Length of class:
Achievement Objectives: (2-3 from NoS strand and learning area)
Nature of science strand – Level 7: Communicating in Science – Use accepted science
knowledge, vocabulary, symbols and conventions when evaluating accounts of the
natural world and consider the wider implications of the methods of communication
and/or representation employed.
Living world strand – Level 7: Life processes – Explore the diverse ways in which
animals and plants carry out life processes.
Science Background Information: Refer to notes at back
Specific Learning Outcomes:
(what science do I want the students to
By the end of the lesson, students will be able
1. Identify key differences between
plant and animal cells
2. Describe the functions of key
organelles in both plant and animal
Achievement Criteria: (how will I
know the student has learnt the science I want
them to learn?)
By the end of the lesson, students can:
1. Identify that plant cells have a cell
wall (for support/like a human
skeleton) and chloroplasts (to
produce food), animal cells have
centrioles (to product spindle
fibres) and sometimes some
2. Correctly answer questions about
plant and animal cells.
Assessment Methods (your data gathering methods): e.g. Appraising
the way students complete the prescribed tasks; listening to their discussions and evaluating their
discussion outcomes; listening to their verbal descriptions and their class/group participation and
comparing this data with the achievement criteria
Informally assessing homework completed by students
Listening to class discussion/questions
Quiz shows which students have a grasp on the content
Lesson Number: 8
Lesson Topic: Cell organelles (3)
LEARNING ACTIVITIES (in sequence)
Time line Introduction
Teacher moves Student moves
Learning intentions on the board:
Today we are going to:
1. Compare and contrast
plant and animal cells
2. Review cell organelle
definitions and functions
Do now task: wordfind –
takes 5 mins (then can
finish in their own time)
Hand out notes to
students who weren’t
Wednesday/Friday to get
the notes on cells.
Then go around and check
homework (write down
names of students who
haven’t done it that don’t
have the book).
Go over homework with the class,
should take 10 mins.
Students are given this after the
second bell. Will start completing
Students who don’t have notes on all
the cell organelles will be given notes
Students have homework out to show
Students go over homework together
Time line Main activities
Teacher moves Student moves
Teacher numbers students off to
form groups of 3-4, or they get into
their own groups.
In their groups, students are
instructed to number themselves off
as a, b, c, d as well as come up with a
Rules go up on the board
Quiz activity: (refer to attached page
Give students 3-4 organelles,
some info about them (more
in depth than previously)
and give them 4-5 minutes
to read it and make notes
Teacher will either call out a letter or
get the whole group to answer a
question about a particular organelle
they have just read about.
Individuals earn points for their
After a few questions have
been asked, students get
new lot of information about
different organelles. Again,
they will have to read and
process this information
before being asked about it
individually or as a group.
Team with the most points
at the end earn the prize!!
Bonus question at the end – teams
have to write down an answer
together about 1. What do plant
cells have that animal cells don’t. 2.
Why don’t animal cells have these?
And give to me to read and see who
wrote the best answer.
Students get into their groups
Students read information and
*hopefully* process some/most of it
through motivation to get team points
Time line Closing activity
Teacher moves Student moves
To end, students have to fill out a
ticket to leave, where they write
any suggestions for me about the
lessons so far & what they want
to do more of/don’t want to do.
Students fill out their tickets
If lesson finished early: If lesson took too long:
Do a Chinese whisper (have this
prepared) for team points!!
Cut out a few questions of the quiz and
get the students to fill out the form
Powerpoint with quiz questions
Notes for students who have been away
Treats for the winning teams
ESA study guide (Level 2 bio)
ESA homework workbook
Evaluation of student learning: (how well the students met the AC with
examples/data/evidence to support and justify your judgements)
Students were engaged the entire lesson. Even going through the homework. This
could be due to the fact that Kathy was assessing my teaching and they didn’t want to
play up. In her notes Kathy did say that she liked my questioning technique as I went
through the questions with the students, and through my depth of knowledge was able
to explain answers to the students.
The students learned what I wanted through a collaborative activity that was fun but
educational at the same time. All up, they completed their word finds, got into groups,
came up with names, read the notes quietly, worked together to generate answers,
and left the class with a smile! That’s all I need.
Strengths and weaknesses of lesson plan: (comment on aspects of the lesson plan
such as the appropriateness of the level, usefulness of the AC, any modifications required, etc.)
I felt the plan did not take into account the time it would really take to answer all the
questions. This caused the end of my lesson to be rushed and I did not get through all
the content I wanted. Next time, I would make less questions for each group and thus
less reading material. Other than that I felt the lesson ran quite smoothly. I had planned
the lesson well, which was noted by my observing lecturer as part of a strong trend
when looking at my planning this far.
Evaluation of your teaching: (comment on: your ability to scaffold student learning in
terms of your science knowledge, the effectiveness of your various teaching skills and strategies
(e.g. questioning, formative assessment etc.), your behaviour management skills; and areas you
need to improve and how you will achieve this)
The lesson ran quite smoothly, I knew what I was talking about and when some
students answered a bit vaguely, I would probe their answers to get them thinking
more about what and why things were the way they were (e.g. why more Golgi bodies
are needed in secretory cells). Students who I thought would have to have some
behaviour management strategies directed towards them, actually behaved
surprisingly well which was great to see.
I need to improve on being more firm with the students, and not getting too excited. As
the teacher, I am the calm one and although the quiz activity was very exciting I have to
remember for the future not to get overwhelmed as this excites the class as well. This
was a comment given to me by my visiting lecturer and looking back now I see where
she is coming from. I aim to get better at waiting for complete silence before talking
(which is hard when I want to get going with the lesson!) and slow down my talking as
well as lowering my pitch.
[a,b,c,d] Animal cells generally have more mitochondria in them compared to plant cells, because
the energy demands of animals are higher than plants. What is an example of a cell that contains
lots of mitochondria?
[a,b,c,d] What is the function of mitochondria?
[group] What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
[a,b,c,d] First person to draw a mitochondria on the board gets a point. Go!
[group] Name one type of cell that has a flagella and explain why it needs one?
[a,b,c,d] Cilia/flagella are found in all animal cells, true or false.
[a,b,c,d] How many subunits are ribosomes made up of?
[a,b,c,d] Where are the two places ribosomes can be found in a cell?
[group] What do we need proteins for?
[a,b,c,d] Where are the two places that the transport vesicle takes the protein molecules?
[group] Why are golgi bodies commonly found in cells that secrete lots of enzymes/proteins?
[a,b,c,d] The plasma membrane is made up of glycerol-phosphate heads and fatty acid tails. These
are hydrophobic and hydrophilic. What do these terms mean?
[group] What’s the point of microvilli?
[a,b,c,d] In what type cells are microvilli typically found?
[a,b,c,d] is the difference between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
[a,b,c,d] Ovary cells produce lots of hormones, what type of endo reticulum would they have lots of?
[a,b,c,d] Besides making proteins and lipids, what else does the endo ret do?
[a,b,c,d] Name two things the vacuole stores.
[group] Why do plant cells a large vacuole but animal cells don’t? (glucose storage / skeleton)
[a,b,c,d] What do lysosomes contain?
[a,b,c,d] What do the enzymes from inside the lysosome break down?
[a,b,c,d] Why would sperm contain lysosomes?
Name this organelle (picture)
[a,b,c,d] True or false: centrioles are found in both plant and animal cells – fix it?
[a,b,c,d] What do the spindle fibres do during cell division?
[a,b,c,d] Why are the leaves of plants green but their stems not so green?
[group] When photosynthesis occurs, what is the plant making?
[a,b,c,d] True or false: The cell wall is found only in animal cells.
[group] What could happen to a plant cell if it didn’t have a cell wall?
1. What do plant cells have that animal cells don’t. 2. Why don’t animal cells have these? Need a
Information given to students:
Mitochondria are organelles bounded by a double membrane. The inner-
most membrane is made up of cristae (the folds) which increase the
surface area for aerobic respiration to occur though.
They are the cell’s energy transformers and convert glucose into carbon
dioxide, water and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – the ‘energy molecule’
Many cells have a single mitochondrion whereas others contains
Mitochondria have their own DNA.
Aerobic respiration can only occur in the presence of oxygen.
Mitochondria are more common in animal than in plant cells, because
the demands of animal cells are typically higher, and are especially
common in cells with high energy demands (e.g. sperm, muscle, liver).
The higher the energy demands of the cell, the greater the number of
Found in SOME animal cells but never in plant cells.
On the outside of the cell, always.
The cilia that line the cells of our respiratory
tract beat upward, propelling a current of mucus
that sweeps particles of dust, soot, pollen, and
so on to the throat, from where they can be
removed by swallowing.
Sperm cells of mammals move by a single
Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis, where DNA is used to code for proteins.
Ribosomes can be free in the cytoplasm or attach
themselves to the endoplasmic reticulum (=rough er).
Ribosomes are made of 2 subunits that come together to
We need proteins in order to make all the reactions happen
in our body, our muscles contract, food be digested,
infections fought, genes turned on and off etc.
Most animal cells only have one golgi body. It looks
similar to the ER but consists of a stack of membrane
sacs called cisternae (sister-nay).
After being made, most molecules get transported by a
TRANSPORT VESICLE to the cisternae.
They fuse together and the molecule is modified by
enzymes in the cicternae.
The TRANSPORT VESICLE then takes the molecules to
the cell membrane where it is released to the outside of the cell.
Golgi bodies are common in secretory cells, such as gland cells that produce hormones, or pancreatic
cells that produce enzymes. In such places, lots of protein molecules are made and therefore there
are lots to modify, so golgi = in demand.
Made of a phospholipid (fos-fo-lipid) bi-layer. This
is made up of glycerol-phosphate ‘heads’ and
fatty-acid ‘tails’. The heads are hydrophilic (water-
loving) and the tails are hydrophobic (water-
Membranes are semi-permeable, meaning that
they only allow certain substances into the cell.
The membrane may be thrown up in many folds, known as microvilli, which greatly increase the
surface area of the plasma membrane. Microvilli are found in cells that are very active in secretion
(e.g. pancreatic cells) and absorption (e.g. small intestine).
A network of membranes running through the cytoplasm, taking up
most of its space. ER with ribosomes attached = rough ER. I is involved
in protein production. Rough ER is therefore common in cells that
make and secrete proteins (e.g. digestive cells that produce enzymes,
white blood cells that produce antibodies). ER that does not have
ribosomes = smooth ER. It is associated with the production of lipids,
common in cells that produce hormones (e.g. oestrogen, progesterone,
testosterone). Ovary cells have lots of smooth ER.
The vacuole stores organic compounds (sugars etc.), toxic wastes from metabolism, and water, as
well as toxic substances (in plants) to deter herbivores.
In plant cells, there is one large vacuole. It is like a fluid skeleton – water entering the cell by osmosis
collects in the vacuole, which swells and exerts pressure outwards on the cell membrane and cell
wall. This makes the cell rigid/turgid and acts as support to keep the plants with non-woody stems
upright. It also stores glucose, the food that plants make as well as toxic substances that deter
herbivores from eating the leaves.
Animals have a much smaller vacuole compared to plants, as they don’t need a ‘fluid skeleton’, and
although smaller, there are more vacuoles in an animal cell.
Lysosomes are vacuoles that contain enzymes and are formed from vesicles made by the golgi body.
They are used to break down work-out organelles (e.g. mitochondria), the chemicals released are
used to make new organelles or other needed products.
They are also used in the breakdown of cells of tissues during metamorphosis in insects and
amphibians (e.g. tails of tadpoles), as well as the membrane surrounding the ovum (egg) so sperm
can fertilise it.
Found only in animal cells
Made of microtubules that form the spindle fibres needed for chromosomes to separate during
mitosis and meiosis.
Large organelles found in leaf cells and cells in the outer layers of green stems (cells exposed to
light). They are the site of photosynthesis, where carbon dioxide and water are joined together to
become glucose. Mitochondria use this to produce energy in the cells.
The nucleus is often called the control centre of the cell because it contains DNA, the genetic
material that organises ALL cell processes. DNA is scattered throughout the nucleus as chromatin
(looks like spaghetti), becoming chromosomes (chromatin condenses) just before the cell goes
through mitosis or meiosis.
Found inside the nucleus, where it produces ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
Holds the organelles
Provides a medium for reactions in the cell to occur.
It is where many of the chemical reactions of the cell occur.
Found in plant cells only, to provide structure for the cell. It also limits the cell volume, so it doesn’t
burst from having too much water in the cell etc. It is found outside the cell membrane. It is made of
cellulose which is a type of sugar.