HIV/AIDS Come forward…..Take Leadership…..Stop AIDS Dr Naresh T Chauhan Department of PSM
<ul><li>“ HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest challenges to development that we have ever faced.  Our response must be Agency-w...
Where are we? <ul><li>Feminization of epidemic : in Sub-Saharan Africa women make 60% of HIV positive adults; globally thi...
Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, 2008   Total 33.4 million [31.1 – 35.8 million] Adults 31.3 million [29.2 – 33.7 mill...
Impact on Human development <ul><li>Kills young adults in their most productive years of their lives </li></ul><ul><li>40 ...
Total: 33.4 million (31.1 – 35.8 million)   Western &  Central Europe 850 000 [710 000 – 970 000] Middle East   &   North ...
Western &  Central Europe <100 [ <100  –  <200] Middle East   &   North Africa 3300 [1600 – 5300] Sub-Saharan Africa 230 0...
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Cambodia Haiti Mozambique Rwanda Côte d'Ivoire Zambia Kenya South Africa Zimbabwe Botswana Life exp...
 
Over 7400 new HIV infections a day in 2008 <ul><li>More than  97%  are in low- and middle-income countries </li></ul><ul><...
HIV/AIDS Epidemic <ul><li>SEX </li></ul><ul><li>FEAR </li></ul><ul><li>SHAME </li></ul><ul><li>DENIAL </li></ul><ul><li>IL...
3.97 m. Indians Living with HIV 1998 2002 2003 HIV  Prevalence reaches 1% amongst general population in TN, AP & Karnataka...
Natural History of HIV infection
Progress of HIV
Development of HIV/AIDS
Transmission routes
How testing is done?
Pre and post test counseling
Type of tests
Lab diagnosis
Lab diagnosis
CHALLENGES IN THE BEGINNING <ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Strong feeling about moral values. </li></ul><ul><li>Blame-Pr...
<ul><ul><li>Active involvement of multitude of partners  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
MEDIAN PREVALENCE OF HIV IN GUJARAT (STD & ANC) SENTINEL SURVEILLANCE
Life skills
Albert Einstein said <ul><li>“ The world we have made as a result of the level of thinking we have done thus far creates p...
Don’t EVER give up!
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Hiv aids

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HIV/AIDS problem statements, Natural History and Lab test...

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Hiv aids

  1. 1. HIV/AIDS Come forward…..Take Leadership…..Stop AIDS Dr Naresh T Chauhan Department of PSM
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest challenges to development that we have ever faced. Our response must be Agency-wide. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is not just a health sector issue; it is the business of every officer in every sector in the Agency. […] The design of activities in all sectors should take into account the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on human and institutional capacity in the sector.” USAID Administrator Andrew Nations, 2001 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where are we? <ul><li>Feminization of epidemic : in Sub-Saharan Africa women make 60% of HIV positive adults; globally this figure is 50% for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>India: 95% of new infections in women were among married and monogamous in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Stigma & discrimination: S urveys reveal that majority of respondents do not want to work with people living with HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of treatment : In Africa only 4% of PLWHA have treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Vast secondary impacts : Orphans, basic social services, instability </li></ul>Curtsey: UNDP
  4. 4. Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, 2008 Total 33.4 million [31.1 – 35.8 million] Adults 31.3 million [29.2 – 33.7 million] Women (aged 15 and above) 15.7 million [14.2 – 17.2 million] Children under 15 years 2.1 million [1.2 – 2.9 million] Total 2.7 million [2.4 – 3.0 million] Adults 2.3 million [2.0 – 2.5 million] Children under 15 years 430 000 [240 000 – 610 000] Total 2.0 million [1.7 – 2.4 million] Adults 1.7 million [1.4 – 2.1 million] Children under 15 years 280 000 [150 000 – 410 000] Number of people living with HIV in 2008 People newly infected with HIV in 2008 AIDS-related deaths in 2008
  5. 5. Impact on Human development <ul><li>Kills young adults in their most productive years of their lives </li></ul><ul><li>40 million orphans by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty spreads and deepens </li></ul><ul><li>Brake on economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Health and education achievements reversed </li></ul>
  6. 6. Total: 33.4 million (31.1 – 35.8 million) Western & Central Europe 850 000 [710 000 – 970 000] Middle East & North Africa 310 000 [250 000 – 380 000] Sub-Saharan Africa 22.4 million [20.8 – 24.1 million] Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1.5 million [1.4 – 1.7 million] South & South-East Asia 3.8 million [3.4 – 4.3 million] Oceania 59 000 [51 000 – 68 000] North America 1.4 million [1.2 – 1.6 million] Latin America 2.0 million [1.8 – 2.2 million] East Asia 850 000 [700 000 – 1.0 million] Caribbean 240 000 [220 000 – 260 000] Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV, 2008
  7. 7. Western & Central Europe <100 [ <100 – <200] Middle East & North Africa 3300 [1600 – 5300] Sub-Saharan Africa 230 000 [120 000 – 350 000] Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1400 [<500 – 2700] South & South-East Asia 11 000 [4900 – 17 000] Oceania <100 [ <100 – <500] North America <100 [<100 – <200] Latin America 3900 [2100 – 5700] East Asia 1500 [<1000 – 2300] Caribbean 1300 [<1000 – 2100] Estimated deaths of children (<15 years) due to AIDS, 2008 Total: 280 000 (150 000 – 410 000)
  8. 8. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Cambodia Haiti Mozambique Rwanda Côte d'Ivoire Zambia Kenya South Africa Zimbabwe Botswana Life expectancy at birth ( years ) Predicted life expectancy Predicted loss in life expectancy due to HIV/AIDS in children born in 2000 Loss in life expectancy due to HIV/AIDS
  9. 10. Over 7400 new HIV infections a day in 2008 <ul><li>More than 97% are in low- and middle-income countries </li></ul><ul><li>About 1200 are in children under 15 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>About 6200 are in adults aged 15 years and older, </li></ul><ul><li>of whom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>almost 48% are among women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 40% are among young people (15 – 24) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. HIV/AIDS Epidemic <ul><li>SEX </li></ul><ul><li>FEAR </li></ul><ul><li>SHAME </li></ul><ul><li>DENIAL </li></ul><ul><li>ILLNESS </li></ul><ul><li>DEATH </li></ul><ul><li>STIGMA </li></ul><ul><li>DISCRIMINATION </li></ul>Silence and hopelessness
  11. 12. 3.97 m. Indians Living with HIV 1998 2002 2003 HIV Prevalence reaches 1% amongst general population in TN, AP & Karnataka Gujarat remained in medium prevalence Gujarat remained in medium prevalence >1% Antenatal women >5 % High risk groups < 5 % High risk groups 1990 1986 1994 2001 2000 First case of HIV detected in Chennai HIV Prevalence reaches over 5% amongst high risk group in Maharahtra & Manip ur HIV Prevalence reaches over 1% amongst women in Maharashtra & Manipur EVOLUTION OF HIV EPIDEMIC– INDIA 1986-2003 High level of HIV among ANC clinic attendants in Maharashtra & TN some sites reporting over 5%
  12. 13. Natural History of HIV infection
  13. 14. Progress of HIV
  14. 15. Development of HIV/AIDS
  15. 16. Transmission routes
  16. 17. How testing is done?
  17. 18. Pre and post test counseling
  18. 19. Type of tests
  19. 20. Lab diagnosis
  20. 21. Lab diagnosis
  21. 22. CHALLENGES IN THE BEGINNING <ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Strong feeling about moral values. </li></ul><ul><li>Blame-Problem due to migrants from UP, Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Longest coast line. </li></ul><ul><li>Border State. </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbor of high prevalent State- Maharashtra, with close interaction of population from Gujarat. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><ul><li>Active involvement of multitude of partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal Corporations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary Organizations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community based organizations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement of corporate sector to Implement the targeted interventions and also in other programmes like Blood Safety, STDs, VCTCs, PPTCT, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School AIDS Education Programme etc. </li></ul></ul>DOING DIFFERENTLY
  23. 24. MEDIAN PREVALENCE OF HIV IN GUJARAT (STD & ANC) SENTINEL SURVEILLANCE
  24. 25. Life skills
  25. 26. Albert Einstein said <ul><li>“ The world we have made as a result of the level of thinking we have done thus far creates problems that we cannot solve at the same level at which we have created them... We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humankind is to survive. .” </li></ul>
  26. 27. Don’t EVER give up!

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