64686664 the-hiv-aids-epidemic-in-asia-jintanat-ananworanich

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64686664 the-hiv-aids-epidemic-in-asia-jintanat-ananworanich

  1. 1. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Asia Jintanat Ananworanich, MD, PhD US Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre Bangkok, Thailand [email_address]
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Transmission of HIV: Routes and risk factors </li></ul><ul><li>HIV situation in Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injecting drug users and Men who have Sex with Men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HIV situation in Thailand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future trend </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Transmission of HIV Occupational exposure: Needle stick in health care personnel
  4. 4. Factors Associated with Higher Risk for HIV Transmission The person who is the source for infection has high amount of HIV virus in the body
  5. 5. HIV Infection
  6. 6. Asia is Large and Diverse <ul><li>The continent with the largest population </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse geography, culture, religion, law and wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse HIV prevalence, HIV risk groups, and policy on treatment and prevention </li></ul>
  7. 7. HIV Epidemics in Asia <ul><li>Statistics (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 million living with HIV (160,000 children) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New infections 360,000 (22,000 children) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS deaths 300,000 (15,000 children) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HIV epidemics in Asia are concentrated among certain groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injecting drug users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex workers and their clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men who have sex with men </li></ul></ul>2010 UNAIDS report
  8. 8. HIV Prevalence in Asia UNGASS 2008-2009 Report (From the slide collection of Prof. Praphan Phanuphak) Country HIV prevalence Number with HIV infection Thailand 1.3% 530,000 Cambodia 0.70% 57,900 Myanmar 0.61% 238,000 Vietnam 0.44% 254,000 India 0.29% 2,270,000 China 0.06% 740,000
  9. 9. HIV Prevalence in Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) Bergenstrom and Abdul-Quader, AIDS 2010 Country Estimated number of IDUs HIV prevalence in IDUs China 2,350,000 12.3% Indonesia 219,130 42.5% Malaysia 205,000 10.3% Thailand 160,528 42.5% Vietnam 135,305 33.9% Pakistan 130,460 10.8% Myanmar 75,000 42.6%
  10. 10. HIV Prevalence in Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) van Griensven and van Wijngaarden, AIDS 2010 Country HIV prevalence in MSM (%) Myanmar 23.5 – 35 Thailand 5.5 – 30.8 India 4.8 – 24.7 China 0.05 – 12.5 Vietnam 5.3 – 9.4 Cambodia 0.8 – 8.7 Indonesia 2.1 – 8.1
  11. 11. Thailand: From a Concentrated to a Generalized HIV Epidemic IDUs: Injecting drug users; FSWs: Female sex workers
  12. 12. Thailand: HIV Statistics 2010 UNAIDS report; Thai MOPH Statistics in 2009 Values Thailand population 67 million Number of adults living with HIV 530,000 Adult HIV prevalence 1% Children living with HIV 22,000 Deaths since beginning of epidemics 500,000 Antiretroviral treatment coverage > 80% Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission coverage 95%
  13. 13. Thailand: HIV in Different At-Risk Groups Bertozzi SM, et al. Lancet 2008
  14. 14. van Griensven, JAIDS 2009 One in Three MSM in Bangkok has HIV Infection
  15. 15. Warning Signs of a Rising HIV Epidemic in Thailand <ul><li>Increased unsafe sex among the general population </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp increase in sexually transmitted infections </li></ul><ul><li>Higher illicit drug use among youth </li></ul><ul><li>High HIV prevalence among hard-to-reach populations (street-based FSWs, MSWs, MSM, IDUs, migrant workers and fishermen) </li></ul><ul><li>A second wave of HIV epidemic in Thailand is anticipated </li></ul>Modified from the slide collection of Prof. Praphan Phanuphak (Thai Red Cross AIDS Res Center)

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