<ul><li>Encompasses several strands of thought all of which usually share the conviction that REALITY is actually rationale in nature and that making the proper deductions is essential in achieving knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin word ratio, meaning reason-point of view that states that reason plays the main role in understanding the world and obtaining knowledge. </li></ul>
<ul><li>is “any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification.” in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive. </li></ul><ul><li>The philosophical view that regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge. Holding the reality itself has an inherent logical structure </li></ul>
JUSTIFICATION OF OUR BELIEFS IDEA SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE SOURCE OF CONCEPTUAL APPARATUS
While RATIONALISM has existed throughout the history of philosophy, it is usually associated specifically with three philosophers during the Renaissance
SHARED THE BELIEF THAT WE CAN BEST UNDERSTAND THE WORLD THROUGH LOGIC AND REASONING.
<ul><li>THEY WERE AGAINST CENTURIES OLD TRADITIONSWHICH TRIED TO BASE UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD UPON IDEAS PUT FORWARD BY THE 4 TH Century Greek Philosophers such as (Pythagoras, Parmendes, Zeno, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle) </li></ul>
For example, Aristotle believed that • The earth is the centre of the universe. • The sun and the planets orbit the earth. • The stars are fixed to a crystalline sphere and are unchanging and eternal.
1543 Copernicus argues that the movement of the stars and heavenly bodies is more “logical” if we consider the Sun as the centre of the solar system. 1572 Tycho Brahe discovers, through astronomical observations, that the stars are not stationary or unchanging. 1609 Based on Brahe’s work, Johannes Kepler formulates his 3 laws of planetary motion. 1638 Galileo Galilei publishes his Mathematical Discourses and Demonstations on Two New Sciences , outlining discoveries which directly contradict the views of Aristotle. 1687 Isaac Newton publishes his Principia Mathematica in which he sets out the theory of gravity, basing his work on the discoveries of Kepler and Galileo.
“ Some ideas are true independent of experience.” senses gives important information but sometimes it mislead us. They argued that knowledge which is independent of experience must be more trustworthy because it has less to do with senses.
<ul><li>Mathematical propositions (2+2=4) </li></ul><ul><li>Things which are true by definition (all bachelors are unmarried) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-evident truths (such as “I think therefore I am) </li></ul>
“ Some ideas are present from birth.” Ideas that do not require the proof or suggestion of sense experience, are concept which are present from birth.
It could be theoretically be discovered or brought out from within the mind of each individual. Example is Descartes arguments for the existence of God.
In order to pass your exam you have to study hard. (empirical necessity) In order to have 3 things you have to have more than two things . (logical necessity)
The question of whether God exists for example, depends on your concept of God or whether in fact you believe He exists. (empirical necessity)
<ul><li>It is logically possible that God does not exist; </li></ul><ul><li>b) However, the idea of God presupposes a perfect being; </li></ul><ul><li>c) For a perfect being not to exist would be an imperfection; </li></ul><ul><li>d) Therefore God must necessarily exist. </li></ul>
This argument - called the Ontological Argument - assumes the existence of this third type of necessity (metaphysical) which sits midway between what can and cannot be otherwise.
Knowledge via reason is superior. Innate knowledge is superior because everything is in the state of flux. Things are dying things are born. Can we trust this changing world? If were to rely on reason were immune from change since the law for math and physics aren’t subject to change.
<ul><li>Pythagoras – “All is Number” </li></ul><ul><li>Parmenides- “The world is a static whole and that the realm of change and motion is an illusion.” </li></ul><ul><li>Zeno – “The Paradoxes of Motion” Achilles and the Tortoise. </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates – “Know thyself” </li></ul><ul><li>Plato- Reason is above Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle – Syllogistic logic is the best method to reach the ultimate truth. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Rene Descartes “I think therefore I Am” </li></ul><ul><li>Benedict Spinoza – Man is not Free. All his actions are determined, by some forces greater than he is.” </li></ul><ul><li>G.W. Leibnez – Cause and Effect </li></ul>
<ul><li>Objections to innate ideas. How is it possible to distinguish “remembering” from learning? If we cant, doesn’t that make the idea redundant? </li></ul><ul><li>Most idea seems to rely in some way on the real world to bring them out. </li></ul><ul><li>If mathematical ideas are innate, wouldn’t we already know the answers to complicated sum? </li></ul><ul><li>If ideas such as “God exists” are innate, why doesn’t everyone believe that? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Family should be as the basic foundation of the state and should provide the first educational experience of the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Education of the individual should attend to the development of the physical, moral, and intellectual aspects of his life. </li></ul><ul><li>The individuals from birth should be given basic education at home in preparation for formal schooling. </li></ul><ul><li>Education to be efficacious should develop the total personality of the individual with special stress on his intellectual growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Education must enable man to know, to say and do all things. Because of this its ultimate goal is the development of its capacity to think rationally, reason out logically and act prudently. </li></ul>