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Aalto-1 is a 4 kg, three-cube nanosatellite based on CubeSat standards developed by Aalto University, carrying three different payloads, and with a planned mission lifetime of more than two years. The …

Aalto-1 is a 4 kg, three-cube nanosatellite based on CubeSat standards developed by Aalto University, carrying three different payloads, and with a planned mission lifetime of more than two years. The satellite is designed for a sun synchronous orbit. The main payload of the satellite is a Earth Observation instrument, a novel tiny Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer, developed by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland. The main scientific goal of the mission is to demonstrate the feasibility of Fabry-Perot spectrometers for spaceborne Earth Observation applications. A miniature radiation detector RADMON, developed by the University of Helsinki and University of Turku, will be a secondary payload, and has the goal to demonstrate its technology in space as well as to map the LEO radiation environment. In addition, the satellite will carry an electrostatic plasma brake developed by Finnish Meteorological Institute, with which in a separate part of the science phase, the force caused by LEO plasma on the brake will be measured, and eventually the satellite will be slowed down enough to re-enter the atmosphere instead of remaining as space debris

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  • 1. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 2. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish Student SatelliteTalk: David Fernández,Department of Radio Science and Engineering,Aalto UniversityAnimations: Pekka Laurila, Aalto UniversityThe satellite: Aalto-1 team and partners
  • 3. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSpace
  • 4. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 5. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSatellite classificationSource: BARHNHART, D.J. Very Small Satellite Design for Space Sensor Networks. 2008.
  • 6. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteStudent satellites●CanSat●CubeSat●Other designs●Constatly growing topic●Open source, open standards, communitysupported●Spinoff companies●Cheap launches●Nanosatellites < 10 kg●OTS mobile electronics to small satellites●Satellite industry driving towards smaller sizeAAUSAT-IIESTCube-1
  • 7. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSpaceTechnology inFinland
  • 8. Aalto-1The Finnish Student SatelliteESA missions where Finland hasparticipatedSoho (1995)Cassini-Huygens(1997)XMM-Newton (1999)Proba (2001)Cluster-II (2002)Envisat-1 (2002)Integral (2002)MSG (2002)Mars Express (2003)Smart-1 (2003)Rosetta (2004)Venus Express (2005)Galileo (2005 & 2008)Goce (2009)Planck (2009)Herschel (2009)SMOS(2009)Cryosat 2 (2009)ADM-AeolusSWARMBepiColombo
  • 9. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 10. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteDream aboutFinnish spacecraft• 1993 HUTSAT• 1993 FIMSAT• 1993 FS-1
  • 11. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteNone of them was actually built…Finnishspacecraft designs
  • 12. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite20107 Aalto University students made Special Assignment Work on Space Technologyunder topic ”Feasibility study for a nanosatellite” and proposed a realistic plan forfirst Finnish nanosatellite mission
  • 13. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteStarting with wild ideas●Nanosatellite with adjoint picosatellites●Biological material in the satellite●Synthetic aperture radiometer as satelliteswarm●Mobile phone in space●Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)●Deep space mission●Asteroid mission●Cosmic file server
  • 14. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteRefinement of the goal●Realistic preliminary design for firstFinnish nanosatellite●Constrains:– Realistic design– Student work (thesis + specialassignments)– Instruments should be made in Finland– Main payload and mission →department research & teaching topics
  • 15. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 16. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteMain ConceptRequirements●The satellite has to accommodate hyperspectral camera●The satellite has to be stabilized●The best orbit is sun synchronous mid-day orbit●The satellite has to be affordable●The satellite has to be usable in education●The satellite should have high speed data link●Common standards for cooperation and continuity●Some subsystems should be availableCubeSat standard based nanosatellite design
  • 17. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1MIDE Student project 2010-2014Mass: 4kgClass: CubeSatPlanned launch: 2014Orbit: 600-800 km polarMission: technology demonstration
  • 18. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 19. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteCooperationwith R&D andcompanies
  • 20. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 21. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSpace Mission
  • 22. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 23. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 24. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteScience andtechnologyon board
  • 25. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteWorlds smallestImaging spaceSpectrometerPiezo-actuated Fabry-Perot spectral filterSensor: 5 Mpx CMOSDimensions: 5x10x10 cmMass: ~400 gFocal lenght: 61 mmSpectral range: visibleSpectral resolution: 7-10 nmField of view: 10 degGround resolution: 250 m3 channel simultaneous measurement
  • 26. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 27. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 28. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteCurrent model for UAVIMajor specifications of the spectral cameraSpectral range: 500 – 900 nmSpectral Resolution: 9..45 nm @ FWHMFocal length: 9.3 mmF-number: 6.8Image size: 5.7 mm x 4.3 mm, 5 MpixMinimum total exposure time: 30 msField of View: 32° (across the flight direction)Ground pixel size: 3.5 cm @ 150 m heightWeight: 350 g (without battery)Size: 62 mm x 61 mm/76mm x 120 mmPower consumption: 3 W
  • 29. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteVTT miniature spectrometers UAV test flights
  • 30. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteImaging Spectrometer will usePiezo Fabry-Perot Interferometerand therefore their spacequalification is critical.The random and sine sweepvibration tests were carried outon 1.12.2011 with VTT ExpertServices Electrodynamic shakerLDS V875– Max force: 40 kN (sine andrandom)– Max acceleration:1000 m/s2– Max amplitude:50 mmVibration tests for PFPI
  • 31. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteRADMONRadiation detectorDimensions: 10x10x4 cmMass: 500 gSi detector and CsI(Tl) scintillatorElectrons > 60 keV (5 energy channels)Protons > 1 MeV (7 energy channels)Counting rate up to 1 MHz
  • 32. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellitePlasma Brakedeorbiting deviceDimensions: 10x10x2,5 cmMass: 300 gTether: 10-100 mTether material: AluminiumTether dimeter: 50 μmNegative and positive tether chargeCold cathode electron gunsVoltage source for negative mode
  • 33. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 34. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteE-sail, traveling in interplanetaryspace without fuel
  • 35. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteImage © European Space Agency
  • 36. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite100 m Aluminium MicrometeoroidRestistant Ultrasonicly BondedTether
  • 37. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteOrbit
  • 38. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteOrbit
  • 39. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSystem Design
  • 40. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteOn Board Data Handling Hardware
  • 41. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 42. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSoftware●OS: GNU/Linux●Client-server architecture for payloads●ASM / C / C++ (μlibc)●Really tiny and tested●Designed to run in user space●Dispensable●Extensible from Earth (re-programming)
  • 43. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSoftware
  • 44. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSoftware
  • 45. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteKernel & OS●Highly customized: focused in I2C and process scheduling●Real-time patches (http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/projects/rt/)●OpenEmbedded as basement for the distro●Deterministic system●Autonomous: non human-interaction needed●Inter-process communication: D-Bus
  • 46. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteGroundsegment
  • 47. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteGround station
  • 48. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteGround station
  • 49. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteGround station
  • 50. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteGround station● MC Computer:● Ubuntu● GNOME Predict● Hamlib● MC Software● Java or Qt (C++)● Server:● Debian / CentOS● MySQL● Apache / Tomcat
  • 51. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteTelecommunicationsVHF downlink / UHF uplinkS-band downlinkLink duration per day – simulation for selected orbitMin. Duration 65.313 secMax. Duration 637.889 secAvg. Duration 475.298 secTotal Duration 14258.926 sec
  • 52. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteCurrentstatus
  • 53. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1 Project TimelinePhase 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015A - Feasibility studyB - Preliminary design definitionCD – Detailed designE –Integration & QualificationLaunch campaignSpectrometer experimentsRADMON experimentsDeorbiting experiment
  • 54. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 55. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 56. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 57. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 58. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 59. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 60. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteEducation
  • 61. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSatellite builtby students
  • 62. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 63. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 64. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteProject based teachingLearning engineering documentationProject managementProject workingSystem designInteraction with R&D and companiesInnovation skillsPublic Relations
  • 65. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteLUMA forhigh schools
  • 66. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteInternationalcooperation
  • 67. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteFirst Aalto-1 exchange students in TUDelft
  • 68. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteConferences and Workshops
  • 69. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteRemote Sensing Days 2011
  • 70. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 71. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteCommunity
  • 72. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 73. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 74. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteSpinoffs andStartups
  • 75. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 76. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteWe are not stopping here…Aalto-2
  • 77. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite
  • 78. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatelliteAalto-1 team in spring 2011http://aalto-1.tkk.fiThank you!
  • 79. Aalto-1The Finnish StudentSatellite