Configuration is the act of maintaining settings in the system to support customized business requirements. Application Functionality refers to the performance of the ongoing processes required to record and report business activity.
When implementing SAP R/3 in a company, you need to adapt the standard, non-company specific application functions supplied to the requirements of that company. The Implementation Guide (IMG) provides the sequence of project steps, The customizing system, business engineering workbench, supports the SAP system in several ways: The IMG contains documentation for the configuration of the applications. It specifies the sequence of steps including a plan containing activities, necessary to implement the SAP R/3 system. For each module in the IMG, status information can be stored then evaluated by carrying out Project Analysis. Business Workflow helps bring together people, processes and technology by providing a flow of material, information and knowledge between them. Business Navigator provides a flow chart view of the various applications within SAP. Basic Functions provide the first steps required when installing SAP including recommendations for creating clients, users and authorizations. The Procedure Model provides a basic plan for an implementation project. It briefly describes the different phases of the implementation of the SAP system for all applications. - continued
The R/3 Procedure Model is structured at three levels: Phase, Work Package,Project Activity The use of these levels will vary depending on the part that they will play in a client’s implementation project. Work Packages serve as structure elements for preliminary planning and controlling. In addition, Work Packages can be used to: Maintain project status Review implementation recommendations Create project documentation There are 4 phases contained in the Procedure Model: Organizational and conceptual design Detailed design and system set-up Preparations for going live Productive operation These four phases are not the same as PWC’s suggested steps for implementation. Although not an SAP-supplied option, use of PricewaterhouseCoopers’ SAP Ascendant is also a part of the customization process at PWC.
There are two ways to access the Implementation Guide: Menu Path from SAP Easy Access Screen: Step 1. Tools / Accelerated SAP/ Customizing/Edit Project Step 2. GoTo / SAP Reference IMG or press <F5> Transaction Code: SPRO A transaction code accesses the first screen of a function without using menu paths. Most SAP functions have a Transaction Code associated with them. There are two ways to find a Transaction Code: From any screen - Menu Path: System/Status From initial screen (SAP Easy Access) - To enable the display of transaction codes in the menu tree follow the menu path Extras/Settings and select Show Technical Name .
The General Settings contains the highest level of information in the system. The General Settings area of the IMG includes system delivered, general, application independent parameters such as: Calendar Table: Non-Client-specific table that delivers and maintains all definitions for public holidays and public holiday rules as well as standard factory workday assignments. Changes affect all Clients. Unit of Measurement Table: Units of Measurement are necessary for calculation screen displays that involve quantities and physical units as well as for internal conversions. Units of Measurement are stored centrally in the system for all applications. External display specifications are maintained for each Unit of Measurement Language dependently. Country Table: The SAP-delivered Country Table contains country-specific data (e.g, Name, Language, ISO Code, Tax Procedure) and parameters such as Postal Code Format, Bank Data Format, and Date Format. Verification of the data format is performed automatically by the system as transactions are entered. Countries can be added as necessary, but should conform to the International Standards Organization (ISO) naming conventions.
Currency and Exchange Rate Tables: Currencies are identified in the Currency Table by the three character ISO Code along with a name / description and number of decimal places required after the decimal point. The Exchange Rate Table allows entry of actual Exchange Rates, Validity Periods, Conversion Factors, and Exchange Rate Types It is possible to add entries to the tables in the General Settings section of the IMG.
The Organizational Structure is defined within the Corporate Structure segment of the IMG. Organizational Units can be created directly or by copying and, if necessary, modifying existing Organizational Structures. Establishing the Organizational Structure in the system tends to be the respon-sibility of the FI/CO team on implementations. It must be created before other modules begin their work because they are dependent on the Company Code definition.
The Cross-Application Components encompass all areas of configuration that are not specific to one application but are used across the functional modules. The Cross-Application areas include: Document Management Documentation Tools Application Link Enabling (ALE) Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
During this course, the following FI configuration areas will be discussed: Financial Accounting Global Settings General Ledger Accounting Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Special Purpose Ledger Asset Accounting During this course, the following CO configuration areas will be discussed: Controlling General Overhead Cost Control In addition Cash Management configuration within the Treasury module will be discussed.
The different structures of the IMG allow a top down approach to setting up customizing projects. The structure of the IMG includes: Complete guidelines for all SAP applications (100% of functionality). This is typically known as the Reference IMG Company guidelines (based on a selection of functions and countries) and Project guidelines (based on the company guideline). These are called Project IMGs and are typically subsets of the Reference IMG that are set up for specific projects. Project views (based on the project guidelines, required/optional or critical/non-critical activities) Views available for each project IMG include: R/3 Functions Procedure Model Countries “ Required” or “optional” activities “ Critical” or “not critical” activities Selection of individual activities A project can be split into several views. When you create a project IMG, you choose required/optional activities, critical/not critical activities, or a selection of individual activities.
All the data in the system is stored in tables. Some transactions affect only one table while others affect multiple tables. The settings can be entered under functional aspects without knowing the technical elements (physical table structure, table name, or transaction codes). The Implementation Guide provides a functional view of customizing and provides access to specific views of the control tables. Utilizing the Implementation Guide enables a user to maintain an individual table or group of tables simultaneously. The same IMG transaction is used for all maintenance of that “view”. Complex table dependencies are grouped together in maintenance clusters, for example, pricing. The IMG transactions frequently show a logical view of data from several different database tables. This physical table structure is thus hidden but can be seen in the Data Dictionary (TXN: SE12). The system provides standard configurations, which allow users to test processes immediately. Examples include Chart of Accounts, Account Determination, Account Groups, and Document Types.
The Change and Transport System provides a method to move configuration and program code from system to system or Client to Client. A typical use is to move customized data from a development system to a test system and then to a production system. The Change and Transport System is usually operated by the System Administrator. Configuration, development and modifications are assigned to a change request. All customization changes (table configurations; for example, creating new plants, changing document information) are tracked through the customizing organizer.
When documents are entered in a SAP R/3 transaction, several fields contain default data. This data comes from data previously entered/stored in the system. The system gathers the default data from various sources within the R/3 system, such as: User master record Parameter memory The system Account master record Default values for accounting functions
Prior to 4.6 Search Helps were called Matchcodes. All fields that can be used as search items for accessing a table are grouped together in a search help object. There can be several search help ID's for a search help object. The search help ID determines which fields are used to create the search term. The table whose key is searched for is referred to as a primary table. Additional tables included in the search help object, from which fields can be used to create the search item, are referred to as secondary tables. Search help ID's that are used operationally in the SAP system are characterized as system search helps. System match codes must not be changed. Maintenance of search help objects and search help ID's is carried out in the Data Dictionary. You can access both search help and possible entries by either : Pressing the F4 function key Selecting the right button on the mouse and then selecting Possible Entries Selecting the magnifying glass
Implementation Guide - The sequence of project steps, including a plan, that contains the activities necessary to implement the SAP R/3 system Configuration - The act of maintaining settings in the system to support particular business requirements. Application - Functionality that refers to the performance of the ongoing processes required to record and report business activity. Basic Functions - Functionality in the system that provides the first steps required when installing SAP and includes recommendations for creating clients, users, and authorizations. Procedure Model - Functionality in the system that provides the planning basics for an implementation project and describes the different phases of the SAP implementation for all applications. Transaction Code - A four character code that accesses the first screen of a function without using the IMG. General Settings - A configuration area that contains the highest level of information in the system. Corporate Structure - A configuration area where the Organizational Structure is defined.
Cross-Application Components - A configuration area that encompass all areas of configuration that are not specific to one application but are used across the functional modules. Change and Transport System - Functionality within the system that provides a method to move configuration and program code from system to system or Client to Client. It is used to move customized data from a development system to a test system and then to a production system.
1. <ul><li>The system provides a set of tools to facilitate the process of customizing the system to meet business requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a general overview of the system’s customizing tools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the Implementation Guide structure . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the major areas of the Implementation Guide related to the FI and CO modules. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2 Customizing Tools
6. Structure of the Implementation Guide Set Countries Currencies Check Units of Measurement Maintain Calendar Definition Assignment General Settings Enterprise Structure Financial Global Settings General Ledger Accounting A/R and A/P Document Management Classification Cross-Application Components Functional Views - ex. Financial Accounting E F D
7. General Settings Country Description US USA DE Germany ES Spain Set Countries Set Country- Specific Checks Insert Regions Define Countries Define Country Codes Currencies Enter Exchange Rates Set Decimal Places for Currencies Check Currency Codes Currency Description USD US Dollars DEM German Marks
8. General Settings (continued) Country Description US USA DE Germany ES Spain Set Countries Set Country- Specific Checks Insert Regions Define Countries Define Country Codes Currencies Enter Exchange Rates Set Decimal Places for Currencies Check Currency Codes Currency Description USD US Dollars DEM German Marks
9. <ul><li>Coordinating the effort to define the Organizational Structure is usually the responsibility of the FI/CO team. </li></ul><ul><li>The Organizational Structure includes Organizational Units such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Area </li></ul></ul>Enterprise Structure
10. Cross-Application Components CO FI SD PP MM
11. Financial Accounting Configuration Company Code Business Area Fiscal Year Document G/L Accounts Business Transactions Data Transfer Workbench Information System Financial Accounting Global Settings Customer Accounts Vendor Accounts Business Transactions Credit Management Accts. Receivable /Accts. Payable General Ledger Accounting Special Purpose Ledger Basic Settings Planning Actual Posting Periodic Processing Asset Accounting Organizational Structures Integration with General Ledger Valuation Depreciation
12. Multiple Project Implementation Guides Reference IMG Project IMG Project 002 Project 002 View: Required Activities FI CO FI PP ........ PS HR CO MM SD Project 001 FI CO PS MM
14. Correction and Transport System Test Systems /Test Client <ul><li>Create Correction </li></ul><ul><li>Set Configurations </li></ul><ul><li>Save </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Selection of Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Save </li></ul><ul><li>Release Correction to Target System </li></ul>Target System
15. Default Values Overview <ul><li>Default values come from various sources: </li></ul><ul><li>User master record </li></ul><ul><li>Parameter memory </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><li>Account Master Record </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting functions </li></ul>
16. Search Help Primary Table: BKPF Secondary Tables (BSEG, ...) CUSTOMER 10 Customer # A City M Name T Company Code