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CATALYST Strategic Design Review: Issue 2

CATALYST Strategic Design Review: Issue 2



I was the executive editor for this issue of CATALYST and Art Directed the design of the interior pages. I also wrote the executive summary of Ray Anderson's book, Radical Industrialist.

I was the executive editor for this issue of CATALYST and Art Directed the design of the interior pages. I also wrote the executive summary of Ray Anderson's book, Radical Industrialist.



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    CATALYST Strategic Design Review: Issue 2 CATALYST Strategic Design Review: Issue 2 Document Transcript

    • Issue 3 I SPRING 2010 Designing Climate-Safe EconomiesCradle to CradleTransitioning from Waste Incineration Greening Consumer ElectronicsBuilding a Sustainable Economy, One Village at a Time Sustainable South BronxTools for CATALYZING Change CATALYSTS: News from Members and Friends of the Pratt Design Management Program
    • CATALYST Perspective Table of ContentsThe Director of the Pratt Design Management Program introduces the significance of this issue of CATALYST 1 The climate talks in Copenhagen presented an historic opportunity for a few decision makers to shape the future of the six to nine billion people not CATALYST 3 represented at the summit. Some 10,000 delegates had the opportunity to Perspective From the balance the need to create economic value with the need to create economies CATALYST 5 that value life and community wellbeing. Blog CATALYZING Copenhagen did not deliver on its goal of continued economic growth, the Conversation accompanied by poverty reduction and restorative practices that assure the robust viability of our life support system. Action is now stalled as are 7 most economies. Cradle to Cradle: Transitioning from Waste Incineration to Beneficial Materials This issue of CATALYST focuses on those who will not be stalled. Those Cradle to Cradle author, Michael Braungart, and his already working to create climate-safe economies using cradle to cradle co-authors present new opportunities for waste practices. It offers hope and the power of example. 15 Cradle We focus on real life and real-time efforts that are already improving lives Greening and communities while adding economic value. We track the impact of cradle Consumer Electronics to cradle practice in restoring community and natural capital. We explore Through Strategic Design waste management practices that can create economic value while enabling Q&A with Clean Production to Cradle and enlivening. And, by so doing, we attempt to re-imagine and re-design Action (CPA) the economic models that have created catastrophic risk as a by-product of economic growth. Binding agreements are made by governments, but we cannot wait for governments to come to agreement on designing climate-safe economies. 23 We must come together across national boundaries and disciplines and © The Design Building a Management Sustainable Economy, commit to action even as our politicians deliberate. Life-centered design Program of principles and cradle to cradle thinking can deliver a future of energy Pratt Institute, One Village at a Time security, economic wellbeing and low carbon growth. Communities can February 2010 Agros International is using prosper as markets do. The idea of balancing the needs of economy, equity microfinancing principles to and environment are not a naïve hope, but rather, the only hope of sound eradicate poverty economic growth. Executive Editor: What to Expect Climate change presents risks that we cannot take and opportunities that Erin Weber CATALYST Voices we must seize to design and build an infrastructure for the future. Design CATALYST was designed to stimulate matters. Strategic design can make a difference; “For good or for bad, our globalized inventiveness is fusing our destinies into one civilization. So Editorial Board: Holly Burns thinking and encourage conversation about the role of strategic design in defining 37 Sustainable South Bronx: together, humanity must choose wisely, and in this lifetime. Our common Dante Clemons and developing an economically, socially future is our common design challenge.”1 Designing Pathways to a Maggie de la Vega and environmentally sustainable future. Serniqua Dougherty We have included numerous external links Sustainable Community Co-authored by an adjunct professor Copenhagen was an event. The process of change is ongoing. The trend Maren Maier throughout the text and in the form of Highlights include a collaboration is positive. We are entering the Post Solution Economy. We now have Mary McBride “related resources” at the end of each article. with the Pratt Design Incubator the tools and theories needed to make sustainable practice the norm. Kevin Rorick CATALYST is accompanied by a blog that is This issue highlights the way we make things and the way economies are Denise Tahara our means of continuing the conversation changing – today. Adam Zoltowski between publications. Blog posts are related to, as well as, unique from those in the digital 47 CATALYST is an international dialogue on strategic design sponsored and Visual Design: Aditi Mukherjee publication. You can find the CATALYST blog on our website: Tools for CATALYZING Change published by the graduate program in Design Management at Pratt Institute of The Global Deal by Nicholas Stern Art and Design. Hot Flat & Crowded by Thomas Friedman Illustrations: http://www.CATALYSTsdr.com Risk Metrics Climate Change Resource Center Aditi Mukherjee Dr. Mary McBride Director of the Design Management Program at Pratt Institute Editors: 49 The next CATALYST theme will be Eileen Kiley & Kristin Leu Designing Wellbeing CATALYSTS Please submit article concepts and News from Alumni and Staff of the Cover Photograph: recommendations for resources to: Pratt Design Management Program 1. Berman, David B. Do Good Design. New Riders, 2009. p16. Ira Lippke ©2009 CATALYSTsdr@gmail.com Mary McBride & GauRav Khanna CRADLE TO CRADLE 2
    • From the CATALYST BlogHighlights from the timely and diverse content found at www.CATALYSTsdr.com/blog The Femme Den Have something to say? The CATALYST blog is seeking authors with a fresh perspective and a passion for topics surrounding Why we should listen to the Super Women the theme of strategic design. CATALYST bloggers contribute monthly posts about topics that align with their personal area of expertise. at SMART Design. Email CATALYSTsdr@gmail.com if you are interested in joining our team! by Holly Burns Women are not inherently passive or peaceful. We’re not inherently anything but SEE Project (Europe): human. ~Robin Morgan Design Policy Developments Four employees at SMART Design are Why it’s successful. Using their strategic by Anna Whicher & Gisele Raulik-Murphy designing for what women are – not what design toolkit, the Femme Den designs they’re assumed to be. Whitney Hopkins, products while keeping the female brain and With the conclusion of 2009, there are Agnete Enga, Erica Eden and Yvonne Lin body in mind. In their own words, “Our end many exciting design policy developments are members of an internal collective, the game is to bridge the gap between assump- at the three policy levels in Europe: the Luxurious India Femme Den, at SMART Design. They got tions and realities about women to explore European Union (EU), the Member States An exploration of the opportunities and To begin with, international brands need started in 2005 when Nike hired two of the underdeveloped opportunity for good and Regions. In the coming months the challenges of the expansion of luxury goods to understand that Indian consumers the women to help an all-male design team design.” The Femme Den often gathers men European Commission will be drafting a into the Indian market. are vastly different from their western turn around the low sales of their women’s and women separately, to informally discuss new innovation act, in which design will be counterparts and not only that, but Indian watches. Before then, Nike’s watches had design so they can take their perspectives a key component. Design is also included in by Sapna Shah consumers in New Delhi or Punjab have been designed to include athletic gadgets into account. the policy agenda within the individual EU different purchasing behavior than their A trip to Mumbai, India’s financial capital that made for a rather bulky watch. With the member states. Sharing Experience Europe counterparts in Gujarat or Bangalore. From medical attire to army fatigues and and glamour hub, leaves you reeling as you help of the women designers the watches (SEE), a network of eleven design organiza- India’s geographic expanse ensures a nation equipment to technology, the women of the walk through the newly developed malls were redesigned, sales quickly increased, tions across Europe led by Design Wales, with a highly diverse culture and one that Femme Den are rethinking design in order selling high-end luxury goods from brands and the value of Femme Den realized. has been working hard to lobby national and makes it essential for brands to understand to ergonomically accommodate the female like Louis Vuitton to Rolls Royce. The stark and appreciate this difference in forming regional governments to incorporate design Filling a gap. The Femme Den’s primary gender and improve performance. Read and creativity into public policy. The project For each of these priorities, the SEE Policy images of slum life shown in Slumdog relationships with these segments. This complaint about current design for women about their five guidelines to help designers is co-financed by the European Regional Booklet outlines the drivers and obstacles Millionaire seem a distant reality as you involves going above and beyond superficial is that design teams often try to target make the connection by clicking here. While Development Fund through the Innovation for enhancing the performance of regional come to terms with the emergence of the marketing stunts that bring an Indian female consumers by making things pink or I’m not completely sold on their name (re- & Environment Regions of Europe Sharing innovation policy, explores how design new Indian consumer market. According celebrity onboard to endorse the brand using other stereotypes in an effort to reach minds me of a room that might be at Hugh Solutions (INTERREG IVC) programme. can be used to address the issue, provides to Neilsen, a research group, India is the or use Indian colors, prints or fabrics to the female market. According to the Femme Hefner’s estate), I do like their ideas and illustrative case studies and puts forward third-most brand conscious country in the design new products. Secondly, the Indian Den, “women buy or influence up to 80% of “smart design.” What do you think? Check In November 2009, SEE launched its first policy proposals. world, trailing behind only Greece and Hong elite are accustomed to shopping abroad consumer goods.” Yet, the design world as out the Fast Company article for more Policy Booklet: Integrating Design Into Kong. TimesOnline reported estimates by and expect the same level of variety and SEE has now set itself a number of targets a whole does not design with this in mind. details about the Femme Den. Regional Innovation Policy. This publication AT Kearney showing that by 2015 India will customer service in New Delhi that they get for raising the profile of design amongst re- hit about 15 billion pounds in annual spend- presents an overview of innovation policy in New York. This presents international gional policy-makers as a strategic process ing on luxury goods, a dramatic increase priorities in the SEE partner regions. These brands with the challenge of providing for identifying challenges and proposing from 2008’s 2 billion. According to Forbes priorities were identified from national these advantages in India to lure these sustainable solutions. The timing is apt Asia, the total net worth of India’s 100 rich- and regional policy documents and were customers while they may not attain the as much attention is currently focused on est people in 2008 was approximately $276 weighed against the strategic priorities for same sales volume in both places yet. innovation as a means out of the enduring billion, about 25% of the country’s gross innovation identified by the European Com- Lastly, international brands looking to economic stalemate. Therefore, there is a domestic product, with the number of Indian mission. From this comparative analysis successfully establish themselves in India real opportunity for design to contribute billionaires rising from 27 to 52 last year. six common key issues emerged across the need to build excellent relationships with to recovery and addressing societal chal- Despite the general assumption and belief policy agendas: customers, business partners as well as lenges. 2010 could see significant design that international luxury brands will enjoy the Indian authorities. In most cases, this policy developments across Europe – -Innovation in Services significant gains in the Indian market, most requires the identification and formation you can follow our progress on the SEE -Public Procurement of them have not had the expected success of proper business partnerships in India project website. -Collaborative Clusters & Networks in wooing Indian consumers. Why is it that to gain access to established human -Lead Markets & Eco-innovation international behemoths like Liz Claiborne, resources, processes, technology, supply, This is the first of four Policy Booklets to -Intellectual Property Rights Pierre Cardin, Bally and more recently distribution and information know-how to be published between 2009 and 2011. An -Broadening the Scope of Innovation Jimmy Choo had to retreat from the Indian build profitable customer relationships. electronic copy of the booklet is available to market? Part of the reason is that most download from the SEE website: brands try to use the one-size-fits-all model Although the road ahead for international http://seeproject.org/publications. and apply the same kind of thinking that has brands in India is filled with challenges, worked well for them in their home markets most find it impossible to resist the lure of to India. How can these brands apply strate- the world’s largest free-market democracy gic thinking to gain competitive and sustain- with a complex yet growing and increas- Read more posts on the CATALYST blog at: able advantage in the Indian market? ingly attractive consumer market! www.CATALYSTsdr.com/blog 3 CATALYSTsdr.com CRADLE TO CRADLE 4
    • CATALYZING the ConversationAn introduction to this theme of CATALYST Strategic Design Review Cradle to Cradle® Cradle to Cradle (C2C) design enhances quality and adds value by taking inspira- The C2C paradigm sets design principles based on renewable energy and materi- encourage a shift from “doing less bad” to “doing good,” creating long-term positive ef- Remaking the Way We Make Things tion from nature, where everything is a als recycling in continuous pathways. This fects on the environment and human health. nutrient for something else: waste = food. innovative approach encourages a new and (Some passages courtesy Philips Electronics) C2C is the antithesis of the “Cradle to profitable model for business, by redefin- True recycling is when all materials can be used repeatedly within nature or industry as biological or technical nutrients. Grave” paradigm, where products disap- ing the way design decisions are made that pear in landfills or incinerate at the end of their useful life. Technical Biological Nutrients: Nutrients: Materials that can be used in Organic materials that, continuous metabolisms without once used, can be disposed losing their integrity or quality. of in the natural environ- In this manner these materials ment and decomposed in can be used over and over again the soil, providing benefits instead of being “downcycled” to life forms. into undefined products, ulti- mately becoming waste. 5 CATALYSTsdr.com CRADLE TO CRADLE 6
    • Supervising AuthorDr. Michael Braungart is a chemist and CRADLE TO CRADLE:cofounder of Cradle to Cradle® Design and MBDCMcDonough Braungart Design Chemistry inCharlottesville, Virginia. He has pioneered a newparadigm in which humans can create a positiveecological footprint by redesigning products andsystems to support a life-cycle economy.Dr. Braungart developed the Cradle to Cradle® TRANSITIONING FROM WASTE INCINERATIONframework as a tool to help businesses redesignusing renewable biological and technicalpathways. TO BENEFICIAL MATERIALSHe is the scientific director of EnvironmentalProtection Encouragement Agency (EPEA)Internationale Umweltforschung GmbH and Lead Author Dr. Tanja Scheelhaase, EPEA Internationale Umweltforschungcontinues to lecture at universities around theworld.Co-authorsDouglas Mulhall, THE CURRENT SITUATIONCo-author and Editor, Senior Researcher, Cradleto Cradle Chair, Erasmus University Waste incineration as practiced today is a low-quality, end-of-pipe technology,Haixiang Qian, requiring a new cradle to cradle design strategy. The process of burningCo-Author, EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung waste through incineration is widely used in many countries around the world.Timo Siegmund, Recently, a new type of commercial waste incineration has gained in popularity,Co-Author, EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung based on a concept called “Waste to Energy.” Under the umbrella of “green energy” generation, these new waste treatment facilities burn waste to create secondary fuel, offering an alternative to primary energy sources, such as coal. This secondary fuel, also known as “Residue Derived Fuel” (RDF), is a mix of household, industrial and commercial waste, conditioned for extracting high caloric value to increase its electricity generation potential. Unfortunately, theExecutive Summary demand for “Waste to Energy” fuel is increasing as more incinerators are built. To feed the industry’s appetite, more and more valuable materials are used as Mixed waste incineration, often referred to as “Waste to Energy,” “energy RDF, consequently sending the entire waste stream, including nutrients for recovery,” or “thermal treatment” is widely recognized as a promising‘green technology.’ These new incinerators burn waste to create alterna- recycling to the plants. Over time, this has created a significant overcapacity of tive energy in the form of electricity and are growing in abundance around incineration facilities in places such as northern Europe, generating a suction the world, In reality, however, “Waste to Energy” contributes to environ- effect for materials that are otherwise recyclable. mental degradation and climate change at levels far beyond the short-term benefits gained from producing secondary fuel. “Waste to Energy” is literally wasting valuable resources by exacerbating raw material short- ages and intensifying the loss of CO2-capturing topsoil. It also prevents effective recycling solutions due to competition for high-caloric recyclable content. In this article, scientists working with Prof. Michael Braungart through EPEA develop a Cradle to Cradle strategy for transitioning from“Waste to Energy” to a more effective strategic design: re-capturing ben- eficial materials that encourage true recycling instead of downcycling, and re-designing products so their materials can be recovered effectively.
    • SECONDARY FUEL – “Without more SHORTAGE OF RARE METALS raw material. Without more aggressive recycling initiatives, WASTING NUTRIENTS antimony, which is used to make flame retardant materials, aggressive recycling Worldwide consumption of raw materials is unsustainable will run out in 15 years, and silver in 10 years. Zinc, which This new “Waste to Energy” paradigm fails to consider the initiatives, antimony, at its current pace. Loss of natural forests to agricultural is important for the human immune system, could be high nutrient value of waste or the hazardous impacts of burning them for cheap fuel. Through incineration, we are which is used to land exceeds 5-7 million hectares globally per year.4,5,6 Oil, uranium, heavy metals and phosphate have already been exhausted by 2037. Finally, terbium, which is used to make the green phosphors in fluorescent light bulbs, could run out throwing away exhaustible raw materials, along with the make flame retardant the subject of numerous wars, and in the last ten years, the before 2012. Even reserves of such commonplace elements energy needed to mine natural resources and manufacture them into consumable products. With this approach, not materials, will run use of many rare metals has accelerated at an alarming rate. For example, indium is being used in unprecedented as copper, nickel and phosphorus used in fertilizer might run out in the not-too-distant future, given current rates of only do we lose valuable nutrients, we also create an out in 15 years, and quantities for making LCDs on flat-screen TVs and tantalum consumption.7 aggressive disincentive for materials’ reuse.1 This is proven silver in 10 years.” is used to make compact electronic devices like cell phones, and hafnium used to make computer chips. Global indium Unfortunately, the recycling rate of most of these metals is by the fact that the rates of recycled waste have not increased in the last few years despite the availability and and hafnium reserves are estimated to last 10 years at best. very low. Hardly any indium, tantalum or gallium is recycled, high potential of recycling technologies 2. Indium’s impending scarcity can already be reflected in and as a result, these essential nutrients find their way to its price: in January 2003 the metal sold for around $60 per incineration plants or landfill sites and are lost indefinitely. Many governments seem to have forgotten that material kilogram; by August 2006 the price had risen to over $1000 Therefore, we are creating a material problem that is much ALUMINIUM recycling is essential for solving the increasing scarcity of (transport, per kilogram, leveling off at a modest $700 per kilogram in more imminent than our perceived energy shortage.1, 2, 4 raw materials on the world market. Setting policies that electrical, September 2009.7 For these reasons, a focus on designing high-quality consumer materials recovery is the sensible path. issue renewable energy tax credits to “Waste to Energy” durables) YEARS incinerators only makes matters worse. In this way, a Another telling example is the metal gallium, which along 1027 1000 standard end of pipe paradigm has been set for the next with indium is used to make indium gallium arsenide. 20 years, representing the lifetime of these facilities. Our This is the semi-conducting material at the heart of aFig. 1 society has established a paradigm of self-impoverishment new generation of solar cells. Reserves of both metals are in natural resources.1, 3 disputed, but the current estimation would inhibit these cells from substantially contributing to the future supply of solar electricity. In fact, estimates show that gallium andHow many indium will probably factor less than one percent of all PLATINUM (jewelry, 500 future solar cells, a limitation imposed purely by a lack ofyears left? 510 PHOSPHORUS (fertilizer, catalysts, fuel cells for cars) animal feed) 360 a IF THE WORLD 345 CONSUMES AT CHROMIUM TODAY’S RATE TANTALUM (chrome reserve base / (cellphones, plating, paint) annual global camera lenses) consumption 116 143 NICKEL 142 100 (assuming global (batteries, consumption = turbine blades) global production) 2007 2007 World Population US Population 90 6,580,000,000 301,000,000 Information graphic: b IF THE WORLD Gordon et. al. 2006 CONSUMES AT PNAS 103:1209-1214 HALF THE US New Scientist 2007: CONSUMPTION COPPER figures based on data RATE (wire, coins, from US Geological URANIUM reserve base / plumbing) Survey and UN statistics (weapons, (1/2 US per capita on global population. power stations) consumption 2006 x 61 world population) 59 LEAD GOLD 57 ZINC (lead pipes, (galvanizing) (jewelry, batteries) 50 dental) TIN 42 46 45 40 SILVER (cans, solder) 40 (jewelry, 40 40 42 catalytic ANTIMONY 38 36 (drugs) 30 converters) 34 30 29 30 20 20 20 INDIUM 17 19 (LCDs) 10 13 13 10 9 8 YEARS REMAINING 0 4 0 YEARS 9 CATALYSTsdr.com CRADLE TO CRADLE: FROM WASTE INCINERATION TO BENEFICIAL MATERIALS 10
    • WASTE DOES NOT BURN WHEN MOST “WASTE TO ENERGY” INCINERATION AS The decisive factor is the right “energy- processes. Because of its high incineration NUTRIENTS ARE REMOVED “RENEWABLE ENERGY” harvesting technology.” The technology to capacities, bio-waste is not separately collected harvest solar energy and other renewable energy and composted or digested in many countries, sources is widely accepted and rapidly being including many parts of Germany. Therefore, The heating value of waste depends on ‘hi- CLAIMS ARE DECEPTIVE caloric’ fractions like paper, plastics and organics, developed worldwide. Creating cheap fuel from these essential materials are lost to the nutrient which create the high temperatures necessary waste is not required to supplement solar income, cycle and the topsoil production process.1, 17 Recent research discredited claims that for effective secondary fuel generation. When and instead interferes with strategic allocation incineration produces “green” and “renewable” these are removed from the incineration stream, of energy investments.1 energy by demonstrating that some standard through appropriate product design and proper “Waste to Energy” incinerators produce more material flow management for separation and carbon dioxide from fossil fuels (such as plastics STRATEGY FOR TRANSITIONING FROM recycling, there is no appreciable heating value of in rubbish) than a gas-fired power station.11 The “The Government and INCINERATION TO A CRADLE TO the residual waste. independent study shows that electricity-only CRADLE ECONOMY incinerators currently produce 33 percent more waste industry must stop In fact, by removing most materials like paper, fossil fuel derived CO2 per unit energy generated peddling the myth that Despite many available technologies to effectively wood, plastics, and textiles out of the waste stream, more than 80 percent of the heating than a gas fired power station. By 2020, with waste incineration is green or recycle materials, most products on the market increases in recycling and improved technology, such as paper, plastics, and non-ferrous metals value is lost. This suggests that incineration is these incinerators will pollute almost as heavily renewable energy. Incinerators and their ingredients are not designed for nutrient not only a barrier to effective recycling, it is also in terms of CO2 emissions as new or refitted coal- can generate electricity, but recovery. Those products contain multiple an obsolete option.1 fired power stations, and 78 percent worse than additives, which are sometimes harmful either new gas-fired power stations.12 they produce more climate to the environment or to humans and other emissions than a gas-fired organisms. Low-quality materials with various “WASTE TO ENERGY” INHIBITS Friends of the Earth summarized the situation this power station.” additives inhibit the reuse or recycling of their THE NUTRIENT CYCLE AND BLOCKS way: “The Government and waste industry must nutrients as post-consumer products,1 which INNOVATION stop peddling the myth that waste incineration motivates businesses to simply incinerate the is green or renewable energy. Incinerators can materials to get rid of the problem. Despite a Many environmentally and ecologically sound generate electricity, but they produce more INCINERATION recent temporary drop in prices of resources climate emissions than a gas-fired power station. and recycled materials from 2008 to 2009, the recycling technologies exist today, and many WORSENS THE CO2 PROBLEM additional methods are being developed to The Government must make it clear that they persistent trend is clear. Prices of resources are process biological and technical nutrients, such will not support the building of such polluting Incineration of bio-waste also hinders topsoil increasing as they become more difficult and as non-ferrous metals more effectively. Copper, plants. Using these incinerators to produce production. Compost is essential for humus expensive to extract from the natural environment. for instance, has high recycling potential and energy will undermine Government attempts to production and for rebuilding topsoil that This price increase opens a door to a new is especially important for use in electronics tackle climate change. Ministers must back truly sequesters CO2. More than twice as much because of its electrical conductivity. The copper renewable energy sources instead.”13 CO2 is bonded in soil and biomass as in Fig. 2 content in incineration slag averages 0.64 the atmosphere.16 (See atmosphere and soil percent, and scientists are exploring ways to The energy balance of incineration plants shows quantities in Figure 2). THE CARBON CYCLE economically recover these high levels in spite they may be more properly termed “Energy- Wasting” plants.1, 14 An energy balance of a AND STORAGE of the complexity of slag. Comparatively, the In the last 200 years, industrial countries lost total copper content in natural ore also averages facility must include energy required for plant approximately 50 percent of their topsoil due to atmosphere 750 + 3.4 / YEAR carbon flow in gross ton (GT)/year less than one percent1 and involves an intensive construction, and energy required for substitute various factors including industrial agriculture mining process. Even as the copper “reserves- fuel production and refining. Taken together with carbon store in gross ton (GT)/year to-production” ratio is estimated at 32 years, the primary energy input, auxiliary power and loss of worldwide recycling rate of copper is down to heat, secondary fuel facilities clearly need more CO2 exhalation photosynthesis only 10 percent).8,9 Plastic materials offer another energy input than they produce. 50 100 2 telling example, where roughly 55 percent of all plastics are burned for energy recovery, rather The calculations in Figure 3 (page 14) illustrate volcanism that the world does not have an energy problem 0.1 diffusion than recycled for re-use.10 The increasing “Waste energy use vegetation 550 to Energy” thermal treatment trend eclipses that necessitates combustion of waste for deforestation 6 ± 0.5 2 ± 0.8 90 90 advances in recovery techniques, blocking the generating energy. Available solar and degradation degradation necessary innovations for top quality recycling of income is more than a thousand 1.6 ±1 50 plastics, paper and biological waste treatment, as fold greater than our well as the design for recovery of biological and present energy 50 technical nutrients.1 needs.15 dieback ocean 40,000 Mix Bed 35 soil 1,500 Tide 35 fossil fuel 5,000 Deep Sea 0.2 sediment 100,000,000 Sedimentation11 CATALYSTsdr.com
    • Cradle to Cradle® (see pages 5&6) economy, The combination of those strategies rather than REFERENCES Fig 3. Solar income in comparison to human demand where companies can gain internal profits from any one single approach produces a profitable “Available solar income is more than a recovering beneficial materials from products. result for recycling resources. 1 EPEA GmbH, “Zunkunft: Verbrennen?“ Von der The steps to achieving profitable cradle to cradle Abfallverbrennung hin zur Kreislaufschöpfunf nach thousand fold greater than our present metabolisms are summarized here: WASTE INCINERATION CAN BE A Cradle to Cradle®, Scheelhaase, Semisch, Hamburg 2008 energy needs” TRANSITION TECHNIQUE ONLY IF NARROWLY DEFINED 122 ,000,000,“Prices of resources are increasing. 2 EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung GmbH, 00 : Thesen zu “Neue Ersatzbrennstoff-Anlagen – kein ity 0 c Ersatz für intelligentes Stoffstrommanagement“, This price increase opens a door ,00 pa “Waste to Energy” incineration is only ecologically Hamburg Mai 2007 Solar Ca 0,00 worthwhile as a transition technique for products to a new cradle to cradle® economy, that cannot be recycled. In such cases, it is 0 watts 3 NABU Deutschland; Studie: Müllverbrennung in important to establish energy recovery from Deutschland wächst unkontrolliert – Recycling ist where companies can gain internal the high caloric fraction thermal treatment gefährdet, Müllimport wird attraktiver; (2009) and limit it to cases where a defined transition profits from recovering beneficial strategy is underway. 4 Ecoprog/Fraunhofer Institut Umwelt-,Sicherheits-, Energietechnick UMSICHT: Der Weltmarkt für materials from products.” If thermal treatment is necessary to incinerate Müllverbrennungsanlagen, Köln/Oberhausen 2008 Human Energy Consumption: poorly designed products that are not recyclable, 5 Norddeutsche Affinerie: Geschäftsbericht 2005/2006 12,000,000,000,000 watts then modular “Waste to Energy” facilities provide 6 EPEA, Bedeutung von Kompost, für Erhalt und 1 Establish nutrient pathways for ingredients, the preferred option as an interim solution. Verbesserung der Bodenqualität, Hamburg 2003 Strategy In Action materials and products so they can be used as A modular facility starts with a module for biological or technical nutrients. mechanical treatment of waste fractions followed 7 David Cohen, Earth’s natural wealth: an audit, by several combustion modules. These modules NewScientist.com news service , 23 May 2007 2 Rematerialize biological nutrients to can have the same capacity as combustion www.science.org.au/nova/newscientist/ 027ns_005.htm Profitable Recycling chambers of conventional incinerators, but the simultaneously generate energy and reusable big advantage is more flexibility with several materials. Sample metabolism processes include 8 U.S. Department of the Interior; USGS Mineral » Establish nutrient pathways for ingredients, small combustion modules. The benefit is that biodigestion, composting, fermentation, and the system need not rely on huge amounts of Commodity Specialist, Minerals Yearbook materials and products so they can be used as gasification, which factor in CO2 sequestration, biological or technical nutrients (pages 6 & 7) waste as in conventional systems. A modular 9 Gerling, P. & Wellmer, F.: Wie lange gibt es noch Erdöl humus regeneration and reuse for fertilizing. organization has the ability to adapt to the und Erdgas? available fuel. In: Chem. unserer Zeit, 2005, 39, S. 236-245 » Rematerialize biological nutrients 3 Establish Preference Lists (P-Lists) for chemicals and materials in industrial products 10 Ayres, R. U., Ayres, L. W., Rade, I. : The Life cycle » Establish Preference Lists (P-Lists) for so they can either be safely released into the of Copper, its Co-Products and By-Products. IIED, biosphere, recycled effectively at the same quality CONCLUSION Fontainebleau Cesex 2002 chemicals and materials level instead of down cycled, or down cycled in 11 Plastics Europe: Consultic Studie 2005 Produktion, » Design for assembly and disassembly safe and defined pathways which lead back to Waste incineration is an end-of-pipe technology Verarbeitung und Verwertung von Kunststoffen in biological metabolisms. based on the Cradle to Grave paradigm. It is not Deutschland the best solution for energy recovery or waste » Establish dedicated collecting logistics and 4 Design for assembly and disassembly to make disposal, and if set as a standard, it will inhibit all 12 EUNOMIA research&consulting, A changing climate recycling lines efforts for material cycles. for energy from Waste? Report for friends of Earth products as technical nutrients that can be easily (FOE), May 2006 put together and taken apart. » Celebrate diversity The preferred pathway is an effective 13 EUNOMIA research&consulting, A changing climate 5 Establish dedicated collecting logistics product-design concept involving optimal for energy from Waste? Report for friends of Earth » Establish new supply chain partnerships and recycling lines that profitably separate separation in biological and technical nutrients (FOE), May 2006 and recover resources from pre- and post- and complete reuse of materials at the same quality level. Recovery of nutrients such as 14 Friends of the Earth’s Senior Waste Campaigner, Dr consumer products. Michael Warhurst, 2006 phosphorous, metals, and essential elements is 6 Celebrate diversity and design systems necessary to a sustainable industrial system in 15 Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft; for regions with differing infrastructures and the 21st Century. MÜLLVERBRENNUNGVERSUS RELATED RESOURCES materials requirements. KREISLAUFWIRTSCHAFT“; Heft 03/2008 Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things 16 Solar-terrestrische Strahlungsbilanz, Michael Braungart and William McDonough, North 7 Establish new supply chain partnerships, http://www.schulphysik.de/bilanz2.html [28.03.07] Point Press, N.Y.: 2002. such as open mechanisms for cross-link cooperation, materials pooling between 17 Huhn B., Der Kohlenstoffkreislauf CATALYST WEBSITE different industries and exchanging innovations 18 Oechtering, A.: Potenzial zur Optimierung und in individual industries. zum Ausbau der Kompostierung, BIOMASSE-FORUM Continue the conversation about Waste Energy Witzenhausen 24. – 25. October 2007 alternatives on: CATALYSTsdr.com13 CATALYSTsdr.com CRADLE TO CRADLE: FROM WASTE INCINERATION TO BENEFICIAL MATERIALS 14
    • Alexandra J. McPhersonManaging Director, Clean Production ActionFor the past twelve years, Alexandra McPherson has workedin the environmental nonprofit industry developing andleveraging support for policy and business solutions to someof our most pressing environmental challenges. She haswritten publications and developed initiatives that demonstratethe viability of new solutions such as Green Chemistry andproducer responsibility. through strategicIn 2001, Ms. McPherson was chosen to launch a new dynamicstart-up organization, Clean Production Action (CPA), whichis dedicated to designing solutions for greener chemicals,sustainable materials and environmentally preferred products.Ms. McPherson directs CPA’s programmatic work in theelectronics sector with the aim of establishing tools and designresources that allow for the use of sustainable material systems.She has co-authored numerous publications, including thefirst toolkit on extended producer responsibility (an innovativematerial strategy that holds producers responsible for thelife cycle impact of their products) and Greening ConsumerElectronics: the move away from Bromine and Chlorine. “Thousands of substances are used to meet the highly complex and technical performance requirements of today’s electronic products.Executive Summary As growing volumes of consumer electronicElectronics manufacturers, standards bodies andlegislators have begun to take notice of the human products enter the waste and recyclinghealth and environmental concerns associated with streams, substances of high concern arethe use of brominated and chlorinated compounds unintentionally released into the environment.in electronic products. An array of conflicting At present, the infrastructure to safely reusedefinitions and policies have emerged to address and recycle obsolete equipment is insufficient.these concerns at various levels. A new reportcalled Greening Consumer Electronics is intended In addition, electronic waste, one of theto show the feasibility of re­ ngineering consumer e fastest growing waste streams in the world, iselectronic products in order to avoid the use of these increasingly exported to developing countriescompounds. It recommends a definition to address with even less capacity for appropriatehuman health and environmental concerns that can beimplemented by various industries. waste management.CATALYST editors Maggie de la Vega and Kevin Rorick In 2003, the European Union respondedsat down with Alexandra McPherson to learn more. with two precedent-setting directives: WEEE, the Waste from Electronic and Electrical Equipment directive, which requires companies to take back and recycle their equipment; and RoHS, the Restriction of Hazardous Substance directive, which restricts the use of certain heavy metals and brominated flame retardants.” Greening Consumer Electronics
    • Bromine and chlorine­based compounds are - used ubiquitously in the production of today’s Q: Why is the removal CATALYST insight: Q: Can you elaborate on modern electronic products as flame retardants, of bromine and chlorine “Elemental Approach” the “elemental approach” solvents, dyes, adhesives, and plastic resins. Until in consumer electronics is the method of focusing on chemicals and how designers can recently, electronics manufacturers did not limit imperative and how are on the group level incorporate it into their the concentrations of bromine and chlorine used these elements linked to instead of as individual compounds. design process? in their products. But in response to the growing climate change? human health and environmental problems Most chemical management programs are associated with the use of these compounds, Electronic products are going to be a critical part focused on single substance restrictions. For leading manufacturers are now assessing the of the solution to climate change. It is estimated example, legislation in Europe restricts certain chemistry of their products and engineering that billions of tons of carbon emissions can be brominated (bromine-based) compounds for use solutions to avoid the use of brominated and reduced through the development of “smart” in electronic products. Many manufacturers are chlorinated chemicals. products, buildings, cities and transportation going beyond legal compliance by targeting systems that greatly increase human efficiency. additional high volume applications of bromine Clean Production Action (CPA) and ChemSec As the global community looks to electronic and chlorine like brominated flame retardants and have compiled case studies that provide products to further a climate-safe economy, the polyvinyl chloride. examples of seven companies, which have materials and chemicals used to build these removed most forms of bromine and chlorine products need to be more benign by design. Successful implementation of substance-by- from their product lines. The case studies were Using hazardous substances like bromine and substance restrictions in the electronics sector is recently compiled into a document entitled: chlorine in electronics forces the exertion of difficult given the fact that hundreds of suppliers Greening Consumer Electronics. The purpose of inefficient energy resources in order to manage produce thousands of parts, each part containing this report is to allow parties outside the industry toxic waste and inhibits the ability to recycle and many different substances. To address this to see the level of conformance that can be met remanufacture obsolescent products in closed- challenge and move beyond the cost inefficiencies today, as well as provide a tool for industrial loop material systems. This is not an efficient of managing substance by substance restrictions, designers and engineers designing the next use of resources, nor does it positively contribute some companies are adopting the “elemental generation of greener electronic devices. to a climate-safe economy. Accounting for and approach” to insure that nearly all forms of improving the impact of our material systems for bromine and chlorine are restricted regardless of the next generation of electronic products and their function or use. This recognizes two critical technologies can accomplish this. By removing realities. Most forms of bromine and chlorine pose Tool for CATALYZING Change: environmental risks particularly during end-of-life bromine and chlorine from products, companies To access the full report like Apple, Sony Ericsson and Nokia are opening management of electronic products. Verification of on Greening Consumer the door for new materials and chemicals that can specific compounds is inefficient, very expensive Electronic’s, visit www. cleanproduction.org/ function more efficiently. and sometimes not possible given that analytical ElectronicsGreening tests are not available for all substances. Whereby Consumer.php verification at the elemental level can be done with cost-effective analytical testing mechanisms, such as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) that are readily Greening Consumer Electronics available and commonly used by the electronics’ global supply chain. – moving away from bromine and chlorine As we move forward with the aim of designing towards a climate-safe economy, improving the chemistry of the next generation of products is critical to ensuring that we are not shifting environmental risks and putting additional burdens on an already stressed ecosystem. Many of the companies adopting the “elemental approach” are incidentally the same companies who are leading many of the efforts to increase energy efficiency of our products and reduce their carbon footprint.17 CATALYSTsdr.com GREENING CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 18
    • Q: With so many Q: In terms of the EU’s Q: Can you tell us more Q: What is more likely manufacturing processes directives, WEEE and about Clean Production to cause the shift in overseas, what regulatory RoHS, is the U.S. adopting Action (CPA)’s “Green Screen manufacturing processes: body will ensure these any similar mandated for Safer Chemicals?” Is this consumer demand, company standards are met? measures? The report tool readily available and initiatives for strategic describes companies that are accessible to designers? advantage or new tech The European Union’s Restriction on Hazardous exceeding these initiatives advances from component Substances (RoHS) directive has established on their own accord, but CPA’s Green Screen for Safer Chemicals is an manufacturers? a de facto global environmental standard, can we expect the U.S. open source comparative chemical assessment but managing compliance at a global level is government to regulate tool that engineers and designers can use Product manufacturers, like Apple and Sony difficult. For new product models that entered electronic toxicity levels in to prefer greener chemicals. It classifies Ericsson are leading the transition away the marketplace after RoHS restrictions the near future? chemicals against sixteen hazard endpoints from highly hazardous chemicals. By making went into effect in 2006, many product that adopt global authoritative standards. By design and material investment decisions, manufacturers have opted to require worldwide Some states like California are adopting establishing four benchmarks that range from they are able to forecast a market place and compliance with RoHS. In the absence of a RoHS restrictions in their legislation requiring very problematic chemicals to more benign regulatory climate that will be increasingly global regulatory body to monitor compliance consumer electronic products to be collected chemicals, it seeks to avoid the situation sensitive to the environmental and human outside the limited market surveillance efforts and recycled at the end-of-life. At the whereby resources are inefficiently used to health impacts of products. Major electronic in the European Union, most companies rely federal level, the EPA has not proposed any transition from one problematic chemical into component manufacturers, like Seagate, DSM on a paper trail of material declarations from chemical restrictions specific to electronic another one that could be of equal risk. The and Nanya are positioning themselves to gain suppliers. Material declarations do not provide products. The EPA’s Design for Environment Green Screen provides a clear and transparent competitive advantage with these product companies and regulatory authorities with Department, however, has initiated a major decision-making protocol to screen out manufacturers by engineering components sufficient documentation that these chemicals project in partnership with NGOs and other hazardous chemicals during the design phase. that meet increasingly stringent supply chain are removed from the product. Nor does it industry stakeholders to evaluate the toxicity It emphasizes the inherent hazard of chemicals specifications. Furthermore, with tools like give manufacturers the ability to address and of alternatives to the largest brominated as the critical starting point and seeks to avoid Electronic Product Environmental Assessment take corrective action for the inevitable cases flame retardant used in the electronic managing the uncontrollable risks of using Tool (EPEAT) entering the market place, whereby materials are out of conformance with sector, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). This chemicals that pose high risks to human health consumers and institution purchasers can make regulatory restrictions. This created a costly assessment, when completed, will provide and the environment throughout the life cycle more informed cost-effective decisions about the situation for Sony when the Netherlands banned critical guidance to electronic product of consumer products. The tool has been piloted products they buy; consumers can play a more the sale of their PlayStation consoles because designers who are tasked with finding safer on alternatives to brominated flame retardants pivotal role in driving market changes towards the cadmium in the cables exceeded regulatory substitutes to bromine-based flame retardants and has demonstrated the viability of safer greener products. This will increase market limits. Lost sales and costs to re-design the commonly used in printed circuit boards. alternatives to these compounds. Hewlett incentives for those companies that made product were estimated at $150 million. Packard is now using it to assess alternatives early investments in environmentally improved Companies investing in rigorous, transparent to brominated flame retardants and polyvinyl materials and product technologies. compliance programs that rely on some form of chloride to guide their suppliers in developing analytical testing for verification recognize safer and greener alternatives to these restricted the importance and business value of the substances. In 2010, a Green Screen wiki will elemental approach that allows for inexpensive, be launched to provide users with an regular testing. interactive website. To learn more about the Green Screen and to access CPA’s Red List of Chemicals, download at www.cleanproduction.org/ Greenscreen.php19 CATALYSTsdr.com GREENING CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 20
    • Q: Can you tell me more about EPEAT and how it is Strategy In Action Q: The ENERGY STAR certification has become a Related Resources used? Is it widely available Best Practices — Apple well-recognized label among Greening Consumer Electronics Report www.cleanproduction.org/Electronics. to electronics designers and consumer products. Do you GreeningConsumer.php manufacturers? » Remove hazardous compounds at the foresee the certification Green Screen for Safer Chemicals elemental level (eg. mercury, arsenic, evolving to also acknowledge www.cleanproduction.org/Greenscreen.php EPEAT, which stands for Electronic Product bromine) toxicity levels and ease of EPEAT: Electronic Product Environmental Environmental Assessment Tool, is a green recycling? Assessment Tool: www.epeat.net product registry that allows computer » Anticipate future regulations To locate recycling resources in your area, companies to self-declare their products to a What differentiates EPEAT from Energy standard held by IEEE (Institute of Electrical visit: www.computertakeback.com Star is that it was intended to fill a gap in the and Electronics Engineers), a major standard » Inventory greenhouse gas emissions More on Apple Corporation’s Sustainable marketplace through a purchasing and design setting body in the electronics sector. The across the lifecycle of shipped products tool that creates a tiered system optimizing Initiatives: http://www.apple.com/environment/ standard is developed by NGOs, governments, multiple environmental attributes across the life More on Sony Ericssson’s Environmental academia and manufacturers who work through cycle of electronic products. EPEAT has strived Program: www.sonyericsson.com/cws/ a process governed by IEEE to establish criteria corporate/company/sustainability/overview Best Practices — Sony for harmonization with existing standards to that rewards environmental improvements avoid duplication. The current EPEAT standard, Basel Action Network (recycling, energy efficiency, toxic use reduction 1680.1 for computers, requires products to be www.e-stewards.org/ » Implement a materials and material and resource efficiency) across the compliant with Energy Star. As EPEAT continues life cycle of electronic products. Currently, the declaration system to evolve and mature as a critical tool to standard has 51 required and optional criteria differentiate products in the marketplace based CATALYST Website and only applies to computer products. This is set » Establish a development timeline on their environmental performance, partnerships to change with new standards being developed for first-to-market sustainable with other eco-labels, like Energy Star, are being Visit the blog to continue the conversation for imaging devices and televisions. Product products explored to avoid consumer confusion. about Greening Consumer Electronics: designers have the opportunity to work towards CATALYSTsdr.com three tiers in EPEAT, gold, silver and bronze. To » Establish new supply chain meet bronze level, a product must comply with all Q: What should consumers partnerships do to mitigate the effects of required criteria. To meet silver and gold levels, manufacturers have to increase their percentage unsafe recycling practices of of optional criteria achieved. The registry was electronic waste composed initially developed for institutional buyers like of bromine, chlorine or the federal government, which is required by similar toxins? an Executive Order to purchase 95% of their computer products through EPEAT. In the coming Most manufacturers in the United States have year, EPEAT will likely enter the consumer space. established programs to take back electronic It is also being made available in 40 countries due products at the end of life. Consumer participation to growing demand internationally for this type of in these programs is critical to closing the purchasing tool. The current computer standard materials loop and providing manufacturers with will likely be updated in the coming year and larger volumes of products to reuse and recycle. NGOs, in partnership with other key stakeholders, Consumer support and pressure is also necessary will work to develop criteria that gives market to ensure that manufacturers adopt responsible recognition to companies removing bromine and recycling practices that do not allow hazardous chlorine from their product lines. materials to be exported to developing countries where there is not an established infrastructure to handle these materials. Basel Action Network has an e-Stewards program whereby they certify recyclers who are implementing best practices and can partner with manufacturers who do not have their own recycling facilities.21 CATALYSTsdr.com GREENING CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 22
    • Agros International: BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY ONE VILLAGE AT A TIME by Sean Dimond Sean Dimond currently serves as the Director of Communications for Agros International, a Seattle- based nonprofit working with rural, extremely poor families throughout the remote areas of Central AmericaExecutive Summary and Chiapas, Mexico.  Prior to Agros, Sean was the owner of a creativeAgros International is a U.S.-based NGO media firm working with boththat is eradicating extreme poverty in international nonprofits and Fortune 500 companies.  He has producedCentral America and Mexico one com- art, documentary and multimediamunity at a time. Agros uses a cycli- projects throughout Africa, India andcal financing model to provide loans, Central America.  With a degree inwhich enable land ownership, economic philosophy and post-graduate worksustainability, community building and in theology and counseling, Sean resides in Seattle with his wife andeventual loan repayment. The money two children.from repayment is then used to supportother impoverished communities. This ar-ticle employs the inspiring work of Agrosto inform connections with the principlesof successful strategic design.Images courtesy Ira Lippke ©2009
    • A CASE STUDY IN SUSTAINABILITY: SAN JOSÉ Before Agros’ Support: Location: Matagalpa, Nicaragua Before working with Agros, the 32 families of the San José community in Matagalpa, Nicaragua lived Size: 259 acres in desperate conditions, suffering from the effects Population: 32 families of long-term, extreme poverty. These families Founded: 2007 worked on plots of rented, poor-quality land, and were obligated to hand over a large percentage of their corn and bean harvest for payment to wealthy landowners. With very little left over for themselves, the families were in a constant threat of hunger and often had no more to eat than one meager meal a day. Living in the remote mountains of Matagalpa, they had no access to basic services such as electricity or waste disposal. The women had to walk several miles each day to collect clean drinking water and the children had no access to public education. Per person, their average income was approximately 25 cents per day. Partnership: Desperate to find a better way to provide for themselves and their children, the families contacted Agros International, who began working with them in early 2006 and formalized a partnership with the purchase of land in March 2007. Today: Because of their determination, hard work and long-term partnership with Agros, the members of San José are now living on high-quality land in a region with a climate that is perfect for crop production. They have adequate pasture areas for livestock, a river that provides year-round irrigation, productive coffee and cocoa fields, a community center with electricity, potable water and good road access provided by the land. The families have significantly increased daily calorie counts with three solid meals a day and they now have a wide range of healthy food available through the multiple, year-round crops they grow, harvest and sell. They also have potable water in each home, have established a community school to educate their children, and have gained access to agricultural markets to sell their products. The first harvest yielded corn, beans, taro root, coffee and tomatoes.A young girl inthe Agros village“Batzchocola,” The net profit from their first harvest waslocated in the $37,305.00. The income paid for production costsmountainous Ixilregion of western and an early loan payment. The community wasGuatemala. even able to take out an additional loan from Agros to build a coffee processing machine and pump. Case study courtesy Agros International.25 CATALYSTsdr.com AGROS INTERNATIONAL 26
    • Locations of Agros Communities in Mexico and Central America The cyclical poverty found in Central America leaves agricultural Chiapas families fighting for survival MEXICO without the resources to properly 30 manage waste or support the local ecosystem that provides 27 33 36 1 for them. The local economy is 23 2 tumultuous because of civil unrest 21 8 9 11 18 and dependence on wealthy 25 3 6 GUATEMALA San Pedro Sula landowners who control theNumbers correspond to the 5 4community’s location on the map. 32 20 7 natural resources. 2 4 Guatemala 34 HONDURAS 1 Buen Samaritano Guatemala City 28 Population: 45 families 37 Established: 1986 2 Buen Camino 22 Tegucigalpa Population: 18 families Established: 1987 3 Agros International is a Seattle- throughout Central America and 9 based NGO that is working to build Mexico to literally work their way 3 Xetzé San Salvador 6 24 Population: 31 families a more secure foundation for small, out of extreme poverty with dignity.  Established: 1989 EL SALVADOR rural communities. The organization The organization does this by providing 4 Los Angeles provides communities of families with communities with long-term credit Population: Established: 50 families 1992 25 Villa Linda Population: 20 families NICARAGUA loans, which enable land ownership for land purchase, holistic community Established: 2005 35 and income stability, resulting in development and agricultural business 5 El Paraíso 31 Population: 31 families 32 La Providencia environmental stewardship based training. By partnering with Agros, Population: 100 families 15 26 Established: 1995 Established: 2007 El Salvador on pride, ownership and training in entire communities of families are 6 La Bendiciónr organic farming practices. able to start, develop and eventually Population: 26 families 34 Villa Hortencia I 9 El Milagro Population: 23 families Today, half of the people on our planet own a thriving, economically Established: 1997 Population: Established: 120 families 2008 Established: 1999 Managua live on $2.50 per day or less. The vast sustainable village. 7 Belén 17 13 San Diego de Tenango majority live in rural areas, dependent Population: 25 families Established: 1998 Nicaragua Population: Established: 22 families 2000 on farmable land for income, security With almost 40 village projects across 8 El Edén and survival. In the Americas, the five countries in Central America 10 Futuro del Mañana 16 La Esperanza Population: 20 families Population: 22 families poorest countries are in Central and Mexico, the work of Agros is Established: 1999 Population: 13 families 29 Established: 1999 Established: 2003 America, where approximately 65% of empowering thousands of men, women11 Trapichitos 10 the population lives in extreme poverty. and children to work and achieve the 15 Norwich 24 Nuevo Renacer 38 Population: 78 families Population: 14 families The majority of these families live in dream of a future that is designed Established: 2000 Population: 24 families Established: 2002 Established: 2005 rural areas and are landless, one of the to enable them to escape cyclical12 La Esperanza 17 Aduana Dos Population: 25 families most important indicators of extreme, poverty. Agros works with villagers, Population: 14 families Established: 2000 Established: 2003 Mexico rural poverty. These same families do who often make less than 25 cents14 Cajixay 26 El Edé n de Matagalpa 23 Nuevo San Miguel Mitontic not own or have a secure stake in the per day, are scarred by civil conflict, Population: 88 families Population: 31 families Population: 36 families very land that they depend on. This is hunger, disease, natural disaster and Established: 2002 Established: 2005 Established: 2004 Honduras a design flaw, which can be addressed the fundamental loss of dignity that18 Batzchocolá 29 San Marcos de Belen 27 Nuevo San Pedrito 22 Nuevo Amanecer by public policy and interventions that comes from having been abandoned Population: 52 families Population: 25 families Population: 17 families Population: 13 families Established: 2002 Established: 2006 Established: 2005 Established: 2004 engage and enable ownership options. by their own civil authorities. These19 Xeucalvitz 28 Brisas del Volc án villagers go from the devastation of 31 San José 30 Espinal Buena Vista Population: 108 families Population: 32 families Population: 39 families Population: 17 families Agros, founded in 1984, addresses this living in extreme poverty to becoming Established: 2004 Established: 2007 Established: 2007 Established: 2006 landowners with access to healthcare flaw with a seemingly simple idea:20 San Nicolás 35 Nuevas Esperanza 33 Nueva Palestina 37 La Piedra de Horeb rural poor need land in order to and education for their children, Population: 13 families Population: 36 families Population: 39 families Population: 25 families and ultimately, to owning thriving Established: 2004 Established: 2007 Established: 2008 survive, and yet they do not have the Established: 2008 resources needed to obtain access businesses and assets that create21 Nueva Primavera 38 Luz del Mañana 36 Santa Fe Ajké 39 Bella Vista Population: 20 families Population: 27 families or ownership. Agros was designed sustainable security and income for Population: 30 families Population: 35 families Established: 2004 Established: 2008 Established: 2008 Established: 2009 to empower rural, poor families generations to come. 27 CATALYSTsdr.com AGROS INTERNATIONAL 28
    • A Well-Designed While most international organizations focus on Furthermore, Agros is designed to provide one intervention (water, vaccines, malaria nets, sustainable strategic advantage for the rural Approach to micro-loans, etc.), Agros implements what is poor, enabling the families to thrive over time. an Economic called “360° development.” This approach seeks It does not believe in simple, easy fixes to Challenge to create a holistic and empowering development complex problems. Its model provides a context that breaks the cycle of poverty. framework in which communities are capable Agros begins by defining the condition of the of indefinitely maintaining productivity and CATALYST insight: assignment, using a specific and unique contributions to society. Strategic design definition of poverty. Agros defines poverty as uses a holistic, 360 “broken relationships.” This influences how degree perspective when considering the organization develops a context for stakeholders, discovering solutions. lifecycle and consequences of design decisions. For the rural poor, all of the fundamental connections and relationships that make up a sustainable way of life are damaged or destroyed Before intervention, by extreme poverty. Therefore, the causes Agros families of poverty cannot be effectively isolated and suffer from “extreme poverty,” repaired on the individual or family level. Instead, meaning that they economic, cultural, social and personal factors cannot meet their basic survival all play into establishing generational cycles of needs: food, water, poverty that extend across communities. This shelter, sanitation definition of poverty enables Agros to design and healthcare. solutions that address the core problems of lack of access to, or destruction of, basic community systems and material resources, all of which lead to the erosion and eradication of human dignity and worth. As fundamental relationships that make up a healthy community break down for those living in extreme poverty, access to essential services and CATALYST insight: income-generating opportunities are significantly Agros works in a way in which it is possible compromised or destroyed. It is possible to measure and quantify the systemic and pervasive Strategy In Action to measure effects of these broken relationships through empowerment, per capita poverty statistics including life Establishing a sustainable and engagement and education. The expectancy, malnourishment, unemployment effective micro-financer organization is rates and literacy rates. The qualitative effect is a designed to fulfill » Establish the loan beneficiaries cycle of despair and hopelessness that stretches user needs, but not at the cost of the across generations. It is also possible to measure as stakeholders environment. the impact of redesigned systems of community engagement and empowerment » Align skills with employment training Agros seeks to empower communities to begin to rebuild and restore these fundamental » Create a model based on relationships by providing communities with cyclical funding the necessary and tangible elements needed to work their way out of poverty and to enable » Continually refine the process in order economic wellbeing. The organization is the only to maximize resources international NGO designed to provide long- term loans for land and holistic development » Use video and photography to support to maximize the potential of that land. By enabling rural communities to build long- elicit support term assets within the context of a supportive, thriving community, its proven development » Capitalize on social media for model provides a lasting, sustainable impact for messaging volunteers and donors everyone living in an Agros village. 29 CATALYSTsdr.com AGROS INTERNATIONAL 30
    • Community Model for In practical terms, Agros assists families in reaching Organization economic self-sufficiency by providing loans for capitalSustainable Life costs (land, homes, irrigation) and assisting families with Help families define a vision for a new community and technical training, infrastructure and micro-enterprise develop the local leadership required to create a self- opportunities. Families repay their loans with income sustaining, thriving community. from their crops and other income-generating activities. Passing on The repayment of loans received from Agros villagers is the Blessing used to fund new projects, and the process begins again Give other communities Land Ownership for the next village. Cycle of ble the opportunity to own Work with families to CATALYST insight: An Agros village is comprised of between 25 and 145 land through repaid loans and empower a A identify and purchase agricultural land on them to dream of n gro a brighter future credit and use their The Sustai Strategic designers families who are striving together to make a better future for their children. payments to purchase develop systems for themselves and their children. Each family is lent a s Lo a n s land for other new instead of objects communities. because systems parcel of land, materials to build a house, and access to can be self- an integrated irrigation system. Through additional small sustaining. business loans, education and accountability, villagers Waste = Food. achieve a level of economic sustainability sufficient to repay their loans and create a fundamentally better Sustainable Community future for their children. Each village has community Economic Growth Education & governance with elected positions who decide the goals Training Develop agricultural and priorities based on input from other villagers. Villages production and support Create opportunities for income-generating adequate healthcare, have co-ops, community banks and other economically- education, adult literacy activities through based programs all focused on sustainability. microenterprise loans and spiritual growth. and technical training. Housing & Infrastructure The Agros development Implement community and model combines: individual construction projects such as houses, schools, irrigation systems, latrines, infrastructure Self-organization of families and community centers. at the community level Long-term credit Access and ownership of farmable land Community support and development Agricultural business training The goal is for the community to become self-sustaining. In the first several years of working with a village, Agros’ involvement and investment in training and agricultural inputs, like equipment and training, is significant. As the years go by and the community becomes more self- sufficient, Agros’ involvement begins to diminish. 31 CATALYSTsdr.com AGROS INTERNATIONAL 32
    • Nurturing Many cultures in Central America and Mexico have the Building Pride The Agros International Development Model has had tradition of caring for and stewarding the land. However, enormous impact on the economic situation of the the Land due to lack of land and resources, including time and and Economic communities where it has been implemented. Before and People capital, many families are forced to choose between Success Agros, the majority of families were living on borrowed survival and environmental stewardship. Therefore, many or rented land with no control over how they generated environmental problems plague the communities of these an income. Their livelihood was dependent on the countries. Environmental contamination due to improper number of crops they could produce, which disposal of trash and lack of waste/sanitation systems was ultimately limited due to little or no access and lack of proper training in use of systems for waste to quality land. management, all contribute to environmental degradation. Furthermore, slash and burn techniques deplete the Most families living in Agros villages lived on soil of beneficial microorganisms and bacteria. Another approximately $0.25 to $0.50 per day, per person before problematic issue is the over-harvesting of wood sources, partnering with the organization. The families had no which causes a loss of root systems, desertification, loss of job security and often had to travel long distances for underground water sources and microclimate change. work. Many families were broken apart as husbands and sons migrated for seasonal work or as family The Agros development model seeks to help members sought to immigrate, undocumented, to communities find solutions to these environmental other countries for work. Many families also ended up problems. By developing the communities in a sustainable borrowing money from predatory lenders forcing them way and learning new techniques and approaches to deeper into poverty. agriculture, families of Agros’ communities can avoid the problems caused by environmental degradation. Agros seeks to change all of this. The Agros Throughout its involvement, Agros has learned that if a Development Model focuses on establishing food community is empowered to own its own land, they will security, increasing family income, asset ownership, naturally take better care of it, and if they take care of it, increasing productivity for animals, forestry, and it will last as a resource for future generations. agriculture and increasing the community’s access to markets. In addition to providing families with loans Additionally, Agros strives to teach communities how for land purchases, Agros also provides micro-loans for to farm sustainably. Its team of agronomists works other income generating projects. with communities to develop and implement organic, sustainable agricultural practices as well as responsible These loans are primarily for activities such as: chemical usage that combine traditional and new raising small livestock like pigs and chickens; technologies to improve production and land quality. These making bread, tortillas, tamales and chorizo for sale;CATALYST insight: agronomists also promote multi-crop diversification year- selling embroidered clothing and handicrafts; production Strategic Design round, individual family gardens, animal husbandry and the implements of pea crops, coffee, peppers and bananas; and large sustainable planting of fruit trees. Agros communities also learn how cattle production including cows and bulls for sale.systems that solve to utilize low water drip irrigation systems so that they canmultiple problems. conserve water and continue to farm year round. Training The profits from projects are used to not only pay is provided so that families can find markets for their goods back the Agros loans and improve the village, but most and not only gain sustenance from the land, but also an importantly, profits are used to invest in basic needs economic livelihood. such as food, clothing, medicine, education and more. Agros provides training to families on Mario, a farmer in the Aduana Dos community, began project development in order to ensure that the loan planting fruits and vegetables around the bases of his is for an appropriate amount and that a significant plantain plants in order to maintain humidity in the ground amount of income will be generated so that the loan and diversity of his crop. After seeing the success of his can be paid back. yield, Mario’s neighbors happily followed his lead and decreased their dependence on irrigation.33 CATALYSTsdr.com AGROS INTERNATIONAL 34
    • A Process Agros uses a unique process called “Values- Based Planning.” A values-based planning andGrounded in management model provides a framework for Agros’Recognizing philosophy of holistic community development. Agros process Assets Rather than base development on more traditional for recognizing assets Definition Vision Planning Management “needs assessments,” Agros assists community members in identifying their core values and assets, then seeks to harness those elements within a specific development plan. Sustainability is achieved when villages are motivated and led by their own CATALYST insight: values and vision and have realistic plans based on Agros practices astrategic allocation of creative assets their collective priorities and goals. For example, at first glance, a rural, poor community may be seen Sustainability is by aligning the values and skills as having very little to offer. However, upon further achieved when of community inspection, it becomes clear that perhaps the people villages are members with economic have skills working with coffee plants, plantains or cattle. Furthermore, as Agros begins to ask about motivated and opportunities. the community members’ values, Agros recognizes led by their own that the individuals’ hard work ethic and love for values and vision their children are values on which Agros can build a and have realistic development plan. Agros implements values-based planning in the following four key stages: plans based on their collective CATALYST insight: DEFINITION of the situation recognizes the roles priorities andThe Agros process is similar to the and contributions of both men and women. We hear goals. the “story” of the people and it helps us appreciate “4Ds” used by thedesign community: what they have achieved and who they are. We define, discover, work with community members to recognize their design, deliver. individual and collective strengths and resources and define them as assets. The VISION of the future gives serious attention to the vision of the entire group as a motivating factor that will help them focus in working together to realize their dreams. The community’s goals are refined. Related Resources Disseminating Currently, Agros shares the message of its Long-term, Agros is looking to take the core work through an organizational blog, print elements of its development model and create Project or program PLANNING requires that Connect with Agros International at agros.org the Model and e-newsletters, and through Facebook, a training curriculum for other organizations to each community or group reach consensus about Twitter, Flickr and YouTube. Its visibility has learn, contextualize and implement this approach their priorities and then work on realistic plans Download IDEO’s Human-Centered Design grown dramatically since it started integrating in their own regions. Agros also will seek to begin with specific objectives, strategies and resources. Toolkit at ideo.com messages across all of its social media channels. advocating amongst the larger, international Each community’s plan includes a budget, human All told, Agros reaches more than 55,000 people, development community for the values of a resources and local resources that are available to The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our which represent almost 70% growth over the last holistic, bottom-up, sustainable approach to the community. Time by Jeffrey Sachs nine months. poverty alleviation that is based on long-term Going Local: Creating Self-Reliant Communities in credit for essential assets (the most important CATALYST insight: MANAGEMENT emphasizes decision-making Over the years, Agros has been approached by being land) and the training and community a Global Age by Michael H. Shuman The design based on monitoring key indicators that the many organizations all over the world to help support needed to create sustainable livelihoods of visual community and Agros have specified in relation to communications implement a similar development model. It is from those basic assets. helps Agros bridge each component of the Agros Model. CATALYST Website currently investigating an expansion strategy to varying literacy other geographical regions, which would consistlevels and language Agros contends that it cannot enact a truly Given that Agros works with groups of people who Continue the conversation about Agros of partnerships, training and advocacy. The barriers. sustainable solution to poverty alleviation if the are often illiterate, the organization often uses group International on CATALYSTsdr.com current thinking is that an expansion strategy poor themselves are not the main stakeholders, dialogue, drawing, art-based methods, and other would not be designed to start “Agros Africa,” decision-makers and owners of the process. appreciative inquiry approaches. but would seek to give the Agros model away to other indigenous, local entities already working in specific geographical regions.35 CATALYSTsdr.com AGROS INTERNATIONAL 36
    • Jaime Stein is an environmental scientist with a Master’s Degreein Environmental Systems Management from Pratt Institute. Herprofessional background is in biomedical research focusing onTB influenza and HIV. Jaime developed her community organizingskills during her Peace Corps service in Burkina Faso, West Africa,where she led a team of forty community health care workers toachieve better regional health. Jaime has a particular interest in thepublic health impacts of the built environment and believes in thepotential for urban life to enhance public health. In addition to herwork with Sustainable South Bronx, Jaime is the Coordinator of theEnvironmental Systems Management Program at Pratt Institute andan adjunct professor within the Design Management Program. Designing Pathways to a Sustainable CommunitySheila Somashekhar joined Sustainable South Bronx after by: Jaime Stein, Miquela Craytor & Sheila Somashekharreceiving her Master’s Degree in Urban Planning and Public Healthfrom the University of Michigan where she collaborated on thedevelopment of a sustainability resource center in Detroit withDetroiters Working for Environmental Justice and the SoutheastMichigan Sustainable Business Forum. Her graduate work hasinvolved environmental justice, brownfield redevelopment, the builtenvironment and obesity, and youth recreation needs.Miquela Craytor is the Executive Director of SustainableSouth Bronx. Recognized for her work in both local and nationalcircles, she has contributed to the Presidential Climate Action Plan,served as a Global Green Urbanism Leader and the Aspen InstituteEnvironmental Forum Scholar, is on the NYC Apollo Alliance SteeringCommittee and was honored by the Bronx Chamber of Commerceas an Environmental Leader. Prior to her current position, Ms.Craytor was the Deputy Director of Sustainable South Bronx. Ms.Craytor was previously a Senior Planner of Economic Developmentat Bronx Overall Economic Development Corporation, the economicdevelopment consultants to the Office of the Bronx BoroughPresident Adolfo Carrion, Jr. Craytor earned a Master’s Degree withhonors in City and Regional Planning from Pratt Institute. She holdsa Bachelor of Arts, with Honors, in Planning and Public Policy andManagement with a minor in History from the Honors College of theUniversity of Oregon.Executive Summary Collaborative rehab of a roof inSustainable South Bronx (SSBX) is a grassroots Harding Park,movement, which is empowering the local Bronx Bronx, NY.community one project at a time. Their work is closing Participatingthe gap between the wealthy and the poor who, in many groups included:ways, face greater risks when it comes to climate change. SSBx, OAI andSSBX puts the power in the hands of the local community Rebuildingthrough their Bronx Environmental Stewardship Training Together NY.(BEST) Academy, which provides green-collar job training Article photosto community members, many of whom receive public courtesyassistance or were formerly incarcerated. This article Dwaine Lee,explores how design and architecture have touched the Field Managerlives of the SSBX community. of BEST Eco.
    • “Often, the most Sustainable South Bronx (SSBx) is a non-profit community-based organization created in 2001 to champion hope and opportunity for the people of the South Bronx and other disadvantaged urban communities. They take an innovative, solutions-driven approach to the economic and environmental issues that affect the residents of urban areas. Their comprehensive communities bear the programs work to create a strong network of support for these communities, both now and in the future. They are public advocates, inspiring the members of urban communities largest cost of clean up to improve their economic conditions through education and job training. They specialize and have pollution impact in environmental solutions, preparing workers for jobs in the growing green economy while laying the groundwork for cleaner, healthier urban communities. the health and wellbeing of their community.” Creating climate-safe economies will require that help lead to a sustainable economy. As we begin the most vulnerable communities are provided to implement new carbon neutral technologies, with employment options that enable their remediate the damage already done, and then communities to enjoy economic wellbeing while engage industry and strive for carbon neutrality, enabling more equitable access to education, we can put people to work, to build human capital health care, child care, fresh foods, green space and create community resilience. and jobs that restore and renew. Pathways out of poverty should not create negative social, environmental and economic externalities. The Vulnerability of Low Income and Resource-Poor Communities Our current market structure does not consider Designing resilience into communities is essential the true cost of doing business. Rather, it allows for wellbeing and for disaster preparedness. the externalization of the cost of doing business. When we begin to examine communities mostInstallation of Communities therefore bear the cost of cleaning at risk to sea level rise and tidal surge, we begina Green Wall up environmental pollution or gearing up for to see patterns in the way land is used. Theseat Rocking the climate change. Often, the most disadvantaged at-risk communities are typically low-lyingBoat, HuntsPoint, Bronx. communities bear the largest cost of clean up and coastal. The emerging land use patterns and experience the greatest negative impact of reveal concentrations of polluting facilities, pollution on health and wellbeing. Consequently, the very facilities that contribute to climate diminishing the quality of the community and change in these at-risk communities. During the often eroding social capital and natural capital. industrial revolution operational need for water and waterfront access led to the formation of Climate-safe economies must be linked to industrial hubs in low-lying coastal zones, families sustainable economic development which seeking jobs formed communities around the emphasizes economic return, equity and industry. As wealth amassed for some, a desire environment. Too often environmental and for distance from polluting industries helped economic benefits are seen as conflicting goals. contribute to class and color segregation. Affluent Thankfully, we do not have to choose between white communities moved away from industry, a strong environment and a strong economy. while low income communities, predominately Job creation does not have to depend on the communities of color, remained to share local air, depletion of natural resources. In fact, careers water and public space with polluting facilities. in environmental remediation, that enable the greening of current industry and utilize new The combination of existing zoning and lack of energy technologies are all examples of the political power within the communities results synergistic links between a strong economy and in a concentration of polluting industrial facilities. a healthy environment. These careers, which The communities become easy targets for the encompass design-savvy skills such as green sitting of industrial uses because development roof engineering and landscape design, are officials neglect to ensure that no community gets representative pathways out of poverty that can more than its fair share of pollution. CATALYST VOICES 40
    • The Pratt Design Incubator Partners with SSBxThis pattern and cycle is not unique to industrialdevelopment within the United States; it also Pratt Incubatoraffects resource-poor communities across the students workglobe, which are often hit first and worst by the with SSBx communityharmful effects of climate change. Communities members duringin New Orleans, Indonesia and most recently, the a workshopPhilippines, have captured global attention in dedicated to identifyingtheir struggles with the complete devastation that Pratt needs, students joinresults from severe wet weather events, events challenges a SSBx blockwhich we are sure to see with greater frequency in and possible party in order solutions.our climate-challenged future. The sighting of oil to meet the stakeholdersand petrochemical refineries along the Mississippi of their nextRiver from New Orleans to Baton Rouge resulted project.in the creation of “Cancer Alley,” a corridor of low-income, resource-poor communities with rates of A community partnership informscancer and respiratory ailments higher than the human-centered design solutionsnational U.S. average. When the water rises incommunities such as Cancer Alley, strong tides In the summer of 2009, Sustainable South Bronxand winds stir up decades of polluted sediment asked the Pratt Design Incubator Program to partnerand carry it into the surrounding community, with community members on the design of outdoor furniture for the proposed Greenway Project, aresulting in a devastating need for massive strip of green space proposed for the industrialenvironmental remediation. neighborhood. An interdisciplinary team including industrial designers, architect, environmentalDesigned Vulnerability designer and urban planner gathered to brainstorm solutions with South Bronx inhabitants. A workshopin Hunts Point with local youth and a block party helped inform the A mold (right) and designers as to how the community envisioned the StudentsThe South Bronx is one of the poorest new outdoor space. Prototypes were presented to the prototype (left) of discusscongressional districts in the United States. The the SSBx Greenway community members to elicit further feedback possibleHunts Point neighborhood of the South Bronx is a furniture on display for refinement of the design solutions. solutions. in the Pratt Institutelow-lying peninsula where the Bronx River meets Manhattan Gallery.the Long Island Sound and this area stands to behit first and worst by climate change. The HuntsPoint shoreline hosts the world’s second largestfood distribution center, a waste water treatment Renderings ofplant, numerous open-air waste transfer stations, the proposeda sewage sludge pelletization plant, a prison outdoorbarge and a host of metal scrappers, ad hoc auto furniture in use along thebody shops and truck depots. In an average week, Greenway.60,000 trucks pass through Hunts Point.Living within this diesel truck-dependent industryis a residential community. The community isone of color, mostly young men and womenstruggling to support their families and dealingwith underemployment rates of 26%. 40% of HuntsPoint residents live below the poverty line and A studentaccording to the New York City Department of works on aCity Planning, 55.8% of the population received prototype ofpublic assistance in 2008. Sharing the air, water the benches. Copper pipes,and public space with all these polluting industries a wood basehas had severe and alarming health impacts: one Images and garbage courtesy bag create anin four children has asthma and adults face high Pratt Design inexpensiverates of diabetes and obesity. Incubator. mold into which cement can41 CATALYSTsdr.com be poured. CATALYST VOICES 40
    • Reimagining Community Development:Green Jobs to Rehab Bad Design “In 2002, SustainableAlthough the South Bronx is surrounded by industry and South Bronx created theits consequences, its residents continue to live in poverty.The existing industries provide few job opportunities for Bronx Environmentalthe community. The living wage jobs generated by theseindustries are not jobs that the community is prepared for Stewardshipand local employers are not trained to see the social andeconomic benefits of hiring and training a local workforce. Training (BEST) Academy,Sustainable South Bronx is engaged in training individuals which is recognized as ato meet the needs of local employers, as well as promotingthe development of sustainable businesses which hire national model for green-locally. Their approach is multi-level. The organization workswith local industry and industry regulators to promote and collar job traininglegislate cleaner business practices and they provide jobtraining and skills development opportunities for the local and placement.”community to meet employer’s needs.Going forward, not every job will be a green job. As theworld transitions to more truly green economies, we cannotdismiss current industries, no matter how poorly designedand polluting they are, because doing so will wipe outour nation’s existing employment base. However, we canengage existing industries, recognize their importance asemployers, and train a local workforce to work with themto green their practices. We can create vibrant communitieswhose residents are invested in rather than opposed to thesuccess of their local businesses. We can prepare for climatechange and build resilience as we attempt to remediatethe impact of poor business practice on communities andour environment.In 2002, Sustainable South Bronx created the Bronx Strategy In ActionEnvironmental Stewardship Training (BEST) Academy,which is recognized as a national model for green-collar Building Sustainable Communitiesjob training and placement. BEST Academy consists of » Identify vulnerable communitiestwo programs, BEST ECO, which prepares students forecological restoration and horticultural maintenance work,and BEST for Buildings, which focuses on skills related » Reach out to local employersto energy efficiency in existing buildings. Students inboth programs graduate with several certifications, job » Identify job opportunitiesreadiness preparation, and a powerful understanding of theimportance of transitioning to a green economy. The 12- and » Train students for challenges17-week programs prepare disengaged individuals for greenjob opportunities. Most BEST Academy participants are » Consider design solutionsfrom low-income communities like the South Bronx. Theyare predominantly individuals who are receiving some Industrialform of public assistance, and approximately 30% of all Compost » Instill a sense of personal value in the Training atparticipants were formerly incarcerated. the New York minds of employees Botanical Garden. » Restore pride and wellbeing in community » Begin again in a new community43 CATALYSTsdr.com
    • “BEST Academy not only connects residents of the South Bronx and other urban communities to employment opportunities, it helps create economically sustainable and resilient communities.” The entire community benefits from the increased community members to create a vision for the Greenway. number of residents who have marketable skills and Through this collaboration, community members were able can now contribute to the economic revitalization of the to claim ownership of the new green industry within their neighborhood. Well-trained and supported green workers community while learning the potential synergies between are critical to the emerging green economy, and to environment and economy. making that economy have a positive impact on low- income communities. There is enormous potential for the design community to reimagine current and new industries to include Graduates from the BEST Academy are able to obtain many more sustainable projects like the Greenway. With employment in fields that have historically been difficult communities and designers working together, we can to enter, including horticulture, landscape contracting, begin to reinvigorate existing industries by streamlining bioremediation and weatherization. BEST Academy has resource flows and achieving energy efficiency. developed links to employers such as the New York City Additionally, we can design industries and processes that Parks Department, Central Park Conservancy, private employ many, rather than only a few, individuals. Together, landscapers and environmental engineering firms. we can design operating processes with less waste and fewer emissions while concentrating on expanding the An essential element to BEST Academy’s success has synergies between the goods produced and the local been developing relationships with employers. Many of workforce and purchasing power. the critical certifications students receive are specified by potential employers, some of whom provide a training role, There are countless local models that provide replicable resulting in a positive feedback loop wherein the trainers solutions for creating community resilience in the face of can also become the potential employers. climate change. Now is the time to apply lessons learned locally to the broader community of designers who are “Roughly 80% of BEST’s Using Design to Regenerate shaping our world. We need critical thinking and action by leaders who are willing to apply those local solutions nearly 200 graduates are In addition to training a local workforce, Sustainable South as the means to drive the necessary change at a broader scale. The choices design professionals make represent an currently employed and Bronx advocates for and implements new projects in which design provides innovative solutions to engage and enable extraordinary opportunity to open the door to economic and social prosperity through environmental innovation. 15% are enrolled in the residents of resource-poor communities. Back in 2001, with sister organization The Point Community Development There are vast opportunities in which to apply our local models globally and use our experience to transform design higher education.” Corporation, Sustainable South Bronx sought to green the community while creating jobs. Its efforts resulted in the methods in order to start moving toward the creation of climate-safe communities that are economically viable and, visioning and planning of the South Bronx Greenway. The above all, resilient.  Greenway, set to begin construction in Spring of 2010, will consist of miles of planted recreational paths, creating safe pedestrian and cyclist connections to the waterfront and Related Resources throughout Hunts Point. The Greenway, a collaborative effort involving the Office of the Mayor of the City of Sustainable South Bronx: http://www.ssbx.org/ New York and the New York City Economic Development Corporation, is an investment in green infrastructure, Read about Solar Living Institute’s initiatives to teach which when completed will require a trained workforce, at-risk young adults hands-on training in green ideally, BEST ECO graduates, to create and maintain this technologies in California urban green space. The Greenway is an example of how the design community can increase economic value by adapting existing infrastructure and using local resourcesCompostTraining at while addressing the challenges of climate change. CATALYST Websitethe New York Throughout the process, landscape designers, architects,Botanical Continue the conversation the Sustainable South industrial and furniture designers worked alongsideGarden. Bronx Initiatives on CATALYSTsdr.com CATALYST VOICES 46
    • Tools for CATALYZING ChangeResource reviews for environmentally, socially and economically responsible leaders The Global Deal Climate change is not something that can be solved by one nation alone. It will only Book by Nicholas Stern be solved, argues Nicholas Stern, through Review by Adam Zoltowski a concerted effort of all nations both devel- oped and developing. Stern, a British Baron, academic and economist, first made the argument put forth in his book The Global Deal in his 2006 report, The Stern Review Climate Change on Climate Change in which he made the case for early, unified action on the issue Resource Center of climate change. In that report and his Resource by RiskMetrics Group new book, he makes the case that the cost Review by Erin Weber of acting immediately would be very low compared to the economic costs of inaction. The Climate Change Resource Center is a virtual library that is connecting readers Stern has distilled his earlier report into with critical information, enabling them a digestible 225 pages while keeping the to recognize and articulate the risks and most important parts intact. Most impor- opportunities associated with climate tantly, he reframes the climate change issue change. The Resource Center features as an economic issue, one in which there research articles, analysis reports, podcasts are measurable costs to vested nations. and regular blog posts. The RiskMetrics Group, a consultancy for financial institu- Stern argues that cooperation is necessary, tions, compiles and regularly updates the because as already developed countries content featured in the Resource Center. such as the United States and the European The Climate Change Resource Center was Union begin to reduce their carbon emis- established with the goal of providing finan- sions, developing countries are only getting cial investors with risks and opportunities started in their use of high carbon technolo- gies. Stern proposes several measures to Hot, Flat and Crowded – Why We Need a Green to consider when evaluating whether or not to finance companies and initiatives. balance the developed world’s need to stay Revolution – And How it Can Renew America efficient and economically strong while Book by Thomas L. Friedman The Climate Change Resource Center also reducing their use of carbon with the devel- Have something to add? oping world’s continuously growing econo- mies. His recommendations include carbon Review by Giselle Carr This book takes its name from the Friedman divides the book into five fills needs beyond its intended financial audience. The content can inspire the design of climate-safe solutions based pricing, taxes and other offset schemes. parts, beginning with Where We Are, then The CATALYST blog is seeking authors Stern estimates that if a concerted effort three forces — global warming (hot), globalization combined with more equal continuing with How We Got Here, which on the challenges and risks presented in the reports and articles. The content also with a fresh perspective and a passion for were taken it would cost around 2% of distribution of wealth (flat) and population offers insight into the history of economic, introduces outside resources such as global GDP, whereas the economic costs topics and resources surrounding the theme of not taking action would be around 5% growth (crowded) — that are currently political and environmental practices that brought us to this point, and then moves on the Water Footprinting Network, which converging to exacerbate the four key is working on establishing standards of strategic design. CATALYST bloggers of total GDP over the next half century. problems of petrodictatorship, climate to, How We Move Forward, which provides by which to measure water usage. The contribute monthly posts about topics that Considering today’s economic and global change, biodiversity loss and energy a roadmap of solutions. He concludes the article entitled A Watershed Moment: poverty. Friedman proposes that not book with case study sections on China Calculating the Risks of Impending Water align with their personal area of expertise. climate, this is an essential book for people only is America the main reason for and America to compare and contrast Shortages, uses Coca-Cola as a case study concerned with the intersections of envi- Email CATALYSTsdr@gmail.com if you are ronment and the economy. Stern is incred- this situation, but also the country that different approaches to these issues and to illustrate opportunities for decreasing must begin the revolution in creating a to challenge both nations to look more water usage and offer solutions which interested in joining our team! ibly optimistic in his hope that a “deal” can more sustainable system of living. closely at each other’s best practices. could possibly inspire innovative design be reached on such a large issue, which is Hot, Flat and Crowded provides the strategic managers to redesign current processes. a welcome and refreshing perspective on such an apocalyptic topic. As evidenced designer with inspiration, thought-provoking www.riskmetrics.com/knowledge/climate in Copenhagen last December, a global insights and a fresh perspective on the agreement is going to be hard to reach, current norms of “green” thinking (It is but it is essential if we hope to solve the important to note that Friedman proposes problem of climate change. Stern makes the elimination of the term “green” entirely, the case for this global deal and why since he argues that all business and Read about more it is the only course that will succeed economic practices should be sustainable). Tools for CATALYZING Change at: in optimistic, yet realistic terms. This is an informative and enriching read. www.CATALYSTsdr.com 47 CATALYSTsdr.com CRADLE TO CRADLE 48
    • CATALYSTSNews from alumni, staff and friends of the Pratt Design Management Program Present. Mary McBride Engage. by Holly Burns Mary became involved with the design Market. Measure. management community in the 1990’s working as a consultant for major design companies. She earned her Ph.D. from NYU, specializing in Marketing Communica- tions and Systems Analysis with a focus on the design of organizational systems, marketing strategies and management structures for peak performance. Today, Mary is the Director of the Design Management program at Pratt Institute where she has been busy building out GauRav Khanna the program since assuming the posi- by Holly Burns tion in 1999. She also teaches some of the program’s foundation courses. GauRav, a graduate of the Design Management program at Pratt Institute, She was Director of Executive was recently selected by Business Week Communication at New York University’s as one of twenty-one people who will Stern Graduate School of Business and change business. GauRav is the Director Co-Director of the Management Decision of Design, Development and Real Estate Laboratory where she ran the organization for Le Pain Quotidian - a European chain development lab. As Clinical Professor at of bakery, restaurants and retail stores NYU’s Wagner Graduate School of Public that provides organic and quality food in a Service and coach to leaders across rustic setting. (www.lepainquotidien.com) the NGO and public and private sector, Mary helps create a bridge between strategy, design and social innovation. GauRav and his team manage global development for the company by finding Fly with our digital magazine platform. new markets for expansion, selecting Internationally, she has been a real estate and managing the design and Distinguished Visiting Professor at development process in the U.S., Europe many international universities and and Asia. During the last 4 years he has she has been recognized with various assisted Le Pain Quotidien grow its retail awards for excellence in teaching. real estate portfolio from 60 to over 125 Mary is a Partner in Strategies For stores in 17 countries while maintaining Planned Change (SPC), leading the consistent brand image, promoting initia- executive coaching practice. Her pro tives like sustainable design strategies and bono activities include service on the delivering the best returns to investors. Board of Clean Production Action and the GauRav credits his combined background in Foundation for Environmentally Triggered architecture and business for his success Illness, which are focused on chemicals in translating design conversations into of concern in commercial products. strategic business decisions. He says, Mary has been nominated for an Aspen “Understanding the contribution design can Institute Faculty Pioneers award and she have on business decisions, I put design at is writing a book, Leading as if Life Matters: a pivotal role in the real estate selection and Mygazines Enterprise is the only solution that combines a market-leading, digital e-reader with your Benign by Design, which will speak to the development strategy and use it to come up very own, branded brochure/catalog portal. The simple Mygazines platform converts PDF documents role of strategic design in creating sustain- with out-of-the-box solutions contributing into interactive media. Build a community of customers and prospects that create compilations of able advantage and social innovation. in favorable business terms for developer, the retailer and other stakeholders.” products, share with friends and socially bookmark links, driving traffic directly to your site. Update content based on real-time customer behavior feedback. Join our digital newsstand before the GauRav earned his Bachelors of Architec- competition soars past. ture at the School of Planning and Archi- tecture in New Delhi, India, and his Masters Degree, concentrating on real estate and finance, from Harvard University in 2009. 49 CATALYSTsdr.com