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5 yoga for voice culture

  1. 1. YOGA FOR VOICE CULTURE Published by Swami Vivekananda Yoga Prakashana #19, Eknath Bhavan, Gavipuram Circle, Kempegowda Nagar, Bengaluru - 560019 City Office - Ph: 080-26612669 Telefax: 080-26608645 Prashanti Kutiram Campus - Ph: 080-22639996 E mail: svyasa@svyasa.org Web: www.svyasa.org
  3. 3. Yoga for Voice Culture | 7 INTRODUCION Voice reflects our feelings. For example, if we gently and softly express our anger no one will take it seriously. Similarly we never express love and affection through loud shouting. Hence a suitable voice is essential for expressing our emotions properly; whether it is talking, joking, singing or oration, this is essential. Lot of developments took place in the field of science and technology in the past few centuries. No doubt, the growth of technology has proved to be a boon to the humanity which is crying for its basic needs by means of acceleration of mass production. The life of the individual, which is geared to suit the needs of mass production centers, has become mechanical since the set-up for higher production makes man think less. Also, the rush in the industries and factories to produce more and more, has promoted unhealthy cut throat competition. Man working in these industrial production centers is forced to be always on his toes. Consequently, he always moves under great tension even for his basic survival. In the olden days, each child used to learn Vedic chanting. This is the minimum education that every one used to have. In Vedic chanting there is intonation. There are three notes called Udatta, Anudatta and Swarita. Anudatta is the normal, the lower. Udatta is the upper pitch and Swarita is a combination Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  4. 4. 8 | Yoga for Voice Culture of these two. Om Sahana vavatu, sahanau bhunaktu observe that. ‘sa’ is lower loudness and lower pitch and ‘nau’ is higher pitch and higher loudness,. This is how we start learning to modulate and start developing the voice that we have. While Vivekananda Kendra enlaunched educational projects in North Eastern area of Arunachal Pradesh, by setting up Primary schools supported by Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh, it was a challenge for us to develop proper speech clarity among the tribal children. Even Hindi could not be pronounced properly in spite of continued efforts by our dedicated teachers for years. We started searching for speech experts to solve the problem but they all failed. It was then that Mr. Warnekar, a in Sanskrit renowned professor said to us “ it was the easiest to solve – teach them Sanskrit. “We remarked ‘children can not pronounce even simple hindi words’. How can they articulate Sanskrit? So difficult words needing twists and turns of the tongue? Can you come and solve our problem? He agreed and came in summer to take charge of the students for a month. All other classes were suspended. He has composed about 200 Samskrit songs from a short two line poems and slokas to 2 page long ones. Every morning after a brief session of yoga, the children sat with prof. Warnekar on Harmonium leading the songs. He lead and children repeated 8hrs a day. Amazingly they loved to sing and the tongues were trained day after day. Just a month – the challenge was met and the problem was solved. All teachers also sat with those children and learnt to sing all those songs which were so tailor made to introduce them from Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  5. 5. Yoga for Voice Culture | 9 easy ones to begin with to end in the quite complicated tongue twistersas. How did this work? Prof. Warnekar said that it was the beauty of Sanskrit. The phonetics and intonations were structured in the very alphabets of Samskrit and the words, he continued- it systematically trains all parts of the tongue, voice box for tone and pitch of voice production. Latter yoga practices were developed to complement them and a yoga based voice improvement module was developed. Research was conducted to assess these changes to through more light on the mechanisms involved in voice culture. We bring out these aspects of yoga in this booklet after introducing Anatomy and Physiology. In this Chapter we are going to discuss about the Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomy refers to the describing and naming of various body parts. Especially in this case we are going to be concerned with physical parts of the vocal system. In the Physiology we relate to how these various parts of the vocal system work harmoniously in order to produce voice. Creating sound requires numerous muscles, bones and organs of the body. It is not just the vocal system but the entire body response. There are Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  6. 6. 10 | Yoga for Voice Culture three basic main anatomical structure required for the production of voice. The first among them is named as Activater i.e., Lungs, Diaphragm, Inter-costal muscles. These organs basically deal with breathing or what we call air management. Most of the time there is a condition called tuttering where the problem lies with the air management and articulation. The second part is called Vibrator. That is basically the voice box. This deals with the creation of pitch in the form of a sound wave. The third is the Resonators, i.e., Throat, mouth, lips, teeth, and nose. These deal with modification of the sound into tones of various colors and timbers. So when we are talking about fully throated resonating voice, the entire vocal cavity will be participating in the production. When we look at the Activaters, i.e., breathing process, there are various intercostal muscles in the diaphragm and the lungs participating in this. In the respiration however the actual breathing will be referred. But Activaters refers to organs used in the breathing process. When we breathe in i.e., inhalation, the diaphragm descends pulling the ribs apart, i.e., inter-costal muscles will help in this process. As the ribs move apart air rushes in filling the lungs. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  7. 7. Yoga for Voice Culture | 11 Take the example of some kind of a balloon. What happens to the balloon when we pump in air? So when we breathe out i.e., exhalation the diaphragm and inter-costal muscles actually relax and it will make the lung force air back and out. Again we have to compare it with a balloon. What will happen when you hold the balloon tight and release at end? The air rushes out producing sound. In the same way the Larynx will also function. Larynx is the name for voice box. Sometimes we notice that Adams Apple where the heart part pops up and down in males. The Larynx contains vocal chords and we call that as Vocal Folds too. The Epiglottis closes off the air way when we swallow the food, so that the food will not enter into Larynx. We have all realized in some part of our life what happens when the food particles try to enter the Larynx. It is the God given natural obstruction so the Thyroid Cartilage is the one which houses the Larynx and protrudes in the neck. That is called Adams Apple. There are various parts of the Larynx but we are not interested in all the anatomical details. We will say Epiglottis is the most important portion of the Larynx and then perhaps the artificial folds and the true folds, these are the three anatomical features that we have to be concerned about. When we cut the front view of the Larynx into half, we see the False Vocal chords and the True Vocal Folds and the Ventricle Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  8. 8. 12 | Yoga for Voice Culture and the Vocalic muscles and Thyroid Cartilages. Those are the parts which play a very important role. During the respiration i.e., the process of exhalation, i.e., when we breathe out, air rushes up the Trachea and into the Larynx i.e., into the voice box where it rushes, pass the vocal chords and causes them to vibrate. The Vocal card starts vibrating when the vocal folds will vibrate and the air will rush in from below and causes them to make sound. So like when singing, the tighter we stretch the card, the higher will be the pitch which again we all observed this phenomenon in the balloon also when we try to stretch the balloon tighter, the pitch of that sound coming out of the balloon will also be very high. In the same way vocal folds also function. The vocal chords normally adduct. That is it comes together during phonation. So when you want to talk, the vocal chords automatically come together and that process is called Adduction and the more chords are tightened, that is when we become little tensed and tighten our vocal cards, the higher will be the pitch. The chords vibrate against each other normally hundreds of times per second. The number of times they vibrate is known as frequency and this is measured in Hertz. Just like in a piano, when the string is hit by a key, it vibrates at a certain number of times and the same thing happens Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  9. 9. Yoga for Voice Culture | 13 with the vocal chords. So as a Singer sings or a person talks in various pitch, there will be frequency, modulation which is measured in Hertz.. When will adduction happen? The adduction happens when the vocal chords are spread apart. That is abducting means to take away and adduction is happening only when the vocal chords are coming together. The Vocal Folds are made of layers of very delicate tissues called Mucus Membrane. Very little blood flow occurs in these chords. That is the reason vocal chords are white in appearance. Under normal talking or singing condition they can withstand quite a bit of use, however loud forceful phonation can cause lot of injury to the vocal folds. Suddenly sometimes, we shout that may create lot of injury of the vocal chords. Vocal Folds cannot be replaced. Though they can be surgically corrected, for lesions or growth it can never be replaced. It is fairly easy to injure vocal chords. What are the different circumstances under which we might injure our vocal chords is forceful singing, yelling, screaming, loud talking can cause vocal chords damage. For example, in the cricket match you see lot of girls the teenagers shouting and when they come out of the cricket match their voice will be harsh. The reason is that they have injured vocal chords to some extent, but if they give enough rest, it comes Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  10. 10. 14 | Yoga for Voice Culture back to its normal position automatically. Excessive amount of phonating can also lead to injury like vocal over use in singers and teachers. Teachers will have to be talking for a long period of time; Singers who will be singing for a long period of time may abuse their voice unless they are using right kind of fundamental frequency and optimum frequency. There are two frequencies which is very important for a person when we are using, when we are singing or when we are talking also. One is called the Fundamental Frequency and the other one is called the Optimum Frequency. Let us see how these things would work in maintaining vocal hygiene. We will discuss about Fundamental Frequency and Optimum Frequency and how it is important to use these two frequencies in the next Chapter. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  11. 11. Yoga for Voice Culture | 15 CAUSES OF INJURY TO THE VOCAL SYSTEM We will discuss about the various causes which may injure our Vocal Chords which come on the way of maintaining very good hygienic voice. One is Nodules. We know about Nodule of the vocal chords, Polyps and Laryngitis and Hemmorrhage of the chords which are the possible effects of lot of vocal abuse. Laryngitis we have all seen that condition where the Larynx gets affected and there is infection in the Larynx. Nodules is a common injury that is essentially a small growth found on both Vocal Chords and Nodules are very common, in very young Children, Singers and Teachers who will be constantly speaking so the Vocal Cards are coming together constantly being in touch with each other. So that is the point where Nodule appears. Polyps are also like Nodules but they are a growth on the chords that keep the chords from closing. So there will be lot of soft lesions, the voice will be sexy in nature. A kind of very hussy voice so where the air escapes between the Vocal Cards will be not complete but not also completely closed will be produced. Polyps may be on either side or just on one card. Apart from vocal abuse, another common cause for polyps is smoking. A Hemmorrhaged Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  12. 12. 16 | Yoga for Voice Culture blood vessel explodes due to excessive pressure. When we come to Laryngitis, Laryngitis rhinitis is the inflammation of the vocal chords. It may be the result of reactions to Allergies, bacterial or fungal infections or the result of vocal over use also. With Laryngitis the vocal cards often swell too much so that it won’t be able to close correctly resulting in what we call breathy voice or husky voice. Vocal abuse also we talk about children, yelling, screaming, forceful singing, throat clearing and coughing. Some people have a kind of habit where they will be constantly clearing their throat which will also cause lot of vocal abuse. People might think that it is only loud talking which injures vocal chords, but remember even whispering will cause vocal damage. When we try to whisper, all the time trying to talk something not to be heard by others, it will also damage vocal chords. The other area we will come to treatment basically. Treatment could be for organic causes which we have been talking about Nodule, Polyps, Laryngitis and Hemorrhaging. Under such conditions normally you should consult an ENT specialist or a general Practitioner. In general, the first thing that one has to do is take total vocal rest. Not even whispering in fact you should be writing just things to communicate. That kind of vocal rest has to be taken during all these situations. That is the first line of defense. In some cases we can get lot of help through hydrating ourselves a lot. That is we have to keep on drinking lot of water. But we have to follow these two measures first before surgery is indicated. Now we are going to touch upon the keys to vocal health. First the Larynx you say compare it to a finely tuned musical instrument. The way we take care of a musical instrument Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  13. 13. Yoga for Voice Culture | 17 for example, you own a violin, you take care of it so much, the same way Larynx have to be taken care of. We have to drink lot of water because water is the best fluid for the body and minimum we have to drink at least 64 alms a day i.e., about half a gallon. The vocal chords need constant lubrication while singing. That is very important. The body should be always producing about one liter of mucus a day to keep the vocal chords lubricated. However, it needs lot of water to produce mucus. So to keep the mucus thin also we have to drink lot of water. Foods like grapes, melons, cucumbers have lot of water content and it is very beneficial to singers also and people who are in the profession where they need to talk a lot. Alcohol, caffeine, smoking, anti-histamines all dry the body and also the vocal chords. Even the humidifiers in some dry areas in the bed room may also be beneficial for vocal health. For singers especially try not to sing forcefully or for long periods. Let your music director know if you are experiencing a vocal fatigue. Try to avoid singing hard glottal attacks. Glottal attacks means singing throaty voice Kha, Gha. When you start singing, start with little bit of vocal relaxation exercises which we call it as Warm up Exercises also. The Larynx should get increased blood flow and you stretch it before singing by going into a lower pitch when you start singing go to lower pitch first and then slowly warm up and go to the higher pitch. That is what exactly most of the singers will be doing. When Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  14. 14. 18 | Yoga for Voice Culture you are about stop also lighten your Larynx by giving downward glides, lot of downward glides and worm up exercises. There are three groups of muscles basically involved in vocal, when you are singing. That is the Breathing muscles, the Phonatial muscles and Pitch changing muscles. This understanding helps in knowing how Yoga works on the vocal system especially while performing Yogic exercises and Yogasanas. In spite of all this care, if a person is feeling that he is having some kind of a voice problem, the best thing is to do certain instrumental analysis like stroboscope. Analyze your fundamental frequency and your optimum frequency which the instrument will automatically tell you. The instrument gives your optimum frequency where you can start and what is the pitch range which is very important to know and what is the pitch range that you can take to go up and to come down. This is an instrument analysis which most of the voice labs in and around India can analyze. Now we will move on to exercises which is the key component for maintaining vocal hygiene. Frequently, even the body exercises can help, can promote a strong circulatory system, efficient lungs and good immunity towards sickness which we all realize. The same principle will hold good to maintaining good vocal hygiene also. Try to get eight hours of sleep. That Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  15. 15. Yoga for Voice Culture | 19 is very important. Do not grown when you are lifting weights. That is something very important to weight lifters. It creates lot of Pressure against vocal cards. When you are talking on phone, don’t try to hold the phone with your shoulder which is again important as the position can put a lot of strain on the Larynx and the neck muscles. When you are singing the last hours it should be without any discomfort and if there is any harshness, you are experiencing any harshness or discomfort or lack of range in the phonetia, it is an indication that a problem is growing and you should try to stop slowly coming down to the lower end. Let us discuss about this in the next chapter. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  16. 16. 20 | Yoga for Voice Culture VOCAL DISORDERS AND VOICE DISORDERS Smoking can create dramatic changes in tissues in and around vocal chords and is the primary cause for the cancer of the Larynx. It drops the vocal cards of full flexibility because of its drying affect. Singers should never smoke. Singers are normally not smokers. There are basically three different types of voice disorders. The one is functional in nature caused by faulty use of normal vocal mechanism. The second is organic where it is related to physical abnormality in the vocal chords or in the structure of the whole vocal mechanism. The third is Neurological in nature caused by some neurological dysfunction that impairs coordinating of the mechanisms involved in the voice production. Now, we discuss go to certain general clinical terms used to describe voice problems. One is called Disphonia, the other could be Aphonia, the third type would be Mesality. Now let us discuss Organic Voice Disorders. There may be various conditions which we described earlier like Polyps, Vocal Nodule, Ulcers, Laryngitis which will all lead to husky breathy voice. People should not mistake this for having a sexy voice or attractive voice. The moment a person develops a husky or a breathy voice for a period lasting for more than fifteen days, he must immediately consult an ENT specialist to rule out any organic problem which is long lasting. So as far as organic voice disorders are concerned, a surgical removal of the problem or the medical treatment of Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  17. 17. Yoga for Voice Culture | 21 the problem will take care of the voice disorders. For the functional voice disorder, once when the organic disorder has been set right, still the person have to go through a form of voice therapy in order to hit their optimum pitch and to assess and come to an understanding of their vocal range and the pitch variation that their vocal system is capable off. The third predominant area that we will notice is people talking with nasality. When they talk their voice sounds very nasal. So again, we have ruled out organic problems of cleft pallet, cleft lip but still there will be what we call Nasal escape of air. Lot of physical exercises and lot of Yogic exercises will help the person to reduce the nasality in the voice. There is another aspect of voice disorder which we call Aphonia. Aphonia could be psychological too. There are certain incidents of people suffering from various conditions like schizophrenia, depression, suddenly say I will not be able to talk. My vocal chords are not functioning and I don’t have any voice. There is absolutely no reason why the person cannot speak. The vocal chords are functioning fine. They can cry, they can laugh but when it comes to talking, they will not be using their vocal chords. So these people can be treated by a Voice Therapist and also by a Psychiatrist and with lot of meditation techniques and other yogic exercises which will be discussed further can also help these people to get over from functional Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  18. 18. 22 | Yoga for Voice Culture dysaphonia. So what will we do when a person comes with voice disorder? First case history will be taken, then clinical evaluation will be done. The clinical evaluation will be both functional as well as instrumental in nature and then we take a voice sample. Voice sample will be taken when they are talking in ordinary environment and also when they are using their voice professionally . There will also be a diagnosis plan and pragmatic indicators will also be given. Basically we try to analyze what are the voice abusing factors. We can give the suggestions to the patient in order to not to abuse their voice. But still use the voice projecting it. That is one part and exposure to lot of laryngal irritants that will advice to them to lessen that irritants. Otherwise they may end up with infection. Let us now discuss about Yogic exercises for voice disorders. One would be with breathing exercise. The first basic component a person has to learn is to how to breathe and how to voice. How to coordinate this process. What are the different techniques? So we go to breathing exercises where we pay lot of importance to hands stretch breathing and then we breathe Tiger stretch oral motor exercises and head and neck exercises. Those things will be explained in the next few chapters and then we go to yogasanas. What are the different kinds of Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  19. 19. Yoga for Voice Culture | 23 yogasanas which might help a patient with voice disorder, or even to maintain your voice culture. Ardhakati chakrasana has a very important role. Padahastasana, Bhujangasana, Shalbasana, Sarvangasana and Halasana. The physiological effects of all these asanas will be explained to you in the latter chapters. So basically the way it affects your body and the mind, the same way it affects the voice also. Let us go to the Pranayamas again the sectional breathing which is very important. Especially the abdominal breathing, thoracic breathing which plays a very important role in the sectional breathing. One has to practice sectional breathing. Then Kapalabati, Nadishuddhi pranayama, ujjayi Pranayama, Bhastrika pranayama and even the Bramari that will help a singer and a professional like a teacher to maintain their voice. Meditation, Nadanusandhana and the Om meditation will also help. In Kriyas, Jalaneti, Sutraneti and Vaman dhouti will definitely help to maintain voice culture. So here we have tried very briefly to you an input about yoga and how yoga can help even young children, middle aged and geriotric patients who have been suffering with voice disorders and people who would like to maintain their vocal culture and voice culture. The area of neurogenic voice disorders has been not discussed. This is seen in a geriatric patient with upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron diseases called Spastic Disaphonia. You might have heard many elders speaking with a voice which keeps breaking Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  20. 20. 24 | Yoga for Voice Culture which is very shaky like an old person. This is called Spastic Disaphonia. Even this can be treated with yogasanas and lot of yogic exercises. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  21. 21. Yoga for Voice Culture | 25 VOICE CULTURING DEVELOPING MUSICAL TALENTS Voice culture through Yoga. Particularly people who are specializing in music need a very accurate full and embellished voice. Some have gifted voice. They are very rich in contact. But most of us do not have that gifted voice. Then how do we develop that? Is it possible to develop? That is the question that we take up. Yes, it is possible to develop the voice to suit your musical excellence. Sound wave moves in the form of vibration, in the form of waves. Depending on the media the speed can vary. They are essentially moved through compressions and rarefractions that is Ahatashabda. What then when we have is Anahatashabda, that you don’t hear. They can be classed under electro magnetic waves. These electro magnetic waves can travel in great speed. So we have two types, one is the sound, another is the electro magnetic radiation. Now the vocal card that produces sound has to be properly trained with all its supporting air cushions and by doing so you will be able to develop your voice effectively. What is the mechanism by which there is development of the voice? When you go on do- Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  22. 22. 26 | Yoga for Voice Culture ing the pranayama known as the Bramari Pranayama, then you could see that Bramari vibrations will resonate throughout the body. Resonating throughout the body will bring deep relaxation to the body mind complex. There is wonderful relaxation that comes up at the end of this whole practice. So we normally recommend that every day you practice enough so that your voice is going to blossom. The technique we normally use is called as Bramari, the humming sound of a bee. But then we have the reverse of that. Breathe out fully. During inhalation we produce sound is called the Bramara. The sound that is produced by male bee is called Bramara. When we start doing that then wonderful blossoming of the voice occurs. The small, limited range is now expanded to more and more, and we will be able to reach the longer audience, the distant audience and the sound will start blossoming. Therefore the pitch and the loudness both have to be worked through when we do this. Then you start producing the patterns of resonant waves depending on the type of music that you want. The people who do vedic chanting is all set into three notes. Udatta, Anudatta and Swarita. Anudatta is the normal, the lower. Udatta is the upper pitch and Swarita is a combination of these two. Om Sahana vavatu, sahanau bhunaktu observe that. ‘sa’ is lower loudness and lower pitch and ‘nau’ is higher pitch and higher loudness,. This is how you start learning to modulate and start developing the voice that we have. Particularly with the musicians the pitch is very important. The Shruti how far we are able to go. In the lower pitch how much down you can take and in the higher pitch how much more you can take. We should be able to do the entire spectrum. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  23. 23. Yoga for Voice Culture | 27 Then bring the Bhava into the whole thing and bring that Bhava in the feeling related to the music. You start wondering the blossoming of the voice and hundreds of musicians have have learnt this voice culture and they are able to perform well in day to day music concerts that they give. This is the whole process of developing the voice through the useful Bramara, Bramari and other techniques. Yet another thing that is required both for the musicians and also for orators essentially is development of the vital capacity of the lungs. The vital capacity of the lungs can be developed by inhaling and holding the breath. Allow the breath to spread throughout the chest region. But there is another way of developing this by to directly handling the entire dimension and see that you grow continuously. You can use either of these techniques to see that we have our voice enriched by this process. Higher loudness lower loudness higher pitch lower pitch. The normal range of pitch will be expanded, normal loudness will be expanded and reduced by so doing you will be able to develop your voice. The Bhava has to come within when you start singing that Bhava, the Bhava will automatically modulate your voice manifesting that particular Bhava. The Bhava can be Tamasic, Rajasic, Satvik. Depending on that the Rajasic Would be fully dynamic but can cut others, beat others and can go straight into the hearts of others. In Satva you start doing good. Such vibrations will continuously develop and bring about changes and new dimension to life. So this is how we start developing the voice culture for the musicians. The Raga aspect of it, the Tala aspect of that all are taken into consideration when we developed this integrated yoga module for developing the voice particularly. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  24. 24. 28 | Yoga for Voice Culture VOICE CULTURE FOR DEVELOPING ORATION Voice culture for developing oration, the speech. In the last chapter we saw how our voice can be cultured, developed for developing musical talent. There is emphasis on the Bhava, the particular musical concert that you are giving, the song that you are singing. Everything essentially is based on the pattern of resonate waves that are produced. In oration, when you want to give a speech, it is really different from the music and the corresponding techniques that we have to use to develop the music. Here, there is greater need for developing the voice a very rich voice and to have a long reach. It should be able to modulate. If the people are very near to you or people are very far away, you should be able to change and modulate what you want to do. How you can use the loudness in the pitch of the sound to reach a longer distance or a shorter distance? Therefore here in oration the emphasis is to develop a master voice, the rich voice, a voice with full of inner vitality and dynamism and that is how we all start developing. Some people are born gifted. About their voice they have such a wonderful rich voice and those of the ones who have selected are having gifted voice. They are usually selected for different types of debates, for different types of announcements and presentation and so on. The question is whether we can develop that faculty? For this, the type Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  25. 25. Yoga for Voice Culture | 29 of oration that comes up is to be embellished with increased vital capacity of the lungs, increasing and decreasing pitch, increasing and decreasing the loudness and thereby your oration becomes more effective. I remember one of our Teachers used to have a monotonus voice and therefore it was something like a lullabi and people will nicely sleep. But there are great orators, by looking at the audience, they are able to increase and decrease the loudness, the pitch and also the speed. If the people are feeling little bored, then you increase the pitch, increase the loudness. Therefore it breakes the sleepiness, drowsiness, leathergy and increasing pitch also helps in shattering the tamas and while so doing, we will be able to culture and develop our voice, very rich voice. The richness of the voice is featured by the resonate wave factors. Increasing loudness, decreasing the loudness. Increasing the pitch, decreasing the pitch, increasing the speed of delivery, decreasing the speed of delivery. For that we have the pranayamas. You could also use Kapalabati to some extent to increase and decrease the speed. The difference between Bastrika and Kapalabati you should understand. In Bastrika there is thorasic breathing inhalation and exhalation both are active. But in Kapalabati you have abdominal breathing only exhalation is active, inhalation is automatic. But in Bastrika you expand the chest and contract the chest uniformly like bellows. You go on doing that, then you develop the vital capacity of the lungs and that helps us to have the modulation of the voice as needed; either lower loudness or higher loudness, lower pitch or higher pitch and the speed. Some people can speak very fast with all clarity. Some people do not have Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  26. 26. 30 | Yoga for Voice Culture that clarity. When they speak they don’t use the sound and it gets mixed up and it gets mumbled up. The clarity is not there. Therefore it is very necessary you start using these techniques which are available in Yoga to see that you develop a rich voice. That richness of the voice is the key essence for oraters and it is possible that everyone can develop this richness of the voice by the techniques of voice culture by using an Integrated Yoga Module. We will be able to develop our voice very effectively. Voice culture for developing oration, the speech. Nada and Anusandhana. It is very important in voice culture to understand the dimensions related to the sound. We have seen how anatomical structure is so designed within us to produce the sound. Nada is sound also known as Shabda. On its subtlest form is called Nadabrahman. Nadabrahman is the first primordial sound “OM” that emerged from pure consciousness, from Brahman and then it grossified itself. So what is Shabda? Shabda Taranga is vibrations, waves and there are two types of Shabda. One is Ahata Shabda and another is the Anahata Shabda. Ahata Shabda is the one that we all hear. Today modern physics has understood the Shabda, the sound with great depth. It is known that the sound travels to a media through compressions and rarefractions. Now air is there during talking, there is continuous compressions and rarefractions of the air. So it starts moving and it is through this media that the sound moves. Why? Does it mean that if we don’t have media, the sound cannot move? Yes. The famous bell jar experiment. You have a glass bell jar. Inside there is electric calling bell. Outside we have got a switch. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  27. 27. Yoga for Voice Culture | 31 When you switch on, the calling bell starts vibrating and producing the sound and you can hear that from outside. Now you completely evacuate the entire bell jar and close it. There is no medium there. Air has been almost removed. Now again you press the button and you can see the calling bell vibrating. But you don’t hear any sound outside. Therefore for the propagation of the sound, medium is is very necessary. Depending on the type of medium, you have, the speed of sound varies. If it is air, you have certain speed. If it becomes some other gas, you can have a different speed. If it is very dense, then speed will be less. This is how the speed of sound varies. When we speak, the vocal card produces that sound by vibration of the membrane. When it vibrates, it sends away the compressions and rarefactions in the air and it will move and we are able to hear at a distance. Now how long the sound can reach depends on two factors. One is what we call as the loudness and another is pitch. So how loudly you speak, so that we will be able to hear for a distance or you can have a very soft sound hardly you can hear. Loudness can vary. You may have a sound wave represented like this. Then the amplitude is the one that measures the loudness. The loudness of the sound is represented by the amplitude. There is yet another factor is called the pitch. Normally women have higher pitch compared to the males. Male voice has lower pitch. What is the difference between the pitch. There is a famous thing Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, Ni, Saa. This Saa is the highest pitch. The bottom Sa is the lowest pitch. This represents the frequency of the waves. What is frequency? Number of waves in a second is called the Frequency. So, if the Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  28. 28. 32 | Yoga for Voice Culture frequency is more, then in one minute you have more number of waves. If the frequency is less, then the number of waves will be less. The wave length and the frequency are inversely proportional. This frequency is what we call as pitch. Now, higher the pitch, longer the distance it travels and Greater the loudness, longer the sound travels. Therefore, women having high pitch, If they speak loudly, it can go a long way. We call it as shrilled voice. It can move far. Because the energy content of that is quite high. Now, in voice culture, you must develop this capacity of increasing and decreasing the pitch. Increasing and decreasing the loudness. That forms the essence of the voice culture. The second is Nadanusandhana. How to contemplate on the sound aspect on the Shabdabrahma aspect? Contemplation essentially is to tune your mind. Allow the mind to completely tune itself to a particular frequency band, then a resonance takes place and there is going to be a propagation of the wave. Therefore Anusandhana is to dwell on that particular sound and the sound pattern and sound waves and allow that to flow freely. Every day you sit there and go on repeating the sound like an Omkara a primordial sound. Om, Om. So you can initially start with the loud sound and the nada will start getting resonating and when there is resonance, the frequency of the external sound matches with the natural frequency of the body. With that matching of the natural frequency, there is going to be a wonderful resonance. That resonance builds vitality, energy, freshness, dynamism and that is one that also gives the calmness, peace, harmony, love, bliss. Therefore we have both the dimensions. That is one side the pitch. Another Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  29. 29. Yoga for Voice Culture | 33 side is the loudness, the amplitude and the frequency and you must learn how to do both. Can we increase and decrease the pitch? Can we increase and decrease the loudness? Then you start getting the whole mastery and control. Therefore the process of voice culture is essentially by dealing with your pitch and the loudness. That is how there is going to be a control that starts coming up at the voice level. That will start bringing lot of dividends in terms of usefulness. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  30. 30. 34 | Yoga for Voice Culture YOGA PRACTICES FOR VOICE CULTURE 7.1. ASANA • Janusirsasana • Prasarita pascimatanasana • Vakrasana • Ardhamatsyendraasana • Matsyasana • Prasartia halasana 7.2. KRIYAS • Gargling • Ushäh Päna • Jalaneti • Kapälabhäti alternate nostrial, • Kapälabhäti both nostrial • Vaman Dhouti 7.3. PRANAYAMA • Bhastrika • Ujjayi, • Sitikäri • Sadanta • Bhrämari in shanmukhi mudra • Bhramara Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  31. 31. Yoga for Voice Culture | 35 7.4. BREATHING EXERCISES: Tiger stretch 7.5. SHAKTI VIKASAKA: Karana Shakti Vikasaka 7.6. RELAXATION • Instant Relaxation Technique (IRT) • Quick Relaxation Technique (QRT) • QRT with chanting • Neck Relaxation with bhramari • Simha mudra 7.7. NAMAVALIS: Speech: Intonations 7.8. VOICE SPECIAL TECHNIQUE • Matching the Voice to ‘OM’ • Tongue massage • Blowing cheeks • Twisting the lip Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  32. 32. 36 | Yoga for Voice Culture 7.1. ASANA 1. JÁNU SIRSÁSANA Sthiti: DandásanaPRACTICE • Bend the right leg along the ground, placing the heel against the perineum and the sole touching the inner side of the left thigh. Place the palms by the side of buttocks keeping the spine erect. • While inhaling raise the hands to the shoulder level keep them horizontally. • With further inhalation raise the hands further to take them above the head. Stretch up fully. • While exhaling slowly bend forward from the lower back and hook the big toe of the left foot with the index fingers. Press both the thumbs on the big toe. In the final position try to touch the forehead to the knee. The elbow joints touch the ground. Back flat as much as possible. Maintain the final position for one or two minutes with normal breathing. Feel the relaxation in the throat region. Chant Bhramari. • Then return to the starting position through the same steps. • Relax in Ùithila Daïãásana. • Repeat the same practice with the left leg. Note • The knee of the bent leg should be on the floor. • Do not bend the straight leg while in the final position. • Bend forward and try to touch forehead to the knee as far as Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  33. 33. Yoga for Voice Culture | 37 comfortable. • In the final position keep the back muscles relaxed and use the arm muscles to hold the toe for maintaining the position. 2. PRASARITA PASCIMATANASANA Sthiti: Dandásana. PRACTICE • Separate the legs by spreading them as much as you can. • Inhale, raise both the arms sideways at shoulder level parallel to the ground. Turn the palms facing upwards. • Continue to inhale and raise the arms further up vertically biceps touching the ears and stretch the trunk from the coccyx region. Now turn the palm forwards. • While exhaling bend forward from the lower back bringing the chin to the ground. Feel the stretch of the neck muscles. Hold the big toes with the hands. Maintain the position for about a minute with normal breathing. • Return to sthiti reversing the steps and the breathing • Relax in Sithili Dandasana. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  34. 34. 38 | Yoga for Voice Culture Note Do not allow the knees to bend. Benefits • Helps to stimulate the spine thereby developing voice. • Gives flexibility to the back bone. Stimulates the spinal nerves and back muscles. Improves digestion, Energises the whole body. Removes constipation. Limitations • People with severe lower back problems like slip disc and sciatica. Note Do not allow the knees to bend. 3. VAKRÁSANA Sthiti:Dandasana PRACTICE • Bend the right leg at the knee and place it beside the left knee. • Straighten and twist the waist towards the right as you exhale. Bring the left arm around the right knee and catch the right big toe. Take the right arm back and keep the palm on the Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  35. 35. Yoga for Voice Culture | 39 ground in such a way that the trunk is kept erect with a proper twist. Neck and throat muscles relax well in final position. Maintain for about a minute with normal breathing. Chant Bhramari. • Return to sthiti through the same steps. • Relax for a while in Sithila Dandásana. • Repeat the same on the other side. Benefits Twisting reduces bulk and tones up muscles in throat and helps in voice culture. Lateral twist gives flexibility to the spine, tones up the spinal nerves. Prepares the spaine for Artha Mátsyendrásana. Helps to cure constipation, dyspepsia, stimulates the pancreas and useful for diabetes. Improves the lung capacity. Limitations People who have recently undergone abdominal surgery may avoid. 4. ARDHA MATSYENDRÁSANA Sthiti: Daïãásana PRACTICE • Bend the right leg at the knee by drawing it along the ground. Place the sole of the right foot against the inner side of the left thigh. Keep the right heel about 4 to 5 inches away from the perineum. • Bend the left knee and place the left foot on the outer side Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  36. 36. 40 | Yoga for Voice Culture • • • • • of the right thigh near the right knee. Do not sit on the heels. Inhale, raise the right arm up vertically and stretch up the shoulder. Exhale, twist the waist to the left and bring the right arm over the outer side of the left knee. The left knee acts as a fulcrum for getting maximum twist of the spine. Catch the left big toe with the right hand. The right triceps rests on the outer side of the left knee. Now take the left hand behind the back and try to touch the right thigh. Look back over the left shoulder keeping the trunk erect. Maintain for about a minute with normal breathing. Come back to Sthiti retracing the same steps. Relax for a while in Ùithila Daïãásana. Repeat the same, on the other side. Benefits Neck gets a good stretch. Twisting reduces bulk and tones up muscles in throat and helps in voice culture. Lateral twist gives flexibility to the spine, tones up the spinal nerves. Prepares the spaine for Artha Mátsyendrásana. Helps to cure constipation, dyspepsia, stimulates the pancreas and Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  37. 37. Yoga for Voice Culture | 41 useful for diabetes. Improves the lung capacity. Limitations People who have recently undergone abdominal surgery may avoid. 5. MATSYÁSANA Sthiti: Supine Posture PRACTICE • Take the right leg and place it on the left thigh. • Place the left leg on the right thigh as in Padmásana. • Place the palms on either side of the head with fingers pointing towards the shoulders. • Taking the weight on the palms, lift the head and the back, off the ground as you inhale. Bring the center of the crown of the head to the ground by bending the dorsal and cervical spine backwards. Exhale and release the hands after the weight is well balanced on the head and catch hold of the big toes hooking the index fingers around them. Press the elbows on the ground to bear the weight of the upper half of the body. Maintain this position for one minute with normal breathing. Chant Bhramari. • Come back slowly step by step to supine sthiti. • Relax in Ùavásana. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  38. 38. 42 | Yoga for Voice Culture Note People with neck pain low back pain and hyper tension should avoid this posture 6. PRASARITHA HALÁSANA Sthiti: Supine Posture PRACTICE • Inhale, raise the legs together slowly and gracefully (without bending the knees) till it forms about 45Deg. to the ground. • Continue to inhale and raise the legs further to 900 position and simultaneously bring the arms down placing them next to the buttocks. • Exhale, raise the buttocks and the trunk without lifting the head. Support the back by the palms. Rest the elbows on the ground firmly to get better support to the back. Maintaining the legs parallel to the ground, straighten the trunk by pushing it up with the hands till the chin is well set in the suprasternal hollow. Inhale in this position. • Exhale, bring down the toes further to touch the ground. Release both hands and rest the arms straight on the ground parallel to each other with palms facing the ground. And separate the legs by about 2 to 3 feet. Main- Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  39. 39. Yoga for Voice Culture | 43 tain this position for one minute with normal breathing. • Come back slowly step by step to supine sthiti. • Relax in Savásana. Note Make sure that you have achieved perfect balance before you release the hands supporting the trunk. Benefits Stretches and stimulates the back muscles, spinal joints and lumbar nerves. Enhances blood flow to the neck, activating the thyroid and keeps spine flexible. Limitations People with any problem with the spine, hypertensives and those with the cardiac problems, hernia must avoid this ásana. 7.2. KRIYAS 1. GARGLING Sthiti: Tadasana PRACTICE • Put luke warm salt water in the mouth. Allow it to go upto the throat and gargle. Throw out this water. • Repeat for 10 times. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  40. 40. 44 | Yoga for Voice Culture Benefits • Cleanses the throat. • Develops the stamina of the throat. 2. USHAH PAANA Sthiti: Tadasana PRACTICE • Drinking the water through the nose is called Ushahpaana. • Blow the nose and clean the Nasal passage. • Take drinking water in a glass. Keep the rim of the glass under your nostrils and inhale very slowly and gently till you feel the water in your throat. Take away the initial water from the mouth and then go on drinking the water in the usual way. PRECAUTION: Don’t inhale forceably. Benefits • Cleanses the nasal passage. • Makes the breathing comfortable. • Excessive sensitivity can be removed. • People with tension and Migraine headaches will be helped. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  41. 41. Yoga for Voice Culture | 45 • • • • Acidity will be reduced. Good exercise for the throat muscles. Relaxes the mind. Removes stresses and anxieties. Limitations • Persons suffering with cold and cough at that time. 3. JALA NETI (Cleaning the nasal passage) Sthiti: Táãásana PRACTICE • Add about half a teaspoon of salt to a neti pot full of sterile lukewarm water. • Stand with the legs apart • Hold the neti pot in your right hand. • Insert the nozzle of the Neti pot into the right nostril. • Keep the mouth open and breathe freely through the mouth. • Tilt the head first slightly backwards, then forwards and sidewards to the left so that the water from the pot enters the right nostril and comes out through the left by gravity. Allow the flow till the pot is empty. • Repeat the same on the left side. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  42. 42. 46 | Yoga for Voice Culture • To clear the nasal passages of the remaining water, blow out the water by active exhalation through alternate nostrils as in Kapálabháti. Benefits It helps to clear nasal passages. Removes cold, hypersensitivity, headache, sinusitis, bronchitis and stimulates olfactory nerves. Limitations Neti should be avoided if you have had a recent ear infection or nasal septum operation. Also avoid neti for a few days after a bleeding nose. 4. CLEANSING BREATH (KAPÁLABHÁTI KRIYA) Sthiti: Daïãásana • Sit in any meditative posture. • Keep your spine and neck erect perfectly vertical to the ground. • Close the eyes and collapse the shoulders. • Relax the whole body completely. PRACTICE • Practice rapid breathing with active and forceful exhalation and passive inhalation. • During each exhalation, blast out the air by vigorous flapping movements of the abdomen in quick succession. • Inhale passively by relaxing the abdominal muscles at the end of each exhalation. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  43. 43. Yoga for Voice Culture | 47 • Repeat the exhalation as quickly as possible at the rate of 60 strokes per minute. • At the end of one minute, stop the practice. • Now observe an automatic suspension of breath resembling kevala kumbhaka, enjoy it. In fact, there will be no urge for breathing for a few seconds. • Simultaneously the mind may experience a deep state of silence. Enjoy this state of deep rest and freshness. • Wait until the breathing comes back to normal. Note • Throughout the entire practice the spine must be kept erect without any movement of the trunk, neck or the face. • It is important to learn to allow the inhalation to happen automatically by relaxing the abdominal muscles at the end of each quick exhalation. • Kapalabhati can be practiced through alternate nostrils by alternately closing the right and left nostrils in Násika mudrá. • In the beginning it may not be possible to practice continuously at the rate of 60 strokes per minute. Therefore, one can start at the rate of 10 to 20 strokes per minute and repeat it 2 to 3 rounds with normal breathing intervals of a few seconds. With regular daily practice you can increase the speed to 60-120 strokes per minute. • Persons with high BP, heart problems, vertigo, epilepsy, hernia, slip disc and spondylosis should avoid this prac- Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  44. 44. 48 | Yoga for Voice Culture tice. Women during menses and later months of pregnancy should also avoid this practice. Benefits: Physical Brain cells are envigorated. It brings brightness to the face with regular practice . It balances and strengthens the nervous system. It removes the drowsiness from the body. Brain cells send signals not only to improve memory, but also tone up the voice. Alternative nostril Kapalabhati balances Ida and Pingala Nadis. Therapeutic It provides a nice massage to all the abdominal organs. People with digestive problems are highly benefited. It cleanses the lungs and also the entire respiratory tract. It is good for asthmatics and for other respiratory disorders. Spiritual It removes the distractions of the mind and prepares it for meditation. The practitioner achieves a state of Kevala Kumbhaka, i.e. automatic cessation of breath. Limitations • Practice of Kapalabhati is to be avoided in case of moderate and severe High Blood Pressure Ischemic Heart Disease, Vertigo, • Epilepsy, Hernia, Gastric Ulcer, Slip Disc and Spondylosis. Women during menses and advanced stage of pregnancy should avoid. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  45. 45. Yoga for Voice Culture | 49 5. VAMANA DHOUTI Sthiti: Táãásana PRACTICE • Drink about one and a half liters of lukewarm saline water (about 1% saline) as quickly as you can until you feel like vomiting it out. • Churn the stomach by twisting exercises. • Stand with feet apart at shoulder width and bend the trunk forward forming an angle of about 80 degrees to the ground. • Now with the help of the middle three fingers of the right hand, tickle the back of the throat to vomit out (vaman) all the water. • Repeat the process of tickling the throat until no more water comes out which may mean that all water has been vomited. • With continued practice one can stimulate the vomiting sensation and vomit out the water without using the fingers at the throat. • Relax completely in DRT for about 15 to 20 minutes. • Have a bland breakfast after about half an hour. Note • This is to be done early in the morning on an empty stomach. • A bland breakfast could preferably consist of Indian kichadi. (rice and lentil-dhal, cooked with or without salt), along with a tea spoon ful of pure ghee. Avoid coffee or tea for Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  46. 46. 50 | Yoga for Voice Culture breakfast. • With long practice one can learn to vomit all the water as if it is a continuous jet. This is called Gajakaraïi. Benefits • Vaman dhoti or kunjal kriya removes hyper acidity, good for flatulence and dyspepsia (indigestion), cleanses the stomach of all its contents, promotes proper functioning of the stomach and prevents hyper acidity. Dhouti Kriya is extremely useful for gas trouble, high acidity in stomach and for curing Asthma also. Useful for asthma and bronchitis to clear the air passages through reflex stimultaion of udána Práïa. Limitations • Avoid - in case of severe abdominal pain, abdominal surgery, tonsilitis, hypertension, ischaemic heart diseases and during menstruation. 7.3. PRANAYAMA 1. BHASTRIKA PRÁÏÁYÁMA Sit in any meditative posture. PRACTICE • Here both inhalations and exhalations are very active. So inhale and exhale through both the nostrils by expanding and contracting the chest (thorax) forcefully. • The chest is expanded and contracted like the bellows of the blacksmith. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  47. 47. Yoga for Voice Culture | 51 • Stop after ten strokes. • The breath remains suspended automatically. Promote stoppage of breath as long as you can. Enjoy the whole process. Stoppage of breath is also a part of Bhastrika. • After normal breathing resume & go for the next round. • In this way, repeat three rounds. • To help chest movements, use hands. Keep hands in front of chest. While inhaling take the hands away and back so that cheast expands. While exhaling bring the hands to the chest. Note • While Kapálabháti uses abdominal breathing, Bhastrika uses thoracic breathing. • Keep the entire track i.e. the trachea, throat and the nasal passage relaxed and see so that there is no friction at all during the practice. • With continued practice, when you become proficient, you can go up to 120 strokes per minute. But not more than that. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  48. 48. 52 | Yoga for Voice Culture Benefits • Extremely useful for voice culturing. • Done with ease, the power of voice increases. • The vital capacity of the lungs and the Peak Flow Rate increases. • The stresses packed up in the throat are effectively released by this pranayama. • Burns up toxins. • Removes diseases of Doshas(kapha,pitta and vata) • Good for those suffering with lung disorders. • Alleviates inflammation in the throat and any accumulation of phlegm. • Balances and strengthens nervous system. • Induces peace, tranquility and one pointedness of the mind. Limitation • People with high BP, heart disease, hernia, gastric ulcer, epilepsy or vertigo should not practice it. People with asthma and chronic bronchitis are recommended to practice only under expert guidance. 2. UJJÁYÈ PRÁÏÁYÁMA STARTING POSITION Sit in any meditative posture. PRACTICE • To start with exhale completely and empty the lungs. Then start inhaling slowly and with awareness through both nos- Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  49. 49. Yoga for Voice Culture | 53 • • • • trils with the glottis partially closed. Because of the partial closure of the glottis air flows in and out with friction thereby creating a sibilant (s) sound in the throat. This resembles very much to the hissing sound of a snake. Exhale very slowly with the same hissing sound. Make the exhalation as long as possible always longer than the inhalation. This is one round. Perform nine rounds. Note • Bend the neck slightly to facilitate partial closure of the glottis(in the beginning). • Hissing sound is produced at the throat both while inhaling and exhaling. • Because of the hissing sound, Ujjáyi is also known as Hissing Práïáyámal • The inhalations and exhalations should be slow, continuous. • Partial contraction or closing the glottis can be learnt by making a swallowing movement and feeling the gentle pressure in throat region. Benefits • Voice culturing takes place. • When we produce hissing sound, throat muscles get wonderfully massaged. • It starts bringing changes needed for relaxation of throat Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  50. 50. 54 | Yoga for Voice Culture • • • • • • muscles. It is a tranquilising pranayama. It soothes the nervous system and calms the mind. It helps removing insomnia. Useful for people with high BP. Alleviates fluid retention. It is also called as psychic breath as leads to subtle statesof mind. Limitation • Introverted people should avoid. 3. SÈTKÁRI PRÁÏÁYÁMA Sthiti: Vajrásana PRACTICE • Place the palms resting on the thighs. • Fold the tip of the tongue such that it touches the root of the teeth on the top. The folded tongue slightly comes out between the two rows of teeth and provides a narrow opening on both sides. • Slowly suck the air in through the two sides of the tongue. • Feel the cool stream of air diffusing throughout the mouth and throat into the lungs. • Exhale slowly through both nostrils. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  51. 51. Yoga for Voice Culture | 55 Feel the warmth of the exhaled air. • This completes one round of Sètkári. • Repeat nine rounds. 4. SADANTA PRÁÏÁYÁMA Sthiti: Vajrásana PRACTICE • Place the palms resting on the thighs. • Let the upper set of teeth touch the lower set of teeth. • Keep the tip of the tongue just behind the teeth. • Inhale through the crevices of the teeth and feel the cool air moving slowly and continuously i n t o the mouth and passing down the throat into the lungs. • The warm air is exhaled out slowly through both the nostrils. Feel the warmth of exhaled air. • This completes one round of Sadanta. • Feel the changes in throat, head and through out the body that relaxes the whole body. • Repeat nine rounds. Benefits of both Sadanta and Sitkari Physical They induce muscular relaxation and an over-all cooling ef- Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  52. 52. 56 | Yoga for Voice Culture fect. They soothen the eyes, ears and purify the blood. They quench the thirst, appease hunger and generate a feeling of satisfaction. The taste buds and the mouth are sensitised. Therapeutic Allergies due to cold can be effectively overcome by prolonged practice. They help in reducing tensions and stresses and induce mental tranquility. Sètkari and Sadanta keep the teeth and gums healthy. They help reduce blood pressure and acidity in stomach. They cure chronic dyspepsia (indigestion), various chronic skin diseases, and releases even very subtle tensions. Spiritual Expansion of awareness - a facet of spiritual growth - takes place as you move from sitali (linear awareness) to sitkari (surface aware-ness) and then to sadanta (3-D awareness). Limitations of Sitkari and Sadanta: People with Low Blood Pressure should avoid. People suffering from cold, sore throat, bronchitis etc. should avoid. Practitioners with sensitive teeth, missing teeth or dentures should avoid sitkari and sadanta. Instead they can practise sitali. Generally, avoid in winter or in cool climates. 5. BHRÁMARÈ AND BHRAMARA IN SHANMUKHI MUDRA Sthiti: Vajrásana PRACTICE • Assume Cinmudrá. • Inhale slowly and deeply producing a sound resembling the Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  53. 53. Yoga for Voice Culture | 57 • • • • • • • • humming of a male bee. This is Bhramara. Exhaling, produce a low pitched sound resembling the humming of a female bee.This is Bhramari. Feel the vibrations in the entire throat and head. This is one round. Repeat five rounds. Remove Shanmukhi mudra. Repeat Bhramara and Bhramari similarly. This time while inhaling raise the head up with Bhramara and while exhaling bring the head down with Bhramari. This is one round. Repeat five rounds. Note • During the practice of Bhrámarè use ‘N-kára’ and not ‘Mkára’. • Touch the tongue to upper (hard) palate. • Initially the sound vibration is felt more at the throat region only. • With long practices try to feel the strong vibrations in the entire head region along with its resonating effect through out the body. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  54. 54. 58 | Yoga for Voice Culture Note • In the beginning, 5 to 10 rounds of Bhramari is sufficient. Slowly increase to 10 to 15 minutes. • It can be practised at any time to relieve mental tension. Benefits Physical Creates a soothing effect on the nervous system. Cultures the voice and increases the melody. Therapeutic Relieves stress and cerebral tension. Reduces anger, anxiety, insomina and blood pressure. Good for all psychosomatic problems as it reuduces the stresses and tension. Eliminates throat ailments (tonsils, pains etc.) Speeds up healing of tissue and so may be practised after surgery. Spiritual Develop the diamentional 3-D awareness. It aids in expands the mind towards all pervasive awareness. It induces a meditative state by harmonising the mind and directing the awareness inwords. 7.4. BREATHING EXERCISE 1. TIGER STRETCH BREATHING Sthiti: Daïãásana PRACTICE • Bend the right leg at the knee and sit on the heel. • Bend the left leg at the knee and sit on both the heels(sit in Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  55. 55. Yoga for Voice Culture | 59 • • • • • • Vajrasana). Lean forward and place the hands flat on the floor in line with the shoulders with fingers pointing forward. Arms, thighs and heels should be about one shoulder width apart. The arms and thighs are perpendicular to the floor. While inhaling raise the head and look at the ceiling. At the same time, depress the spine making it concave. While exhaling, blast the air and make a quick movement arching the spine upwards and bend the head downward bringing the chin towards the chest. This constitutes one round of tiger breathing. Repeat 5 rounds. Note • Before starting the practice ensure that you are comfortable while standing on “all-fours” (i.e., two hands and two knees). • Co-ordinate the movements with breathing. • Keep the eyes closed and practice with awareness. • Do not bend the arms or move the thighs forwards and backwards. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  56. 56. 60 | Yoga for Voice Culture Benefits • Spinal flexibility increases. • Flexibility of neck muscles increases. • The whole body gets activated. • Awareness and mastery over all three sections of the chest. • Empties the lungs fully. • Harmonize the muscles of respiration. • Calms down the mind. • Tones Pancreas. • Feed back of airway status by sound in case of asthmatics. Limitations • Severe back pain, slip disc, cervical spondylosis. • Hyper Tension and heart problems. 7.5. SHAKTI VIKASAKA 1. KARNA ÙAKTI VIKÁSAKA (Improving the power of hearing) STARTING POSITION: Sthiti: Dandasana PRACTICE • Bend the right leg at the knee and sit on the heel. • Bend the left leg at the knee and sit on both the heels (sit in Vajrasana). • Plug the ears with the thumbs. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  57. 57. Yoga for Voice Culture | 61 • Close the eyes with the second fingers. • Inhale and close the nose with the middle fingers. • Now holding the breath and rest the chin on the chest (Jalandhara Bandha). • Close the lips with the last two fingers sets. • Feel what you are hearing in the ears. • Bring the head up. • Release the lower fingers. • Release the middle fingers. • Release all fingers bringing the arms down. • Relax and feel the vibrations. • Inhale and chant Bhramari while exhaling and feel the vibrations in the ear. • Repeat five times. NOTE • The Jalandhara Bandha which forms part of the whole process ensures stimulation of the endocrine glands as the nervous components situated in this region. • Can be done in sitting position also. BENEFITS • It will cure many ailments of the ear and also impaired hearing. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  58. 58. 62 | Yoga for Voice Culture Limitations • Pus in ears. 7.6. RELAXATION 1. INSTANT RELAXATION TECHNIQUE (IRT) Sthiti: Ùavásana PRACTICE • Bring your legs together; join the heels and toes together and place the palms by the side of the thighs. • Keep the face relaxed with a smile all through the practice. • Start tightening from the toes. • Tighten the ankle joints, and calf muscles. • Pull up the kneecaps. • Tighten the thigh muscles. • Compress and squeeze the buttocks. • Breathe out and suck the abdomen in. • Make fists and tighten the arms. • Inhale and expand the chest. • Tighten the shoulders, neck muscles and compress the face. • Tighten the whole body from the toes to the head. • Tighten…tighten…tighten… • Release and let go the whole body instantaneously. • Legs and arms go apart with the open palms facing the Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  59. 59. Yoga for Voice Culture | 63 roof. • Collapse the whole body. • Enjoy the instant relaxation. Benefits • Relaxes the body instantaneously. Limitations • Hypertension and Heart problems people should do part by part tightening and relaxation. • Slip disc and Cervical Spondylosis people should not tighten the part of problem. 2. QUICK RELAXATION TECHNIQUE (QRT) Sthiti: Ùavásana. PRACTICE Phase I Feel the abdominal movements.Observe the movements of abdominal muscles going up and down as you breathe in and out normally. Observe 5 cycles. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  60. 60. 64 | Yoga for Voice Culture Phase II Synchronize the abdominal movements with deep breathing. The abdomen bulges up with inhalation and sinks down with exhalation. Observe 5 cycles. Phase III As you inhale deeply and slowly, energize the body and feel the lightness. As you exhale completely collapse all the muscles, release the tension and enjoy the relaxation. Observe 5 cycles. • Chant ‘AAA’ in a low pitch while exhaling. Feel the vibrations in the lower parts of the body. • Slowly come up from either the right or the left side of the body. SIMHAMUDRA Sthiti: Dandasana PRACTICE Technique • Bend the right leg at the knee and sit on the heel. • Bend the left leg at the knee and sit on both the heels. Separate the knees by about 45cm. • Place the palms on the floor in between the knees. Lean forward resting the body on the straight arms. Arch the back and gently tilt the head back so Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  61. 61. Yoga for Voice Culture | 65 • • • • • • • • • that there is comfortable amount of tension in the neck. Open the eyes and gaze at the eyebrow center. Inhale slowly and deeply through the nose. Open the mouth and extend the tongue out as far as possible towards the chin. While slowly exhaling, produce a clear, steady ‘aaah’ sound from the throat, keeping the mouth wide open. At the end of exhalation close the mouth and breath in. Repeat five rounds. Come back to sthiti and relax. Benefits Throat and tongue muscles become flexible. It develops a strong and beautiful voice. Alleviates diseases of throat, nose, ears and mouth. Tension is removed from chest and diaphragm. Useful for people who stutter or who are nervous and introverted. Limitations Heart problems. 7.8. VOICE SPECIAL TECHNIQUE 1. MATCHING THE VOICE OF OM WHILE BREATHING IN AND WHILE BREATHING OUT: Chant OM while breathing in and while breathing out synchronizing with the whole class. 2. TONGUE MASSAGING Starting Position : • Dandasana Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  62. 62. 66 | Yoga for Voice Culture Practice • Bend the right leg at the knee and sit on the heel. • Bend the left leg at the knee and sit on both the heels (Sit in Vajrasana). • Open the mouth wide and push the tongue forward. • Give a massage while you are pulling the tongue as if you are mulching. With your right and left hands alternately with the thumbs below the tongue and the index fingers on the tongue. • Practice twenty rounds. • Stop the practice, close the mouth and relax for some time. Note • Keep the tongue stretched out but relaxed. • Initially you may find it difficult but with a little practice you get used to it. Benefits • Very good for voice culturing. Improves the flexibility of the tongue muscles which is helpful in voiceculturing. 3. BLOWING THE CHEECKS: Starting Position: Dandasana Practice • Bend the right leg at the knee and sit on the heel. • Bend the left leg at the knee and sit on both the heels (Sit in Vajrasana). • Inhale and blow the cheecks and maintain for a minute. Feel Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5
  63. 63. Yoga for Voice Culture | 67 the pressurized blowing of the cheeks. Exhale. This is one round. • Repeat five rounds. Benefits • This increases the power of the cheek and lip muscles. Twisting the lips Starting Position: Dandasana Practice • Bend the right leg at the knee and sit on the heel. • Bend the left leg at the knee and sit on both the heels (Sit in Vajrasana). • Twist the lips left to right and right to left. This is one round. • Repeat five rounds. Benefits • This increases the flexibility of lip muscles. Yoga in Education for Total Personality Development SERIES - 5