My Final Year B.Tech Research Project


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I put in a lot of effort and hacks into this... :P

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My Final Year B.Tech Research Project

  1. 1. Energy Consumption Benchmarking of a Swarm Intelligence Inspired MANET Protocol Project Team : Shashant Kumar Vibhooti Gupta Mohit Bansal Eeshan Srivastava Under the guidance of: Mr. Keshav Singh
  2. 2. Conceptual Overview <ul><li>Inherent Energy consumption problem of MANETs in practical applications </li></ul><ul><li>Swarm Intelligence provides a solution: ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) </li></ul><ul><li>Small ant packets collect network state by Stigmergy </li></ul><ul><li>Pheromone tables are built using this information </li></ul>
  3. 3. Continued… <ul><li>We follow a global optimization approach </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to find paths that cost least energy in the long run </li></ul><ul><li>Compare performance of this protocol with existing Ad-Hoc routing protocols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AODV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSDV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSR </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Previous Semester Work <ul><li>Researched various MANET protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Designed an implementable version of the ant-based protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Learned NS-2 simulation environment for wired and wireless topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Simulated the following on NS-2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance Vector Routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queuing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AODV (small scale) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Packet classes and structures <ul><li>Data packets : represent the information that end users exchange with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Forward and Backward ants : are control packets used to update the routing tables and distribute information about traffic load in the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast Ants : every node broadcasts remaining energy level using this packet. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Class basic_ant defines the structure for an ant packet: </li></ul><ul><li>-> source_add (nsaddr_t) </li></ul><ul><li>-> dest_add (nsaddr_t) </li></ul><ul><li>-> packet length (int) </li></ul><ul><li>-> packet seq_number (int) </li></ul><ul><li>-> packet start_time (double) </li></ul><ul><li>Classes for F-ants and B-ants derived from the class basic_ant </li></ul><ul><li>Methods for adding new nodes and keeping track of visited nodes </li></ul>Project Development Files
  7. 7. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Its main class is derived from class ‘Agent’ </li></ul><ul><li>which is the base class for all routing agents in </li></ul><ul><li>ns2. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains: </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcement factor </li></ul><ul><li>timer for generation of F-ants </li></ul><ul><li>methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generate F-ants and B-ants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>send F-ant to next hop as determined by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>algorithm </li></ul></ul>Continued…
  8. 8. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>class for storing pheromone values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ph value (double) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>next node address (nsaddr_t) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to add and remove entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>method to return pheromone value </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>method to increment and evaporate pheromone values </li></ul><ul><li>methods to add and delete pheromone tables. </li></ul>Continued…
  9. 9. Simulation Environment <ul><li>Integration of protocol into NS-2 by adding definitions in NS-2 environment files such as,, ns-lib.tcl etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Model Generation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 nodes with CBR sources (UDP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max 10 connections at 8kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility Model Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 nodes, pause-time 0 sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max speed 20m/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500x500 topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation Time: 100 seconds </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Screenshots Ant Protocol AODV
  11. 11. DSR DSDV
  12. 12. Trace File Analysis <ul><li>Awk filters for extracting energy & timing values </li></ul><ul><li>Gnuplot for plotting graph </li></ul><ul><li>4 data sets were used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AODV energy values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSDV energy values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSR energy values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ant Protocol Energy values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Snippet of Ant Protocol trace file: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Graphs Full Resolution (Approx 14000 sampling positions
  14. 14. Graphs Energy Simulation Time -----> Magnified to 2 sec interval
  15. 15. Results: Benchmark <ul><li>R/S efficiency: </li></ul><ul><li>DSR with 99.82% (1123/1125) </li></ul><ul><li>AODV with 98.74% (1099/1113) </li></ul><ul><li>Ant Protocol with 88.43% (1001/1132) </li></ul><ul><li>DSDV with 75.78% (851/1123) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Efficiency: </li></ul><ul><li>DSDV </li></ul><ul><li>Ant Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>AODV </li></ul><ul><li>DSR </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research Paper and References <ul><li>C. Srisathapornphat and C.-C. Shen. Swarm Intelligence-Inspired Energy Conservation Scheme in Ad Hoc Networks . The 3rd Conference on Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems — Mobility 2006, Pg 1-7 </li></ul><ul><li>E. Bonabeau, M. Dorigo, and G. Theraulaz. Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems . Oxford University Press, New York, 1999. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>