples are: be it Oriental or other religions such as Islam teach us:  the concept of we, human as part of nature NOT apart from nature, not totally in control of our nature (western views of nature such as Marxist political thinking stresses the importance of rational scientific control of nature and society)  The concept of interconnectedness of human and nature  Balancing act is supposedly important on which reminding us on the concept of yin-yang  it is also important for us to have views on comparative environmental thinking in enabling us to ‗see the world through an alternative frame of mind‘ concerning nature and us as a human being. 41
  42. 42. • References Geaney, Jane. ―Chinese Cosmology and Recent Studies in Confucian Ethics: A Review Essay.‖ Journal of Religious Ethics 28, no. 3 (2000): 451-470.• TAOISM AND CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENTAL LITERATURE Virginia M. Kane, B.A., B.S.• Buddhist contribution to environmental protection – Judge Weeramantry From http://www.asiantribune.com/index.php?q=node/6210• Islam, the environment and the human future - Judge Weeramantry from http://www.asiantribune.com/index.php?q=node/6426• Islam: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam• Ibadah: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibadah• Confucian Ethics and the Environment by Li Tianchen* from The Culture Mandala, 6 no. 1. 2003. from http://asrudiancenter.wordpress.com/2008/11/06/confucian-ethics-and-the-environment/• Buddhism: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism, http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/5minbud.htm• Acting with Compassion - Stephanie Kaza ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PRINCIPLES OF BUDDHISM – from http://www.dhushara.com/book/renewal/voices2/budfem.htm• Buddhism & Environmental Protection By Ven. Sheng-yen from http://greentheme.blogspot.com/2007/08/buddhism-environmental-protection.html• Christian: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian• Taoist Commandments and Environmental Protection from http://chinawestproducts.com/08/04/taoist-commandments- and-environmental-protection/• Daoism from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhuangzi• Judeo-Christian from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judeo-Christian• Maqasid al-syariah: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maqasid• A Christian View of the Environment by Ray Bohl from http://www.northave.org/MGManual/Environ/Envir1.htm• Judge Weeramantry focuses on Hindu contribution to environment protection: from http://www.asiantribune.com/index.php?q=node/6083• Taoism: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taoism• The Environment and the Dao by David Wright from http://www.sacu.org/daoenv.html• Confucian ethics and the environment Li Tianchen from http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cm/vol6/iss1/4/ 42

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