
Abstract—The purposes of this research study were 1) to
develop a knowledge management system to promote
the sufficiency...
III. SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
A. Population
Phase 1: Staff in basic education level (Administrator,
Teachers and related staf...
most of the educational staffs who have profound
knowledge on the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy think
that there were mee...
teachers to take duty leave at 98.80%. For the empathy
towards the staffs, most of the staffs indicated that the
executive...
experience – both embedded knowledge and obvious
knowledge – via activities such as conversation, brain
stromming, meeting...
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The development of a knowledge management system to promote the sufficiency economy philosophy for the basic education teache

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Darunbhop Pianjud, Onjaree Natakuatoong, and Jiracha Vicheanpanya, " The Development of a Knowledge Management System to Promote the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy for the Basic Education Teacher," International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning vo. 3, no. 3, pp. 219-223, 2013.

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The development of a knowledge management system to promote the sufficiency economy philosophy for the basic education teache

  1. 1.  Abstract—The purposes of this research study were 1) to develop a knowledge management system to promote the sufficiency economy philosophy for the basic education teacher Model and 2) to study factors that support the communication methods and the ICT tools in the knowledge management process. The first phase was to develop a model, and study Factors in KM-Process for the Integration of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy. Research results were found that 1.This model consisted of four key elements and eight stages. 2. Four Factors for support the KM-Process for the Integration of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy: 1) Supporting factors for learning exchange, 2) Communication Factor, 3) Learning exchange tool factors and 4) Other factors. Index Terms—Sufficiency economy philosophy in educations part, KM process, information and communication technology (ICT). I. INTRODUCTION Sufficiency Economy Philosophy’s principal is guidance to live happily and a philosophy that stresses on “the middle path” as an overriding principle for appropriate conduct by the population at all levels in Thailand and other countries; the individual, family, community, and at the organizational and national level which base on the three interlocking core elements as 1) moderation - not too much or too few, Wibulswasdi, Piboolsravut, and Pootrakool [1] said about moderation seem to contradict with the notion found in traditional Economy theory of maximizing behavior. However, we should note that moderation is a relative concept, one that relates to one’s means. Living with limited means -- individually, locally and globally -- one should consider exercising moderation in order to preserve longer-term interests. 2) Reasonableness – to decide reasonably according to relevant factors and effects. 3) Self Immunity and risk management – to anticipate negative results that may occur and prepare prevention. The two conditions as 1) Appropriate Knowledge – to know clearly before take any action. Knowledge implies insight data, information, wisdom or theory and application for work in your life. Knowledge is both of tacit and explicit knowledge, Manuscript received March 10, 2013; revised June 15, 2013 Darunbhop Pianjud and Onjaree Natakuatoong are with Department of Educational Technology and Communications, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand (e-mail: next_cand@hotmail.com, onjaree.n@chula.ac.th). Jiracha Vicheanpanya is with Department of Technology in Information Management, Faculty of Information Technology, Rangsit University, Bangkok, Thailand (e-mail: ajjoy50@gmail.com). including experience as well as appropriate analytical ability. 2) Ethics and Virtues – apply religion principle to work. In addition, environment is regarded as a significant factor. It must be arranged to facilitate learners, both physically and mentally, to learn and absorb the philosophy which lead to practice. This ethics and virtues views an ethical foundation as vital to our Economy system if the latter is to be sustainable. Such a foundation must be rooted in the values held by a majority of people and as a result will foster human development in succeed and sustainable way [1]. Fig. 1. Definition of sufficiency economy philosophy. The Minister of Education (Bareau of Student Activities Development) [2] has realized the important of classifying learning activities and classified the method that should be managed for learners into three categories as 1) administrators and support staffs should manage the school and work according to Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, 2) teaches teaching Sufficiency Economy Philosophy should be divided into two ways – create subject or content about the philosophy to teach directly or blend the philosophy into existing subjects and 3) arrange activities such as club, exhibition or local festival and integrate the philosophy into such activities. The methods will give learners opportunity to gain knowledge and practice which lead to implement the philosophy in their living. II. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH 1) To develop a knowledge management system to promote the sufficiency economy philosophy for the basic education teachers. 2) To study factors that supports the communication methods and the ICT tools in the knowledge management process. Darunbhop Pianjud, Onjaree Natakuatoong, and Jiracha Vicheanpanya The Development of a Knowledge Management System to Promote the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy for the Basic Education Teacher International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, Vol. 3, No. 3, June 2013 219DOI: 10.7763/IJEEEE.2013.V3.227
  2. 2. III. SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH A. Population Phase 1: Staff in basic education level (Administrator, Teachers and related staffs) Phase 2: Population of study is experts in information technology, Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in Education Part, Knowledge Management and Educational Administration. B. Sample Groups Phase 1: 406 Staffs in fundamental education level (Administrators, Teachers and related people); all of them selected by stratified random sampling with the sampling selection method of Taro Yamane’s sampling size calculation at 5% deviation [3]. Phase 2: Sample Groups of study is 12 experts in information technology, Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in Education Part, Knowledge Management and Educational Administration. C. Variables Independent variable is a knowledge management system to promote the sufficiency economy philosophy for the basic education teacher Model and Factors in KM-Process for the Integration of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy IV. METHODOLOGY The development of a knowledge management system to promote the sufficiency economy philosophy for the basic education teacher was carried out in two phases. Phase 1: To study factors that support the communication methods and the ICT tools in the knowledge management process from Staffs in fundamental education level. 1) Study, analyze and synthesize documents and former researches that relevant to the information technology, Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in Education Part, Knowledge Management Process. Then, the results were used to develop a questionnaire. 2) Send the questionnaires to sample groups and wait for response, analyze and synthesize data from questionnaire. Phase 2: The development of a knowledge management system to promote the sufficiency economy philosophy for the basic education teacher Model  Create Model that the model is developed based on the data obtained from the research study used in the formulation of the model development concept.  Proposed the model thesis advisor and co-advisor for suggestion and modified it as suggested.  Submit to the experts for review and evaluation.  Adjusted according to the experts’ suggestions.  Present the Model in the form of diagram with report.  Analyze the results form evaluation of the factor by percentage, and the model by Index of Item Objective Congruence (I.O.C) V. RESULT A. Stage1 The analysis of the questionnaires found that; 1) supporting factors for learning exchange, 2) communication factor, 3) learning exchange tool factors and 4) Other factors that affect the learning management of Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in education (See Fig. 2). Fig. 2. Factors that support the communication methods and the ICT tools in the knowledge management process from Staff in basic education level. 1) Supporting factors for learning exchange: Most of the respondents from both groups (without and with knowledge of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy) were confident that they can apply the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy into the learning management of their schools in medium level of 53.10% and 58.20% respectively. However, when the respondents were asked to answer questions to recheck their knowledge, the respondents with knowledge can answer the questions correctly for 34.90% while the respondents without knowledge cannot answer any questions which are considered as 0.00%. The initial analysis found that the number of educational staffs in fundamental education who has profound knowledge and ability to apply the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy into their learning management did not reach a half of total number of educational staffs. Moreover, the staffs without the knowledge cannot answer any questions correctly. This is in accordance with the Sufficiency Economy Movement Report for 2009 Fiscal Year [4] which found that some schools still have wrong conception that Sufficiency Economy means only doing agricultural activities or saving money. Most of the respondents indicated that the factors that support the learning exchange are related to the environment of staffs in fundamental education. Majority of the staffs (in without and with knowledge of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy groups) had opinion that the factor was the interdependent environment at 60.80% and 58.00% respectively. For interpersonal relations aspect, the study found that most of the educational staffs knew each other for more than 50 persons at 38.00% and 33.90% respectively. The relations among colleagues in the same work group were in similar ratio with relations with different work group at 47.10% and 72.40% respectively. The mentioned factor encouraged the learning exchange as stated by Office of Education Council [5] that the social network is the network that has unlimited social relations of various people. Therefore, we are either able or unable to perceive the concrete operation resulted from the bonding of relations among network members. The network can be easily formed by a group of numerous members with one same objective because they all aim for one same goal. 2) Communication Factor: In the communication or the learning exchange activities aspects, the study found that Factors in KM- Process for the Integration of the Suff. Other factors Learning exchange tool factors Communication factor Supporting factors for learning exchange International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, Vol. 3, No. 3, June 2013 220
  3. 3. most of the educational staffs who have profound knowledge on the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy think that there were meetings for twice a month while most of the educational staffs without the knowledge think that there were meetings for less than twice a month; therefore, they cannot successfully apply this philosophy into the learning management because of no communication for learning exchange among themselves. This individualistic environment does not bring much success for the learning exchange of students. Moreover, the reply of the respondents was in accordance with those mentioned data that there were very few learning exchange activities by the Education Office in each zone for educational staffs less than twice a month at 58.80% and 61.00% respectively. Both data was in accordance with the behavioral psychology theory of B.F.Skinner on human interaction, stating that human behavior is a matter of human interaction. A man cannot live in the society without any interaction with others. 3) Learning exchange tool factors: For the usage of learning exchange tools, the study found that staffs in both groups use mobile phones as the main communication tools in any cases; during working hours at 72.60% and 68.00% respectively, after working hours at 73.80% and 73.30% respectively; for communicate with educational staffs outside school at 70.10% and 63.50% respectively. Other tools such as office phone, social media and other electronic media were used less than the mobile phone. For the opinion towards the suitable tools for communication of educational staffs in fundamental education, the sampling groups had opinion that internet network is the most suitable tools for communication at 63.10% and 63.80% respectively. They also expressed that the most suitable and convenient tools in the internet network was the electronic mail for communication at 47.60% and 43.60% respectively. For the tools for data searching of staffs who have limited budget, the respondents think that e-Learning was the most suitable method for learning management at 60.80% and 58.00% respectively which is in accordance with Summary Report of ICT usage and Household Communication 2011 by the National Statistical Office [6] which found that there are 41.4 million mobile phone users in Thailand or 66.40% of its total population. The National Statistical Office summarized that there were more tendency towards mobile phone usage during 2005 – 2011 and found that number of mobile phone users increased from 21.7 million (36.70%) to 41.4 million (66.4%). The data comparison showed that number of mobile phone users increased more than half of the users in the past and the mobile phone was the most increasing and most widely-used tool among other communication tools. Learning exchange tool factor showed that staffs in fundamental education had the idea of ICT tool usage for communication in order to increase their knowledge on the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy but the staffs still lacked of skills in the usage of major communication tools and this was the obstacle for the communication process as it was mentioned that the environment and ICT of schools are among the major parts of organizational development process [7]. 4) Other factors that affect the learning management of Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in education:  For the computer usage, the study found that the educational staffs in both groups evaluated their ability to use computer in moderate level at 49.90% and 47.80% respectively, their ability to use internet in moderate level at 42.60% and 41.10% respectively and their skill of keyboard typing in good level at 57.40% and 64.00% respectively. The Microsoft Word program is the most widely-used program for typing at 82.80% and 82.40% respectively while the Microsoft Excel program is the second most widely-used program for typing at 65.20% and 65.00% respectively. The ability level for computer usage was related to the ability level for communication tools because the ones who have good command of computer usage will be able to use the ICT tools more confidently than the ones who cannot use computer since the tools in ICT is quite similar to the tools in computer that the users can relate to it and can apply for the usage of ICT tools for communication.  For internet service in communication, the study found that most of the educational staffs with the knowledge to apply the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy into the learning management used internet in searching for knowledge on the learning management according to the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy at 48.50% which was different from the most of the educational staffs without the knowledge to apply the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy into the learning management who would search for knowledge in learning sources such as library, museum at 82.60%. For the communication to request for assistance from experts for both groups, there were frequent use of technology such as e-Mail, social network, webboard for the enquiries via internet at 55.20% and 45.70% respectively. Both groups think that the connection signal of internet was at high-speed level at 47.50% and 52.70% respectively. Most of the staffs with the knowledge used internet for 1-2 hours per day at 42.70% while most of the staffs without the knowledge did not use internet at 41.30%. Most of staffs in both groups used internet at home at 59.20% and 58.70% respectively while the e-mail was the most widely-used service at 49.40% and 44.80% respectively.  For the management factor, the study found that most of staffs with the knowledge will be considerate of the use of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy for maximum benefit of students at 50.10% which was different from most of the staffs without the knowledge who used this philosophy in the curriculum only to pass the evaluation by the Ministry of Education at 35.70%. For the support of training on the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, the study found that the executive staffs who had the knowledge will support the participation in trainings and seminars. The staffs were willing to participate at 42.20% which was different from most of the executive staffs who did not have the knowledge that will not support the participation because they did not want their International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, Vol. 3, No. 3, June 2013 221
  4. 4. teachers to take duty leave at 98.80%. For the empathy towards the staffs, most of the staffs indicated that the executive staffs who had the knowledge will value and pay attention to the opinion of their subordinate staffs at 44.90% which was different from the executive staffs who did not have the knowledge that were evaluated by general staffs of negligence and dictatorship at 60.8%. Management factor is the most important factor for promoting the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in the knowledge management because the executive staffs are similar to the Knowledge Administrator whose function is to set the goal of the organization, to construct the vision on knowledge management of the organization, to create the good environment and regulations of the organization which support the learning exchange. B. Stage2 The development of a knowledge management system to promote the sufficiency economy philosophy for the basic Fig. 3. The development of a knowledge management system to promote the sufficiency economy philosophy for the basic education teacher This model consisted of four key elements: 1) Staffs: comprised of knowledge managers, experts, Administrators, Knowledge receivers, and Knowledge contributors 1) Knowledge managers are school executives, teachers, school officers or staffs whom responsible about integrating sufficient economic philosophy to their task according to procedures that issued by the Ministry of Education. Knowledge management must be done by the eight steps. 2) Experts are school administrators, teachers, staffs and stakeholders whom have experience on utilizing sufficient economic philosophy on learning, teaching and other works. 3) Administrators are school administrators, teachers or staffs which assigned to overview overall knowledge management in network such as setting vision and mission, create environment and issue network rule that encourage sharing. 4) Knowledge receivers are Network schools. 5) Knowledge contributors are lecturers who have expertise in knowledge management, experts in driving sufficient economy philosophy in education and experts in learning and teaching management. They contribute knowledge and understanding to staffs to work on knowledge management efficiently and integrate Sufficient Economy Philosophy in to learning and teaching in basic education level systematically. 2) School consisted of 1) value, culture and oorganizational structure. 2) Strategy plan. 3) Leader for drive sufficiency economy philosophy in education part. 3) Technology consisted of 1) Technology for Knowledge Management. 2) Communication and Collaboration Technology. 3) Knowledge Discovery Technology and (Knowledge Transfer Technology) 4) Learning Method consisted of 1) level of learning: individual, group or organization. 2) Detail about sufficiency economy philosophy in education part. And this model consisted of eight stages, synthesis [8]-[19].  Knowledge identification: The facilitator from CoPs team for the practitioner. Then, CoPs identify knowledge and manage organization according to Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (for administrators) or manage learning and teaching method according to the philosophy (for teachers) and, finally, utilize the knowledge.  Knowledge acquisition: All members of CoPs make agreement and assign each member to search knowledge from knowledge sources, such as the internet, learning center and folk wisdom.  Knowledge creation: Collect knowledge both managerial and sciences from CoPs to create new knowledge which integrate with Sufficiency Economy Philosophy both in school administration and learning and teaching. All members work together to create new administration plan and new learning plan.  Knowledge codification and refinement: is consideration on created knowledge by experts. They examine correctness of the knowledge according to Sufficiency Economy Philosophy. And then categorize the knowledge to facilitate knowledge access  Knowledge sharing: is activity to exchange information, skill and experience – both embedded knowledge and obvious knowledge – between administrator, staffs, teachers and students.  Knowledge capture and store: is the way to manage and categorize knowledge that relevant to Sufficiency Economy Philosophy. This step is to pass on knowledge Step3: Knowledge Creation (Integration Subject detail and Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in administration, create subject or content about the philosophy, and activities learning) Step4: Knowledge Codification and Refinement Step6: Knowledge Capture and Store Step1: Knowledge Identification Subject detail Sufficiency detail Step2: Knowledge Acquisition Online/ Offline Network or Internet Learning Centers/ Learning Resource Subject detail Sufficiency detail Step7: Knowledge Utilization Administration Integration detail Activities Step8: Knowledge Evaluation Knowledge Sufficiency School Technology Step5:KnowledgeSharing Staff Learning Method International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, Vol. 3, No. 3, June 2013 222 education teacher was shown in Fig. 3 below.
  5. 5. experience – both embedded knowledge and obvious knowledge – via activities such as conversation, brain stromming, meeting and recording knowledge which the knowledge will be kept by electronic media to facilitate utilization in the future.  Knowledge utilization: The knowledge utilizes by administrators, teachers and staffs and integrated with Sufficiency Economy Philosophy according to the plan.  Knowledge Evaluation: The evaluation is done by experts in Sufficiency Economy Philosophy and learning management to evaluate result of utilization. Criteria in evaluation comprised of learners’ gained knowledge or knowledge received by school management and examined administration and learning management which integrated with Sufficiency Economy Philosophy. TABLE I: THE EVALUATION RESULTS OF I.O.C SUMMARY SUFFICIENCY ECONOMY PHILOSOPHY KM-PROCESS Variable I.O.C Level of suitability 1) Knowledge Identification 1.00 suitability 2) Knowledge Acquisition 1.00 suitability 3) Knowledge Creation 1.00 suitability 4) Knowledge Codification and Refinement 1.00 suitability 5) Knowledge Sharing 1.00 suitability 6) Knowledge Capture and Store 1.00 suitability 7) Knowledge Utilization 1.00 suitability 8) Knowledge Evaluation 1.00 suitability Total 1.00 suitability VI. DISCUSSION The research results in the following points for discussion. Four Factors for support the KM-Process for the Integration of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy: 1) Supporting factors for learning exchange, 2) Communication Factor, 3) Learning exchange tool factors and 4) Other factors. The experts’ evaluation stage and key elements in model are suitable. The model consisted of four key elements: 1) Staff, 2) School 3) Technology and 4) Learning Method and eight stages: 1) Knowledge Identification, 2) Knowledge Acquisition, 3) Knowledge Creation, 4) Knowledge Codification and Refinement, 5) Knowledge Sharing, 6) Knowledge Capture and Store, 7) Knowledge Utilization, 8) Knowledge Evaluation REFERENCES [1] C. Wibulswasdi, P. Piboolsravut, and K. Pootrakool, Sufficiency Economy Philosophy and Development, Sufficiency Economy Research Project Bureau of the Crown Property, 2010, pp. 7-10. [2] Bareau of Student Activities Development, Strategies of Sufficiency Economy Philosophy driven to basic school (2007-2011), Office of The Permanent Secretary Ministry of Education, 2007, pp. 15. [3] T. Yamane, Statistic: An Introductory Analysis, 3rd ed., Newyork Harper and Row, 1973, pp. 58. [4] The Sufficiency Economy Movement Center, Special Affairs Section, Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education, The application of the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy, Special Affairs Section, Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education, Thailand Bangkok, 2010, pp. 3-15 [5] Office of the Educational Council, The establish social network for drive innovation education Research Report, Office of the Educational Council, Thailand, Bangkok, 2010, pp. 32-37. [6] National Statistical Office, ICT Household 2011, National Statistical Office, Bangkok Thailand, 2011, pp. 5-9. [7] Z. Iftikhar, V. Eriksson, and W. Dickson, “Developing and Instrument for Knowledge Management Project Evaluation,” Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management., vol.1, no.1, pp. 55-62, March 2003. [8] M. Demarest, “Understanding knowledge management,” Journal of Long Range Planning., vol.30, no.3, pp. 374-384, June 1997. [9] G. Probst, S. Raub, and K. Romhardt., Managing Knowledge Building Blocks for Success, Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2000, pp. 34. [10] E. Turban, and E. Aronson, Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001, pp. 43. [11] B. Bergeron, Essentials of Knowledge Management, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2003, pp. 152-155. [12] V. Panich, What is Knowledge Management, Bangkok Design, 2004, pp. 16-37. [13] B. Vicharn, Knowledge Management to practical understanding, Thailand, Bangkok: Expertnet, 2004, pp. 1-25. [14] Office of the Public Sector Development Commission Thailand, Thailand Productivity Institute, KM Action Plan Template, Thailand, Bangkok, 2005, pp. 3-7. [15] C. Wongsaprasert, Knowledge Management in Business Function, Thailand, Bangkok: Expertnet, 2008, pp. 35-39. [16] Department of Local Administration, Knowledge Management for Thailand Local, Bangkok Thailand, 2010, pp. 7. [17] K. Panlamjiak, Knowledge Management of Graduated Instruction to Society, Knowledge Management of Graduated Instruction to Society Research Report, National Research Council of Thailand, Bangkok Thailand, 2009, pp. 333-310. [18] I. Nonaka and H. Takeuchi, The knowledge-creating company, New York, Harvard Business Review, 1991. [19] Y. Sa-Nguanpanich, “A development knowledge management models to rectify the nursing services at Nakhon Pathom Hospital,” Journal of Christian University., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 3-5, May 2009. Darunbhop Pianjud was born in chonburi, Thailand in 1984. He received a Bachelor of Education (Educational Technology) from Burapha University in 2006; Master of Education (Educational Technology) from Chulalongkorn University in 2008. Currently, he is a Ph.D. candidate in Department of Educational Technology and Communications, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand and lecturer at Rajabhat Rajanagarin University, Chachoengsao, Thailand. He has research experience in Information Technology and communication. Onjaree Natakuatoong is an Association Professor at Department of Educational Technology and Communications, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. She has experience in many positions such as Head, Department of Educational Technology and Communications, the Director at Research and Development Innovation Knowledge Management Center. She has research experience in Instructional Design System, Knowledge Management, Learning Organization, Human Resource Management, Information Technology and communication. Jiracha Vicheanpanya a lecturer, Department of Technology in Information Management, Faculty of Information Technology, Rangsit University, Bangkok, Thailand. She has experience in many positions such as Head, Department of Management Technology. She has research experience in Knowledge Management, Management Information, Information Technology and communication. International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, Vol. 3, No. 3, June 2013 223  

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