Issue 3 I SPRING 2010 Designing Climate-Safe EconomiesCradle to CradleTransitioning from Waste Incineration Greening Consumer ElectronicsBuilding a Sustainable Economy, One Village at a Time Sustainable South BronxTools for CATALYZING Change CATALYSTS: News from Members and Friends of the Pratt Design Management Program
From the CATALYST BlogHighlights from the timely and diverse content found at www.CATALYSTsdr.com/blog The Femme Den Have something to say? The CATALYST blog is seeking authors with a fresh perspective and a passion for topics surrounding Why we should listen to the Super Women the theme of strategic design. CATALYST bloggers contribute monthly posts about topics that align with their personal area of expertise. at SMART Design. Email CATALYSTsdr@gmail.com if you are interested in joining our team! by Holly Burns Women are not inherently passive or peaceful. We’re not inherently anything but SEE Project (Europe): human. ~Robin Morgan Design Policy Developments Four employees at SMART Design are Why it’s successful. Using their strategic by Anna Whicher & Gisele Raulik-Murphy designing for what women are – not what design toolkit, the Femme Den designs they’re assumed to be. Whitney Hopkins, products while keeping the female brain and With the conclusion of 2009, there are Agnete Enga, Erica Eden and Yvonne Lin body in mind. In their own words, “Our end many exciting design policy developments are members of an internal collective, the game is to bridge the gap between assump- at the three policy levels in Europe: the Luxurious India Femme Den, at SMART Design. They got tions and realities about women to explore European Union (EU), the Member States An exploration of the opportunities and To begin with, international brands need started in 2005 when Nike hired two of the underdeveloped opportunity for good and Regions. In the coming months the challenges of the expansion of luxury goods to understand that Indian consumers the women to help an all-male design team design.” The Femme Den often gathers men European Commission will be drafting a into the Indian market. are vastly different from their western turn around the low sales of their women’s and women separately, to informally discuss new innovation act, in which design will be counterparts and not only that, but Indian watches. Before then, Nike’s watches had design so they can take their perspectives a key component. Design is also included in by Sapna Shah consumers in New Delhi or Punjab have been designed to include athletic gadgets into account. the policy agenda within the individual EU different purchasing behavior than their A trip to Mumbai, India’s financial capital that made for a rather bulky watch. With the member states. Sharing Experience Europe counterparts in Gujarat or Bangalore. From medical attire to army fatigues and and glamour hub, leaves you reeling as you help of the women designers the watches (SEE), a network of eleven design organiza- India’s geographic expanse ensures a nation equipment to technology, the women of the walk through the newly developed malls were redesigned, sales quickly increased, tions across Europe led by Design Wales, with a highly diverse culture and one that Femme Den are rethinking design in order selling high-end luxury goods from brands and the value of Femme Den realized. has been working hard to lobby national and makes it essential for brands to understand to ergonomically accommodate the female like Louis Vuitton to Rolls Royce. The stark and appreciate this difference in forming regional governments to incorporate design Filling a gap. The Femme Den’s primary gender and improve performance. Read and creativity into public policy. The project For each of these priorities, the SEE Policy images of slum life shown in Slumdog relationships with these segments. This complaint about current design for women about their five guidelines to help designers is co-financed by the European Regional Booklet outlines the drivers and obstacles Millionaire seem a distant reality as you involves going above and beyond superficial is that design teams often try to target make the connection by clicking here. While Development Fund through the Innovation for enhancing the performance of regional come to terms with the emergence of the marketing stunts that bring an Indian female consumers by making things pink or I’m not completely sold on their name (re- & Environment Regions of Europe Sharing innovation policy, explores how design new Indian consumer market. According celebrity onboard to endorse the brand using other stereotypes in an effort to reach minds me of a room that might be at Hugh Solutions (INTERREG IVC) programme. can be used to address the issue, provides to Neilsen, a research group, India is the or use Indian colors, prints or fabrics to the female market. According to the Femme Hefner’s estate), I do like their ideas and illustrative case studies and puts forward third-most brand conscious country in the design new products. Secondly, the Indian Den, “women buy or influence up to 80% of “smart design.” What do you think? Check In November 2009, SEE launched its first policy proposals. world, trailing behind only Greece and Hong elite are accustomed to shopping abroad consumer goods.” Yet, the design world as out the Fast Company article for more Policy Booklet: Integrating Design Into Kong. TimesOnline reported estimates by and expect the same level of variety and SEE has now set itself a number of targets a whole does not design with this in mind. details about the Femme Den. Regional Innovation Policy. This publication AT Kearney showing that by 2015 India will customer service in New Delhi that they get for raising the profile of design amongst re- hit about 15 billion pounds in annual spend- presents an overview of innovation policy in New York. This presents international gional policy-makers as a strategic process ing on luxury goods, a dramatic increase priorities in the SEE partner regions. These brands with the challenge of providing for identifying challenges and proposing from 2008’s 2 billion. According to Forbes priorities were identified from national these advantages in India to lure these sustainable solutions. The timing is apt Asia, the total net worth of India’s 100 rich- and regional policy documents and were customers while they may not attain the as much attention is currently focused on est people in 2008 was approximately $276 weighed against the strategic priorities for same sales volume in both places yet. innovation as a means out of the enduring billion, about 25% of the country’s gross innovation identified by the European Com- Lastly, international brands looking to economic stalemate. Therefore, there is a domestic product, with the number of Indian mission. From this comparative analysis successfully establish themselves in India real opportunity for design to contribute billionaires rising from 27 to 52 last year. six common key issues emerged across the need to build excellent relationships with to recovery and addressing societal chal- Despite the general assumption and belief policy agendas: customers, business partners as well as lenges. 2010 could see significant design that international luxury brands will enjoy the Indian authorities. In most cases, this policy developments across Europe – -Innovation in Services significant gains in the Indian market, most requires the identification and formation you can follow our progress on the SEE -Public Procurement of them have not had the expected success of proper business partnerships in India project website. -Collaborative Clusters & Networks in wooing Indian consumers. Why is it that to gain access to established human -Lead Markets & Eco-innovation international behemoths like Liz Claiborne, resources, processes, technology, supply, This is the first of four Policy Booklets to -Intellectual Property Rights Pierre Cardin, Bally and more recently distribution and information know-how to be published between 2009 and 2011. An -Broadening the Scope of Innovation Jimmy Choo had to retreat from the Indian build profitable customer relationships. electronic copy of the booklet is available to market? Part of the reason is that most download from the SEE website: brands try to use the one-size-fits-all model Although the road ahead for international http://seeproject.org/publications. and apply the same kind of thinking that has brands in India is filled with challenges, worked well for them in their home markets most find it impossible to resist the lure of to India. How can these brands apply strate- the world’s largest free-market democracy gic thinking to gain competitive and sustain- with a complex yet growing and increas- Read more posts on the CATALYST blog at: able advantage in the Indian market? ingly attractive consumer market! www.CATALYSTsdr.com/blog 3 CATALYSTsdr.com CRADLE TO CRADLE 4
CATALYZING the ConversationAn introduction to this theme of CATALYST Strategic Design Review Cradle to Cradle® Cradle to Cradle (C2C) design enhances quality and adds value by taking inspira- The C2C paradigm sets design principles based on renewable energy and materi- encourage a shift from “doing less bad” to “doing good,” creating long-term positive ef- Remaking the Way We Make Things tion from nature, where everything is a als recycling in continuous pathways. This fects on the environment and human health. nutrient for something else: waste = food. innovative approach encourages a new and (Some passages courtesy Philips Electronics) C2C is the antithesis of the “Cradle to profitable model for business, by redefin- True recycling is when all materials can be used repeatedly within nature or industry as biological or technical nutrients. Grave” paradigm, where products disap- ing the way design decisions are made that pear in landfills or incinerate at the end of their useful life. Technical Biological Nutrients: Nutrients: Materials that can be used in Organic materials that, continuous metabolisms without once used, can be disposed losing their integrity or quality. of in the natural environ- In this manner these materials ment and decomposed in can be used over and over again the soil, providing benefits instead of being “downcycled” to life forms. into undefined products, ulti- mately becoming waste. 5 CATALYSTsdr.com CRADLE TO CRADLE 6
Supervising AuthorDr. Michael Braungart is a chemist and CRADLE TO CRADLE:cofounder of Cradle to Cradle® Design and MBDCMcDonough Braungart Design Chemistry inCharlottesville, Virginia. He has pioneered a newparadigm in which humans can create a positiveecological footprint by redesigning products andsystems to support a life-cycle economy.Dr. Braungart developed the Cradle to Cradle® TRANSITIONING FROM WASTE INCINERATIONframework as a tool to help businesses redesignusing renewable biological and technicalpathways. TO BENEFICIAL MATERIALSHe is the scientific director of EnvironmentalProtection Encouragement Agency (EPEA)Internationale Umweltforschung GmbH and Lead Author Dr. Tanja Scheelhaase, EPEA Internationale Umweltforschungcontinues to lecture at universities around theworld.Co-authorsDouglas Mulhall, THE CURRENT SITUATIONCo-author and Editor, Senior Researcher, Cradleto Cradle Chair, Erasmus University Waste incineration as practiced today is a low-quality, end-of-pipe technology,Haixiang Qian, requiring a new cradle to cradle design strategy. The process of burningCo-Author, EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung waste through incineration is widely used in many countries around the world.Timo Siegmund, Recently, a new type of commercial waste incineration has gained in popularity,Co-Author, EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung based on a concept called “Waste to Energy.” Under the umbrella of “green energy” generation, these new waste treatment facilities burn waste to create secondary fuel, offering an alternative to primary energy sources, such as coal. This secondary fuel, also known as “Residue Derived Fuel” (RDF), is a mix of household, industrial and commercial waste, conditioned for extracting high caloric value to increase its electricity generation potential. Unfortunately, theExecutive Summary demand for “Waste to Energy” fuel is increasing as more incinerators are built. To feed the industry’s appetite, more and more valuable materials are used as Mixed waste incineration, often referred to as “Waste to Energy,” “energy RDF, consequently sending the entire waste stream, including nutrients for recovery,” or “thermal treatment” is widely recognized as a promising‘green technology.’ These new incinerators burn waste to create alterna- recycling to the plants. Over time, this has created a significant overcapacity of tive energy in the form of electricity and are growing in abundance around incineration facilities in places such as northern Europe, generating a suction the world, In reality, however, “Waste to Energy” contributes to environ- effect for materials that are otherwise recyclable. mental degradation and climate change at levels far beyond the short-term benefits gained from producing secondary fuel. “Waste to Energy” is literally wasting valuable resources by exacerbating raw material short- ages and intensifying the loss of CO2-capturing topsoil. It also prevents effective recycling solutions due to competition for high-caloric recyclable content. In this article, scientists working with Prof. Michael Braungart through EPEA develop a Cradle to Cradle strategy for transitioning from“Waste to Energy” to a more effective strategic design: re-capturing ben- eficial materials that encourage true recycling instead of downcycling, and re-designing products so their materials can be recovered effectively.
SECONDARY FUEL – “Without more SHORTAGE OF RARE METALS raw material. Without more aggressive recycling initiatives, WASTING NUTRIENTS antimony, which is used to make flame retardant materials, aggressive recycling Worldwide consumption of raw materials is unsustainable will run out in 15 years, and silver in 10 years. Zinc, which This new “Waste to Energy” paradigm fails to consider the initiatives, antimony, at its current pace. Loss of natural forests to agricultural is important for the human immune system, could be high nutrient value of waste or the hazardous impacts of burning them for cheap fuel. Through incineration, we are which is used to land exceeds 5-7 million hectares globally per year.4,5,6 Oil, uranium, heavy metals and phosphate have already been exhausted by 2037. Finally, terbium, which is used to make the green phosphors in fluorescent light bulbs, could run out throwing away exhaustible raw materials, along with the make flame retardant the subject of numerous wars, and in the last ten years, the before 2012. Even reserves of such commonplace elements energy needed to mine natural resources and manufacture them into consumable products. With this approach, not materials, will run use of many rare metals has accelerated at an alarming rate. For example, indium is being used in unprecedented as copper, nickel and phosphorus used in fertilizer might run out in the not-too-distant future, given current rates of only do we lose valuable nutrients, we also create an out in 15 years, and quantities for making LCDs on flat-screen TVs and tantalum consumption.7 aggressive disincentive for materials’ reuse.1 This is proven silver in 10 years.” is used to make compact electronic devices like cell phones, and hafnium used to make computer chips. Global indium Unfortunately, the recycling rate of most of these metals is by the fact that the rates of recycled waste have not increased in the last few years despite the availability and and hafnium reserves are estimated to last 10 years at best. very low. Hardly any indium, tantalum or gallium is recycled, high potential of recycling technologies 2. Indium’s impending scarcity can already be reflected in and as a result, these essential nutrients find their way to its price: in January 2003 the metal sold for around $60 per incineration plants or landfill sites and are lost indefinitely. Many governments seem to have forgotten that material kilogram; by August 2006 the price had risen to over $1000 Therefore, we are creating a material problem that is much ALUMINIUM recycling is essential for solving the increasing scarcity of (transport, per kilogram, leveling off at a modest $700 per kilogram in more imminent than our perceived energy shortage.1, 2, 4 raw materials on the world market. Setting policies that electrical, September 2009.7 For these reasons, a focus on designing high-quality consumer materials recovery is the sensible path. issue renewable energy tax credits to “Waste to Energy” durables) YEARS incinerators only makes matters worse. In this way, a Another telling example is the metal gallium, which along 1027 1000 standard end of pipe paradigm has been set for the next with indium is used to make indium gallium arsenide. 20 years, representing the lifetime of these facilities. Our This is the semi-conducting material at the heart of aFig. 1 society has established a paradigm of self-impoverishment new generation of solar cells. Reserves of both metals are in natural resources.1, 3 disputed, but the current estimation would inhibit these cells from substantially contributing to the future supply of solar electricity. In fact, estimates show that gallium andHow many indium will probably factor less than one percent of all PLATINUM (jewelry, 500 future solar cells, a limitation imposed purely by a lack ofyears left? 510 PHOSPHORUS (fertilizer, catalysts, fuel cells for cars) animal feed) 360 a IF THE WORLD 345 CONSUMES AT CHROMIUM TODAY’S RATE TANTALUM (chrome reserve base / (cellphones, plating, paint) annual global camera lenses) consumption 116 143 NICKEL 142 100 (assuming global (batteries, consumption = turbine blades) global production) 2007 2007 World Population US Population 90 6,580,000,000 301,000,000 Information graphic: b IF THE WORLD Gordon et. al. 2006 CONSUMES AT PNAS 103:1209-1214 HALF THE US New Scientist 2007: CONSUMPTION COPPER figures based on data RATE (wire, coins, from US Geological URANIUM reserve base / plumbing) Survey and UN statistics (weapons, (1/2 US per capita on global population. power stations) consumption 2006 x 61 world population) 59 LEAD GOLD 57 ZINC (lead pipes, (galvanizing) (jewelry, batteries) 50 dental) TIN 42 46 45 40 SILVER (cans, solder) 40 (jewelry, 40 40 42 catalytic ANTIMONY 38 36 (drugs) 30 converters) 34 30 29 30 20 20 20 INDIUM 17 19 (LCDs) 10 13 13 10 9 8 YEARS REMAINING 0 4 0 YEARS 9 CATALYSTsdr.com CRADLE TO CRADLE: FROM WASTE INCINERATION TO BENEFICIAL MATERIALS 10
WASTE DOES NOT BURN WHEN MOST “WASTE TO ENERGY” INCINERATION AS The decisive factor is the right “energy- processes. Because of its high incineration NUTRIENTS ARE REMOVED “RENEWABLE ENERGY” harvesting technology.” The technology to capacities, bio-waste is not separately collected harvest solar energy and other renewable energy and composted or digested in many countries, sources is widely accepted and rapidly being including many parts of Germany. Therefore, The heating value of waste depends on ‘hi- CLAIMS ARE DECEPTIVE caloric’ fractions like paper, plastics and organics, developed worldwide. Creating cheap fuel from these essential materials are lost to the nutrient which create the high temperatures necessary waste is not required to supplement solar income, cycle and the topsoil production process.1, 17 Recent research discredited claims that for effective secondary fuel generation. When and instead interferes with strategic allocation incineration produces “green” and “renewable” these are removed from the incineration stream, of energy investments.1 energy by demonstrating that some standard through appropriate product design and proper “Waste to Energy” incinerators produce more material flow management for separation and carbon dioxide from fossil fuels (such as plastics STRATEGY FOR TRANSITIONING FROM recycling, there is no appreciable heating value of in rubbish) than a gas-fired power station.11 The “The Government and INCINERATION TO A CRADLE TO the residual waste. independent study shows that electricity-only CRADLE ECONOMY incinerators currently produce 33 percent more waste industry must stop In fact, by removing most materials like paper, fossil fuel derived CO2 per unit energy generated peddling the myth that Despite many available technologies to effectively wood, plastics, and textiles out of the waste stream, more than 80 percent of the heating than a gas fired power station. By 2020, with waste incineration is green or recycle materials, most products on the market increases in recycling and improved technology, such as paper, plastics, and non-ferrous metals value is lost. This suggests that incineration is these incinerators will pollute almost as heavily renewable energy. Incinerators and their ingredients are not designed for nutrient not only a barrier to effective recycling, it is also in terms of CO2 emissions as new or refitted coal- can generate electricity, but recovery. Those products contain multiple an obsolete option.1 fired power stations, and 78 percent worse than additives, which are sometimes harmful either new gas-fired power stations.12 they produce more climate to the environment or to humans and other emissions than a gas-fired organisms. Low-quality materials with various “WASTE TO ENERGY” INHIBITS Friends of the Earth summarized the situation this power station.” additives inhibit the reuse or recycling of their THE NUTRIENT CYCLE AND BLOCKS way: “The Government and waste industry must nutrients as post-consumer products,1 which INNOVATION stop peddling the myth that waste incineration motivates businesses to simply incinerate the is green or renewable energy. Incinerators can materials to get rid of the problem. Despite a Many environmentally and ecologically sound generate electricity, but they produce more INCINERATION recent temporary drop in prices of resources climate emissions than a gas-fired power station. and recycled materials from 2008 to 2009, the recycling technologies exist today, and many WORSENS THE CO2 PROBLEM additional methods are being developed to The Government must make it clear that they persistent trend is clear. Prices of resources are process biological and technical nutrients, such will not support the building of such polluting Incineration of bio-waste also hinders topsoil increasing as they become more difficult and as non-ferrous metals more effectively. Copper, plants. Using these incinerators to produce production. Compost is essential for humus expensive to extract from the natural environment. for instance, has high recycling potential and energy will undermine Government attempts to production and for rebuilding topsoil that This price increase opens a door to a new is especially important for use in electronics tackle climate change. Ministers must back truly sequesters CO2. More than twice as much because of its electrical conductivity. The copper renewable energy sources instead.”13 CO2 is bonded in soil and biomass as in Fig. 2 content in incineration slag averages 0.64 the atmosphere.16 (See atmosphere and soil percent, and scientists are exploring ways to The energy balance of incineration plants shows quantities in Figure 2). THE CARBON CYCLE economically recover these high levels in spite they may be more properly termed “Energy- Wasting” plants.1, 14 An energy balance of a AND STORAGE of the complexity of slag. Comparatively, the In the last 200 years, industrial countries lost total copper content in natural ore also averages facility must include energy required for plant approximately 50 percent of their topsoil due to atmosphere 750 + 3.4 / YEAR carbon flow in gross ton (GT)/year less than one percent1 and involves an intensive construction, and energy required for substitute various factors including industrial agriculture mining process. Even as the copper “reserves- fuel production and refining. Taken together with carbon store in gross ton (GT)/year to-production” ratio is estimated at 32 years, the primary energy input, auxiliary power and loss of worldwide recycling rate of copper is down to heat, secondary fuel facilities clearly need more CO2 exhalation photosynthesis only 10 percent).8,9 Plastic materials offer another energy input than they produce. 50 100 2 telling example, where roughly 55 percent of all plastics are burned for energy recovery, rather The calculations in Figure 3 (page 14) illustrate volcanism that the world does not have an energy problem 0.1 diffusion than recycled for re-use.10 The increasing “Waste energy use vegetation 550 to Energy” thermal treatment trend eclipses that necessitates combustion of waste for deforestation 6 ± 0.5 2 ± 0.8 90 90 advances in recovery techniques, blocking the generating energy. Available solar and degradation degradation necessary innovations for top quality recycling of income is more than a thousand 1.6 ±1 50 plastics, paper and biological waste treatment, as fold greater than our well as the design for recovery of biological and present energy 50 technical nutrients.1 needs.15 dieback ocean 40,000 Mix Bed 35 soil 1,500 Tide 35 fossil fuel 5,000 Deep Sea 0.2 sediment 100,000,000 Sedimentation11 CATALYSTsdr.com
Cradle to Cradle® (see pages 5&6) economy, The combination of those strategies rather than REFERENCES Fig 3. Solar income in comparison to human demand where companies can gain internal profits from any one single approach produces a profitable “Available solar income is more than a recovering beneficial materials from products. result for recycling resources. 1 EPEA GmbH, “Zunkunft: Verbrennen?“ Von der The steps to achieving profitable cradle to cradle Abfallverbrennung hin zur Kreislaufschöpfunf nach thousand fold greater than our present metabolisms are summarized here: WASTE INCINERATION CAN BE A Cradle to Cradle®, Scheelhaase, Semisch, Hamburg 2008 energy needs” TRANSITION TECHNIQUE ONLY IF NARROWLY DEFINED 122 ,000,000,“Prices of resources are increasing. 2 EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung GmbH, 00 : Thesen zu “Neue Ersatzbrennstoff-Anlagen – kein ity 0 c Ersatz für intelligentes Stoffstrommanagement“, This price increase opens a door ,00 pa “Waste to Energy” incineration is only ecologically Hamburg Mai 2007 Solar Ca 0,00 worthwhile as a transition technique for products to a new cradle to cradle® economy, that cannot be recycled. In such cases, it is 0 watts 3 NABU Deutschland; Studie: Müllverbrennung in important to establish energy recovery from Deutschland wächst unkontrolliert – Recycling ist where companies can gain internal the high caloric fraction thermal treatment gefährdet, Müllimport wird attraktiver; (2009) and limit it to cases where a defined transition profits from recovering beneficial strategy is underway. 4 Ecoprog/Fraunhofer Institut Umwelt-,Sicherheits-, Energietechnick UMSICHT: Der Weltmarkt für materials from products.” If thermal treatment is necessary to incinerate Müllverbrennungsanlagen, Köln/Oberhausen 2008 Human Energy Consumption: poorly designed products that are not recyclable, 5 Norddeutsche Affinerie: Geschäftsbericht 2005/2006 12,000,000,000,000 watts then modular “Waste to Energy” facilities provide 6 EPEA, Bedeutung von Kompost, für Erhalt und 1 Establish nutrient pathways for ingredients, the preferred option as an interim solution. Verbesserung der Bodenqualität, Hamburg 2003 Strategy In Action materials and products so they can be used as A modular facility starts with a module for biological or technical nutrients. mechanical treatment of waste fractions followed 7 David Cohen, Earth’s natural wealth: an audit, by several combustion modules. These modules NewScientist.com news service , 23 May 2007 2 Rematerialize biological nutrients to can have the same capacity as combustion www.science.org.au/nova/newscientist/ 027ns_005.htm Profitable Recycling chambers of conventional incinerators, but the simultaneously generate energy and reusable big advantage is more flexibility with several materials. Sample metabolism processes include 8 U.S. Department of the Interior; USGS Mineral » Establish nutrient pathways for ingredients, small combustion modules. The benefit is that biodigestion, composting, fermentation, and the system need not rely on huge amounts of Commodity Specialist, Minerals Yearbook materials and products so they can be used as gasification, which factor in CO2 sequestration, biological or technical nutrients (pages 6 & 7) waste as in conventional systems. A modular 9 Gerling, P. & Wellmer, F.: Wie lange gibt es noch Erdöl humus regeneration and reuse for fertilizing. organization has the ability to adapt to the und Erdgas? available fuel. In: Chem. unserer Zeit, 2005, 39, S. 236-245 » Rematerialize biological nutrients 3 Establish Preference Lists (P-Lists) for chemicals and materials in industrial products 10 Ayres, R. U., Ayres, L. W., Rade, I. : The Life cycle » Establish Preference Lists (P-Lists) for so they can either be safely released into the of Copper, its Co-Products and By-Products. IIED, biosphere, recycled effectively at the same quality CONCLUSION Fontainebleau Cesex 2002 chemicals and materials level instead of down cycled, or down cycled in 11 Plastics Europe: Consultic Studie 2005 Produktion, » Design for assembly and disassembly safe and defined pathways which lead back to Waste incineration is an end-of-pipe technology Verarbeitung und Verwertung von Kunststoffen in biological metabolisms. based on the Cradle to Grave paradigm. It is not Deutschland the best solution for energy recovery or waste » Establish dedicated collecting logistics and 4 Design for assembly and disassembly to make disposal, and if set as a standard, it will inhibit all 12 EUNOMIA research&consulting, A changing climate recycling lines efforts for material cycles. for energy from Waste? Report for friends of Earth products as technical nutrients that can be easily (FOE), May 2006 put together and taken apart. » Celebrate diversity The preferred pathway is an effective 13 EUNOMIA research&consulting, A changing climate 5 Establish dedicated collecting logistics product-design concept involving optimal for energy from Waste? Report for friends of Earth » Establish new supply chain partnerships and recycling lines that profitably separate separation in biological and technical nutrients (FOE), May 2006 and recover resources from pre- and post- and complete reuse of materials at the same quality level. Recovery of nutrients such as 14 Friends of the Earth’s Senior Waste Campaigner, Dr consumer products. Michael Warhurst, 2006 phosphorous, metals, and essential elements is 6 Celebrate diversity and design systems necessary to a sustainable industrial system in 15 Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft; for regions with differing infrastructures and the 21st Century. MÜLLVERBRENNUNGVERSUS RELATED RESOURCES materials requirements. KREISLAUFWIRTSCHAFT“; Heft 03/2008 Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things 16 Solar-terrestrische Strahlungsbilanz, Michael Braungart and William McDonough, North 7 Establish new supply chain partnerships, http://www.schulphysik.de/bilanz2.html [28.03.07] Point Press, N.Y.: 2002. such as open mechanisms for cross-link cooperation, materials pooling between 17 Huhn B., Der Kohlenstoffkreislauf CATALYST WEBSITE different industries and exchanging innovations 18 Oechtering, A.: Potenzial zur Optimierung und in individual industries. zum Ausbau der Kompostierung, BIOMASSE-FORUM Continue the conversation about Waste Energy Witzenhausen 24. – 25. October 2007 alternatives on: CATALYSTsdr.com13 CATALYSTsdr.com CRADLE TO CRADLE: FROM WASTE INCINERATION TO BENEFICIAL MATERIALS 14