World Religions25.00%20.00%15.00%10.00% 5.00% 0.00%
Religions in India 1.90% 1.50%2.30% Hinduism 13.80% Islam Christianity Sikhism 80.50% Budhism, Jainism, other s
Early Religions (A way of life)Hinduism (80%): Earliest religion; “Hindu” = River Sindhu inNorthwest India during 2nd millennium BCE by the inhabitants ofthe region.Belief: Nature and hero worship. Later developed by Brahminpriests into a cult.A Supreme God: qualities and forms represented by a multitude ofdeities.Karma: Cycle of birth, death and rebirth.
BuddhismA state of impermanency S Siddartha Gautam Buddha: 6 Century BCE. S Nirvana (enlightenment): possible through practice and development of morality, meditation and wisdom. S Life is endless: we are reincarnated over and over in this suffering world. S Good and bad: impermanent; seeking for permanence of good and bad is cause of suffering.
Islam in India Submission to the will of GodS Revelation: Islam was revealed over 1400 years ago in Mecca.S God: One God, AllahS Jesus, Abraham, Moses are prophets and Muhammad is the last prophet.S These are the five pillars; declaration of faith, praying five times a day, giving money to charity, fasting and a pilgrimage to Mecca (at least once).S Came: Arab merchants came to Malabar Coast in the 7th C AD. In the North India in the 12th C AD.
Sikhism Monotheistic ReligionS Founded: 16 Century by Guru Nanak, and based on his teaching and his 9 gurus who followed him.S Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib; A living guruS Belief: One God, no form no gender. Everyone has direct access to God. Living a good life by caring for others.S Gurudwara: Worship place or a temple.
1. Early Church in India (Thomas Christians)S Story of St. Thomas: Came to India 52AD to spread the Gospel to the Jews of Kerala who came to India 562BCE after the destruction of the Temple.S Language & Liturgy: Syriac (a dialect of Aramaic) used by the Jews in India.S Mar Thoma (Church of Thomas): Thomas evangelized along Malabar Coast of Kerala in the South India. Along Periyar river, where Jewish colonies existed.S Martyrdom of St. Thomas: Chennai & buried at San Thome Cathedral.
San Thom Cathedral in ChennaiSt. Thomas believed tohave been buried here
4 th C MissionsS Christian Merchants: Flourishing trade with Central Asia, Mediterranean, and Middle East along Mountain passes in the North & Western and Eastern sea routes.S Travancore Manual: Thomas of Cana (a merchant & missionary): brought 400 Christians from Baghdad, Nineveh and Jerusalem in 345AD.S Colony of Syrian Christians: First recorded Christian Community in the South at Kondungallur.S Thus arrived Christianity in India in the 4th C AD for sure.
The earliest renovated existing Church in the South India: 52AD
Modern Missionary Enterprise (arrival of Catholicism)S The First Bishop of India: Jordanus Catalani (1320): French Dominican missionary in Gujarat & Quilon: Conversion take place.S Portuguese Mission 15C: Pope gives Asia to the care of King Afonso V in 1455 thus arrived Fransiscans, Dominicans, Jesuits, Augustinians etc.S Vasco da Gama: Missionaries arrived in Kerala along in 1498.S Pedro Álvares Cabral 1500: Arrived with 13 ships and 18 priests.S Diocese of Lisbon: Whole of the west was under the jurisdiction.S A Scar: Inquisição de Goa (1560-1812): To punish the recent converts who still followed their ancestral religion in secret. 16,202 persons were brought to trial.
Protestant Mission 1705 Lutherans: First protestant missionaries. Translated the bible to Tamil language then Hindustani etc. 18th C; protestant missionaries spread throughout the country. 19th C several Baptist American missionaries came into existence.
Catholicism Today Flourishing yet FadingS Flourishing Church: Contribution towards education (both primary & higher), Social Justice, pastoral, spiritual etc.S Work among the “lower people of the society” (Caste System) is commendable. =my experience of caste system=S Social Justice for the poor: A voice to the voiceless. Church had to pay the price, ex. Fr. AT Thomas (killed)S Inter-religious dialogue: An important initiative to unite all religions.
Christians have been persecuted sinceits emergence but it has been intensive in the last decade. Churches desecrated, Christians killed brutally, burnt alive, priests murdered, nuns raped, villages burnt, not allowed access to jobs etc.
Christians persecutedOrissa: Christians were persecutedAnd had to flee the village
My Christian Experience Family Prayer Rosary Litany of our Lady Petition Prayers Bible reading Angelus Blessing from elders
Family PrayerS Almost all religions do this, this is an integral part of Indians.S Catholics remain united through this form of prayer.S Children are taught to pray right at home.S Rosary is must for most Catholics.S Sunday Bible reflection: 7 steps of reading the Bible.
Two Zealous Jesuits in IndiaSt. John de Brito 1647-1693: Beheaded in, India His work resulted in conversion of a king. The king had to renounce all his wives. One of his wives caused the execution. Robert De Nobili 1577-1656 Learnt Tamil and adopted Life of Brahmins to convert them.
Society of Jesus 17 Provinces, 1 Region, 4700 Jesuits. Involved in; Education, Social work/Justice, Pastoral care, Spirituality, Inter religious dialogue, Medicine, Science, Research, etc.St. Aloysius College, Mangalore, India