General Psychology PSYC 10213 (Section 50; 60) Spring 2012Library Research Project This project will entail library research of topics in psychology providedout by the Instructor. A paper will be written presenting reviews of aminimum of ten journal articles from separate journals found in the TCUlibrary of a minimum of 50 words each. In addition to each review, thepaper will note the bibliographic reference for each article and adescription of the location in the TCU library where each can be found,noting the floor, topical section, library reference number and otherlocation description. Duplicate topics should not be the same content ornotations of locations. A list of possible topics will be available in class foryou to pick from. Please use September 10 class period for your work sowe will not meet on that day.
Chapter 3 Maslow’s Hierarchical Theory Hunger Motivation Sex and Sexual BehaviorWork Motivation & Performance
MASLOW• Abraham Maslow – theory of motivation• We have a hierarchy of needs from “deficiency needs” to “growth needs”• Deficiency – reduce inadequacies• Growth – promote personal growth• Self actualization: self acceptance, spontaneity, need for privacy, resistance to cultural influences, empathy, relationships, democratic character structure, creativeness, and sense of humor.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Growth Needs B – love D - loveDeficiency Needs Page 56
• Engine for moving toward SA: experiencing the world totally for what it is with euphoria, wonder, and awe• Individuals who are self-actualized often have what Maslow termed peak experiences, or moments of intense joy, wonder, awe and ecstasy. After these experiences, people feel inspired, strengthened, renewed or transformed• Critics: ignores the environment too much• Too optimistic that everyone has the potential• Ethnocentric - individualistic
HUNGER MOTIVATION• Hunger is minimally significant for when to eat• Most significantly is normal times we eat• Social influence important on how much we eat• Eat more when distracted from food we eat• Two brain systems:1. Feeding Center2. Satiety Center (cessation of feeding)•. Genes major influence on obesity – twins study
Obesity• Body Mass Index (BMI) of more than 30• Weight in kilos divided by height in meters squared• Kilo = 2.2 lbs / Meter = 3.28084 ft• 220/2.2=100 6/3.28084=1.83x1.83=3.35• 100/3.35=29.85 Not obese• Application – therapy, personal, child development• Can be psychological, physiological, genetic plus many other causes
SEX AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR• Genetic diversity enhances chances for adaptation• Key to reproduction: gametes• Few strong eggs; millions of sperm• Ovulation in mid 28 day menstrual cycle• Four phases of orgasm:1. Excitement2. Plateau3. Orgasm4. Resolution
Hormones:1. Androgens – testosterone (“male hormone”)2. Estrogen - estradiol (“female hormone”)•. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in women responds to testosterone therapy•. Psychological factors more important than hormones in levels of sexual desire•. Evolutionary psychology explains different sex drives from standpoint of historical roles and implications from having sex•. Women have greater investment in outcome
• Men “lose a few hours” or less• Women from EP view risk “cost of that decision for years”• Women tend to have greater commitment to children
Gender differences in sexuality1. Men much more prefer promiscuity and avoidance of emotional investment2. Men generally more interested in sex3. Closer link in sexuality/aggression in men4. Females have more variation and flexibility in sexual responses and behavior5. Issues: hormones, contraception, equality of sexes, environmental/cultural influenceIssues: hormones, contraception, equality ofsexes, environmental/cultural influence
Work motivation and performance (Goal setting theory)• Performance depends on the difficulty of our goals & our commitment to those goals• Important issue: set detailed strategies for achieving goals (S-O-R)• People who set difficult goals and commit to those goals have higher self esteem and emotional stability• Goal setting theory focuses too much on cognitive factors and not enough on emotional