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Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
Module 12   drives and emotions
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Module 12 drives and emotions

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  • The
  • Keywords: motivation, motivational state, drive, incentive
  • Keywords: homeostasis
  • http://www.danbaileyphoto.com/ouray3.htm
    If you can’t get permission for this picture, you can substitute the one from the text on p302 at the bottom.
  • Okay, so now that we have considered general theories of motivation, let us now examine some of the specific motives that direct and energize our behavior. In other words, what is it that we want most in life?
    In response to this question, Abraham Maslow, in 1954, proposed that human beings are motivated to fulfill a hierarchy of needs, from those that are basic for survival up to those that promote growth and self-enhancement.
    At the base of the hierarchy are the physiological needs for food, water, oxygen, sleep and sex. Once these needs are met, people seek safety, steady work, financial security, stability at home, and a predictable environment. Next on the ladder are the social needs for affiliation, belongingness and love, affection, close relations, family ties, and group membership. If these needs aren’t met, we feel lonely and alienated. Next are the esteem needs, which include our desires for social status, respect, recognition, achievement, and power. Failing to satisfy this need and we feel inferior and unimportant. Next are the cognitive and aesthetic needs, which include our need for knowledge, meaning, self-awareness and beauty, balance, and form. Let me point out here that this step is an addition to the original hierarchy (an addition that was made in 1970). Also, this step is considered a lower self-actualization step (kind of the preview to actual self-actualization).
    In short, everyone strives in their own way to satisfy all the needs on the hierarchy. Once these needs are met, we become ready, willing, and able to strive for self-actualization – a distinctly human need to fulfill one’s potential. As Maslow put it ‘A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is ultimately to be at peace with himself. What a man CAN be, he MUST be.’
    By arranging human needs in the shape of a pyramid, Maslow claimed that the needs at the base take priority over those at the top. In other words, the higher needs become important to us only after more basic needs are satisfied. Research generally confirms this prediction that motives lower in the pyramid take precedence, though there are occasional exceptions, as when people starve themselves to death in order to make a political statement. Research also shows that not everyone climbs Maslow’s hierarchy in the same prescribed order. Some people seek love and romance before fulfilling their esteem motives, but others who are more achievement-oriented may try to establish a career before a family.
    Maslow’s theory may not accurately describe the motivational path that all people take. It does not, for example, account for our need to feel capable, autonomous, and socially secure in our endeavors. But his distinctions – and the notion that the various needs form a hierarchy – provide a convenient framework for the study of motivation.
  • Discovering Psy 2e Figure 8.1 p. 281
  • Keywords: leptin, appetizer effect
  • Discovering Psy2e Photo p 288
  • Satisfying the body’s appetite for food helps propel the biological human engine. But people are not content merely to survive. Most of us want more out of life, much more. In varying degrees, we want to be part of a community, to love and be loved, and to achieve recognition, status, fame, wealth, and power. Let’s examine two common needs: the need to belong and the need to achieve.
    Although born helpless, human infants are equipped at birth with reflexes that orient them toward people. They are responsive to faces, turn their head toward voices, and are prepared to mimic certain facial gestures on cue. Much to the delight of parents, the newborn seems an inherently social animal. If you reflect on the amount of time you spend talking to, being with, pining for, or worrying about other people, you’ll realize that we all are. People need people.
    We saw that Maslow ranked belongingness and love needs third in his hierarchy. Being part of a family or community, playing on a sports team, joining a social or religious or professional group, making friends, falling in love, and having children – all serve this important motive. So just how important is it? Do people REALLY NEED other people?
    According to Baumeister and Leary, the need to belong is a fundamental human motive. As they put it, ‘human beings have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, and significant personal relationships.’ This conclusion is supported by a great deal of research. All over the world, people experience joy when they form new social attachments and react with loneliness, grief, and anxiety when these bonds are borken.
    We have a desire to establish and maintain social contacts. But research shows that individuals differ in the strength of their need for affiliation. As you might expect, people with a high need for affiliation are socially more active than lows. They prefer to be in contact with others more often and are more likely to visit friends or even make phone calls and write letters as a way to maintain social contact at a distance.
    Although individuals differ, even the most gregarious among us wants to be alone at times. It seems that people are motivated to establish and maintain an optimum balance of social contact.
    Social contacts can also give us feedback about ourselves.
  • Have you ever met someone so single-mindedly driven to succeed that you couldn’t help but wonder why? One individual who might pop to mind is Bill Gates – the cofounder and chair of Microsoft. Gates is the richest man in the world and seems to have an insatiable appetite for more. By his own admission, Gates wants to achieve worldwide domination of the computer industry. What fuels the drive we often have to succeed, excel, and advance in our work?
    It appears to be our achievement motivation – a strong desire to accomplish difficult tasks, outperform others, and excel. There is no question that individuals differ in the intensity of their achievement strivings. As you might expect, there are strong links among a person’s motivation, behavior, and level of accomplishment. Those who score high rather than low in the need for achievement work harder and are more persistent, innovative, and future-oriented. They also crave success more than they fear failure and then credit their success to their own abilities rather than to luck or chance.
  • Keywords: emotion
  • Keywords: brain-based theory of emotions, amygdala, psychic blindness
  • Keywords: facial feedback theory, Ekman
  • Transcript

    • 1. N MOTIVATION HUMA MR ARNEL A. DIEGO MA. Ed. Social Sciences Cluster
    • 2. In the grasslands, somewhere on the African continent, success can be defined in terms of life and death, Survival is a strong motivator. Here’s a short story …
    • 3. When the light comes in the Eastern sky and you sense that the sun will soon steal the comfort and security of the night, the gazelle starts to stir. He knows that if, during this day, he does not run faster than the fastest cheetah, he may be caught and then he will be killed. Not far away, the cheetah stretches out this powerful muscles and thinks of the day ahead, He knows that if he does not run faster than the slowest gazelle, he will surely starve. The moral of this story …
    • 4. It doesn’t matter whether you are a gazelle or a cheetah … …when the sun is up … … you had better be running.
    • 5. GROUP ACTIVITY NO .1 Instruction: 1.The students will count off from 1 – 7 2.Those who have the same number form a group 3.Each group will be given 15 min. to do the task 4.Present it in class (1-3 min. only)
    • 6. Problem situation • You and your group-mates are friends who share one ticket in a contest. You have won the grand prize – a round the world trip for one person, all expenses paid. The prize cannot be encashed. Neither can any of you afford to pay the share of the others, so that only one of you can take the tour. Decide what to do with the prize. You have 15 min. to come up with a decision or else the prizes will be forfeited.
    • 7. What is MOTIVATION • Factors within and outside an organism that cause it to behave a certain way at a certain time. • An inner state (either a need or desire) that energizes & directs us and keeps us moving toward our goals – why we do – what we do
    • 8. MOTIVATIONAL CYCLE MOTIVE GOAL INTRUMENTAL BEHAVIOR Huitt (2001)
    • 9. OUTLINE: Theories of Motivation • Instinct—motives are innate • Drive—biological needs as motivation • Incentive—extrinsic things push or pull behavior • Arousal—people are motivated to maintain optimum level of arousal • Humanistic—hierarchy of needs
    • 10. 1. INSTINCT THEORY • Inherited tendencies to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli. • Inborn pattern of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned
    • 11. 2. DRIVE THEORY • A motivation that pushes you to reach a goal. • Motivational tension induced to fulfill a need by need example: Food, water, sex
    • 12. Drives as Tissue Needs • Goal is to reduce the tension and restore homeostasis HOMEOSTASIS - the constancy of internal conditions that the body must actively maintain or maintain a steady internal state. • Equilibrium – preserving tendency is needed for the body to survive and function • However, homeostasis cannot explain all drives
    • 13. Energy Homeostasis Basic metabolic Rate (BMR)--the rate a body at rest uses for vital life functions or rate at which body burns calories just to stay alive • Positive energy balance--when caloric intake exceeds amount of caloric energy expended • Negative energy balance--when caloric intake falls short of amount of caloric energy expended
    • 14. 3. INCENTIVE THEORY • External goal that “pulls” or “pushes” behavior. • People are motivated to behave in ways that produce a valued incentive
    • 15. 4. Arousal Theory • People are motivated to maintain an optimum level of arousal—neither too high nor too low • Studies show that too little arousal and we get bored; too much arousal and we withdraw, in an effort to lower our levels of arousal
    • 16. Sensation Seeking A person high in sensation seeking tends to look for exciting (and sometimes risky) activities
    • 17. 5. Humanistic Theories Abraham Maslow suggested that motives are divided into several levels from basic survival needs to psychological and self-fulfillment needs.
    • 18. • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self-actualization Cognitive & Aesthetic needs Esteem Belongingness & Love Safety & Security Physiological
    • 19. Examples of MOTIVES
    • 20. HUNGER
    • 21. Short-Term Eating Signals Physiological- slight increase in blood insulin Psychological - classical and operant conditioning surrounding eating behavior Satiety- signals from the stomach, chemical (CCK), and stretch receptors
    • 22. Basal Metabolic Rate • The rate at which the body uses energy for vital functions while at rest. • Factors that influence BMR – Age – Sex – Size – Genetics – Food intake
    • 23. Excess Weight and Obesity • Obesity—condition characterized by excessive body fat and a BMI equal to or greater than 30.0 • Overweight—condition characterized by BMI between 25.0 and 29.9
    • 24. Factors in Obesity • Positive incentive value of palatable food • Super-size it! • Cafeteria diet effect • BMR changes over the life span • Sedentary lifestyle
    • 25. Factors Contributing to Being Overweight • Highly palatable food—we eat because it tastes so good • SuperSize It—food portions are larger than necessary for health • Cafeteria Diet Effect—more food and more variety lead us to eat more • Snacking—does not cause us to eat less at dinner • BMR—changes through the lifespan • Sedentary lifestyles
    • 26. Eating Disorders ANOREXIA NERVOSA • Characterized by excessive weight loss, irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body image. • People refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance – which can become skeletonlike.
    • 27. • Bulimia nervosa — characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self-induced purging such as vomiting, laxatives
    • 28. Unrealistic standards of “beauty” may contribute to high incidence of eating disorders
    • 29. Sexual Motivation and Behavior • Sex—the biological category of male or female; sexual intercourse • Gender—cultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity or femininity • Gender roles —behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits designated either masculine or feminine in a given culture • Gender identity —A person’s psychological sense of being male or female • Sexual orientation —direction of a person's emotional and erotic attractions
    • 30. Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation —direction of a person's emotional and erotic attractions – Heterosexual —sexual attraction for the opposite sex – Homosexual —sexual attraction for the same sex – Gay —typically used to describe male homosexuals – Lesbian —typically used to describe female homosexuals – Bisexual —sexual attraction for both sexes
    • 31. Human Sexual Response • Stage 1: Excitement—beginning of sexual arousal • Stage 2: Plateau—increased physical arousal • Stage 3: Orgasm—male ejaculates, female vaginal contractions • Stage 4: Resolution—arousal subsides
    • 32. Sexuality in Adulthood • Majority of adults (80%) report having none or one sexual partner in the past year (marriage factor) • Majority of men ages 18-59 have sex about seven times per month • Majority of women ages 18-59 have sex about six times per month • Vaginal intercourse is nearly universal as the most widely practiced sexual activity among heterosexual couples • 50 percent of older Americans reported sexual activity at least once per month.
    • 33. Sexual Disorders and Problems • Sexual dysfunction —consistent disturbance in sexual desire, arousal, or orgasm that causes psychological distress and interpersonal difficulties • Low desire and arousal problems common among women • Premature ejaculation and erectile problems common among men
    • 34. Social Motives Optimal human functioning can occur only if the psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met • Autonomy—need to determine, control, and organize one’s own behavior and goals • Competence—need to effectively learn and master challenging tasks • Relatedness—need to feel attached to others
    • 35. Need for Affiliation • Interest in establishing and maintaining relationship with other people • Need to associate with others & maintain social bonds
    • 36. Need for Power • Tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others and to be seen as a powerful individual.
    • 37. Need for Achievement • Need to master difficult challenges, outperform others, & meet high standards • Behavior aimed at excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some activity – Behavior depends on: • Incentive value • Expectancy
    • 38. SOCIAL NEEDS VS BIOLOGICAL NEEDS
    • 39. Should you study late for an exam and satisfy your SOCIAL NEED TO ACHIEVE or to go bed at regular time and satisfy your BIOLOGICAL NEED FOR SLEEP?
    • 40. References: Feldman, Robert S. (2008). Understanding Psychology (5th Mc Graw Hill International edition). Gaerlan, Josefina, Limpingco Delia & Tria Geraldine. General Psychology (5th edition). Ken Incorporated
    • 41. THANK YOU
    • 42. Assignment 1. Make a drawing that shows an ideal day in the life you would like 10 years from now. BE CREATIVE. Consider the following in your drawing • A. What are you? • B. Where are you? • Who do you live with? • What are you doing? • How do you feel about your life?
    • 43. 2. At the back of your drawing in two columns, write your answers to the following: FIRST COLUMN SECOND COLUMN What made you aspire What steps will you for such life? take to achieve the kind of life
    • 44. Concept of Emotion • A class of subjective feelings elicited by stimuli that have high significance to an individual – stimuli that produce high arousal generally produce strong feelings – are rapid and automatic – emerged through natural selection to benefit survival and reproduction
    • 45. Basic Emotions • Fear, surprise, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness • Basic emotions are innate and “hard-wired” • Complex emotions are a blend of many aspects of emotions • Classified along two dimensions – Pleasant or unpleasant – Level of activation or arousal associated with the emotion
    • 46. Physical Arousal and Emotions • Sympathetic nervous system is aroused with emotions (fight-orflight response) • Different emotions stimulate different responses – Fear—decrease in skin temperature (cold-feet) – Anger—increase in skin temperature (hot under the collar)
    • 47. Brain and Emotions Amygdala – evaluates the significance of stimuli and generates emotional responses – generates hormonal secretions and autonomic reactions that accompany strong emotions – Direct connection to thalamus allows for rapid reaction to potentially dangerous situations
    • 48. Emotion and Facial Expressions • Each basic emotion is associated with a unique facial expression • Facial expressions are innate and “hard-wired” • Innate facial expressions the same across many cultures • Display rules—social and cultural rules that regulate emotional expression, especially facial expressions.
    • 49. James-Lange Theory
    • 50. Cannon’s Challenge
    • 51. Two-Factor Theory
    • 52. Cognitive-Mediational Theory • Emotions result from the cognitive appraisal of a situation’s effect on personal well-being • Similar to two-factor, but cognitive mediational theory’s emphasis is on the cognitive appraisal as the essential trigger of the emotional response
    • 53. Determination of Sexual Orientation • Genetics—role suggested by twin and family studies • Brain structure—differences found in hypothalamus of homosexual and heterosexual men • Hormonal – adrogenized females • Complex issue with no clear answers

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