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DR Benard Fanaroff on the Square Killometre Array (SKA) project


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DR Benard Fanaroff on the Square Killometre Array (SKA) project

  1. 1. AAS – TWAS – NCSTThe Square Kilometre Array RadioTelescopeNairobi 27 May 2013
  2. 2. Africa–next great economic growth story• Rapid growth - value added industries, notonly resource extraction• WEF - huge infrastructure programmeplanned– Greatest constraint is scientific, engineering,ICT, commercial etc. skills and capacity toplan, design, build, operate and maintain• Skills and competency for competitiveness• ICT underpins everything
  3. 3. Africa and Big Science• Building the world’s largest scienceinfrastructure in Africa – the Square KilometreArray Radio Telescope• A breakthrough for Africa in how we perceiveourselves and how others perceive us• African scientists to do big science andfundamental science and high-tech – NobelPrizes from Africa, by Africans• Exciting projects to attract young people intoscience and technology and keep them in Africa
  4. 4. Humans, abstract thought and technologyoriginated in Africa4
  5. 5. The South African President visits SIP16
  6. 6. SKA DishesDishes to cover the frequency range 500 MHz to 10 GHz
  7. 7. SKA DishesDishes to cover the frequency range 500 MHz to 10 GHzPhase 1: 250 Dishes (do science early), 200km baselinesPhase 2: +-3000 Dishes, up to 3000km baselines
  8. 8. SKA Dense Aperture ArraysArray of "tiles" to cover the medium frequency range from 200 to 500 MHz3 x 3 m tiles will be grouped into circular stations, 60 m in diameter
  9. 9. SKA Dense Aperture ArraysArray of "tiles" to cover the medium frequency range from 200 to 500 MHz3 x 3 m tiles will be grouped into circular stations, 60 m in diameter
  10. 10. SKA Sparse Aperture ArraysArray of simple dipole antennas to cover frequency range from 70 – 200 MHzGrouped in 100m diameter stations each containing about 90 elements
  11. 11. SKA Cost• Acquisition cost (capex and NRE)– I expect about €4 billion – decision on Phase1 cap in July• Operations and maintenance over ~50years– Probably €~3-400 million per year• Costs to be covered by members of theSKA Organisation• Other contributions possible – EU?
  12. 12. SKA Organisation• Ten countries – UK, Canada, Germany,Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, China, SouthAfrica, Australia, New Zealand• India joining• Four intend to join – Japan, South Korea,France, USA• USA probably after 2020 (Decadal Reviewof Astronomy)• Membership currently €250 000 per year
  13. 13. SKA site decision timeline• Discussions started early 1990s• Expressions of interest 2003• Proposals December 2005• Short list September 2006• Site testing and planning• Submit proposals (we sent 27000 pages ofsupporting documents) September 2011• Recommendation for Africa February 2012• Dual site decision April 2012
  14. 14. Proposed SKA construction timeline• 2013 – 2016 Pre-construction, detailed design• 2014 – 2016 Members seek SKA1 funding, followingestablishment of cost-cap (July 2013) and confirmation ofSKA1 scope.• 2016/17 Establishment of new governancearrangements for the SKA Organisation• 2017 Tender for and procure construction of SKA1• 2017 – 2020 Detailed design of SKA2• 2018 – 2021 Construction of SKA1• 2020 Early science with some components of SKA1• 2019 – 2021 Seek SKA2 construction funding• 2022 – 2027 Construction of SKA2
  15. 15. Why the SKA?• Multi-wavelength astronomy• Science case– Galaxy evolution, cosmology and dark energy– Strong field tests of general relativity using pulsarsand black holes– Origin and evolution of cosmic magnetism– Probing the Dark Ages –how were the first stars andblack holes formed?– Detect very weak extra-terrestrial signals and willsearch for complex molecules, the building blocks oflife, in space• And serendipitous discoveries!
  16. 16. 2013/06/03 18
  17. 17. SKA Split between Africa and Aus
  18. 18. The SKA in Africa
  19. 19. African Partner Working Group22
  20. 20. What is expected from partners?• Next working group meeting July 2013 –Ministers will visit the site– Institutional, technical and scientific capacity– Availability of sites– Testing and characterisation of the sites– Protection from radio frequency interference throughregulation– Easy access for work and research for SKAO peopleand goods (diplomatic status?)– No customs, excise duties, VAT– Participate in planning and delivery in country
  21. 21. Radio Frequency Interference24
  22. 22. Cape TownPort ElizabethKroonstadDurbanBethlehemEast LondonCamdenWitbankRichards BayGrahamstownMaseruNoupoortPolokwaneKomatipoortMusinaPhalaborwaMaputoInfraco Long Distance NetworkKAT Transmission Network:LadysmithNewcastleGeorgeKenhardtKimberleyDe AarBloemfonteinPerseusPietermaritzburgNelspruitPretoriaMinervaJohannesburgLegendBackboneKAT NetworkData connectivity
  23. 23. African Submarine Cable Systems
  24. 24. Africa Terrestrial Cable Systems
  25. 25. The SKA is an Opportunity• What we make of it depends on what we put intoit – nothing is given to us on a plate– Science – Nobel Prizes for Africa?– Human capital development and skills - critical massof young engineers and scientists with expertise innext-generation technologies (e.g. Big Data; digitalsignal processing; HPC; control etc.) and science– Reverse brain drain– Strengthen universities– Stimulating interest in science and engineering– Jobs in construction, operations and maintenance– Industry involvement– Spin-offs
  26. 26. Example - Big Data• Technologies for SKA are innovative• Big Data creating entirely new industries which willbe very dominant in the global economy – millionsor billions of sensors sending streams of data;huge data sets requiring ultra-fast computing,analysis and visualisation, storage.• SKA >100 x the data traffic of the world-wide web.– An exabyte of data per day – 1018 bytes– Exaflop computing speeds – current best is somepetaflops. Equivalent would be ~ 108 laptops• Use SKA to get young people into Big Data,wireless, signal processing etc. so that Africa canplay a world-leading role in these new industries.
  27. 27. AERAP• European Parliament Written Declarationto support Radio Astronomy in Africa• They have established the Africa-EuropeRadio Astronomy Platform to mobilizefunding and collaboration• Working with the European Parliamentand Commission and with European andAfrican astronomers on projects• Possible major new funding instruments
  28. 28. Collaboration• Mutual benefit agreements– DOME – IBM Europe, ASTRON (Netherlands), SKASA: various aspects of high performance computing– SKA SA and IBM USA – machine learning– Intel and SKA SA: pushing next generation chips– Nokia Siemens and SKA: data transport– CISCO and NMMU• CASPER collaboration• Huawei• Many universities and institutes
  29. 29. Why Precursors?• Develop and test designs andtechnologies• Understand costs• Develop science• Get involved with SA universities to doMeerKAT science
  30. 30. Protected Karoo Site• 14 000 ha bought• Protected by Astronomy GeographicAdvantage Act• Access roads, 33kV specially designedpowerline (no sparking), 10Gb/s opticalfibre, buildings etc. built for Kat 7• Roads, airstrip, buildings, sub-stationupgrade for MeerKAT
  31. 31. SKA Site and the Central AstronomyAdvantage Area
  32. 32. Astronomy Geographical Advantage Act• Empowers the Minister for Science andTechnology to declare protected areasaround strategic astronomy sites byregulation• Covers both radio and optical astronomy• The Act establishes an AGA ManagementAuthority to regulate and enforce• Three tiers of protected areas:• Core area – the physical area of theobservatory / instrument• Central area – surrounds the core area.Minister prohibits certain activities /categories of activities in this area• Coordination area –Minister sets standardswhich activities must comply with• Protected areas apply to existing and newactivities• The Act prevails over existing ElectronicCommunications Act, where protection ofradio astronomy is concerned
  33. 33. MeerKAT DishesOur design
  34. 34. System engineeringReceptors(64-elementarray)PDRCDRRRUserlevelSystemDataprocessing&Control2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016CallforscieceproposalsProjectscopingLargesurveytimeallocationScience URS Rev1Concept designRequirementsdefinitionPrelim designRequirements definitionPDRCommissionAntenna#1SystemqualificationAntenna#1CommissionAntennas #2 - 64Engineering VerificationAntennas #2 - 64CODR RRSingle-dish back-endready4-element arrayback-end ready- ContinuumimagingEarly ScienceArrayCommissioning32-element arrayback-end ready- Spectal line imaging- Beam formingfull array back-endready- Transient SearchPrelim designRRPDRDetail design, implementation, qualification and acceptanceUsing KAT-7 as development platformReceptor #1&2 Receptor #4 Receptor #32 Receptor #64RequirementsdefinitionTenderPrelim designDetail designBuild & qualifyReceptor #1&2Produce & ATP Receptor #3 - 641234Concept definitionSystem definitionSubsystemdefinitionIntegration and verification
  35. 35. MeerKAT Large Surveys (Science Cases)22 countries
  36. 36. MeerKAT Dish ConceptMeerKATKAT7
  37. 37. Antenna Risk/Development AreasReflector•Reflector Accuracy (includes curing distortions)•Reflector Alignment•Durability of composites (includes reflectivity)•Operational scenarios•Wind/Thermal loadingFeed Indexer•Concept•Durability•Cable WrapJack-screw•Single-point failure (duty cycle/safety)Elevation Stage (fairly low risk)•Drive (sizing/power consumption)•Bearing•Cable Wrap•Encoder MountSub Reflector•Accuracy•AlignmentFoundation•Stability•InfrastructureAzimuth Stage•Drive•Bearing•Cable Wrap•Encoder MountAntenna Control Unit•Functionality•Reliability/Robustness•Control system influence pointing•EMI/RFI considerationsConnecting Beam•Stiffness (control/subreflector + feed supportPointing•Tight pointing specsconsidered significant risk•Operational scenarios•Wind/Thermal loadingLightningProtectionReliabilityCost/ProcurementAlignment with SKA
  38. 38. MeerKAT AntennasAntenna Concept Review 30-Oct-12Installed Antenna #1 02-Dec-13Antenna #1 qualified and CDR 31-Jan-14Antenna #2 acceptance testing completed 31-April-14Antenna #6 acceptance testing completed 21-Nov-14Antenna #16 acceptance testing completed 16-Jun-15Antenna #32 acceptance testing completed 20-Nov-15Antenna #64 acceptance testing completed 19-Sep-16Contract completion 02-Dec-16
  39. 39. MeerKAT L-Band Receiver• 0.9 to 1.67 GHz• Without adding cost MeerKAT sensitivity has beenimproved from 220 m2/K to 300 m2/K• Mechanical challenges• Size and Weight• Maintaining Vacuum• Heat Transfer• Cost Effective Manufacturing• Design for Manufacture• Design for Assembly• Design for testing• Services• Vacuum pump• Compressor• EM and RF performance are primary design drivers (notdiscussed here)
  40. 40. DBE: CASPER / ROACH
  41. 41. CASPER / ROACH
  42. 42. MeerKAT integration lab
  43. 43. Cape Town MeerKAT Control Room
  44. 44. Dish AssemblyshedPedestalintegration shedBunkered & RFIshieldedprocessorbuilding andpower roomExpansion of Site Complex for MeerKAT
  45. 45. 50On-site roads
  46. 46. Bulk Power Supply to siteLeft: Upgrade toKaroo substationTop: 33kV powerline (steel section)
  47. 47. African VLBI Network (AVN)Need to fill inthis gap
  48. 48. 30-m class antennas in AfricaContributes toexcellentscience withEuropean andother VLBInetworks.Very excitingscience -looking atphysics veryclose to blackholes.
  49. 49. Nkutunse - GhanaKenya next - Longonot
  50. 50. Nkutunse – SKA SA interaction55
  51. 51. Capacity development• Use AVN project to build up institutional,technical, science capacity• Develop research and teaching inastronomy and physics – exchangeprogrammes etc.• Major technical training• Interns• Build HPC skills to become involved indata processing and science
  52. 52. Human Capital Development• Research chairs• Visiting / joint professorships• University grants – support or lecturers• Postdoctoral fellowships• Postgraduate bursaries• Undergraduate bursaries• Internships• Technician training – national diplomasat universities of technology• FET (artisan) training (from Carnarvon)– 9 taken in 2010, 8 employed at SKA SA– Successful initiative– 15 taken in for 2012• Development of astrophysics andrelated engineering in Africa partnerstates• Mobility grantsA focused and structuredprogramme with a pipelinestrategy
  53. 53. Africa HCD workshop at KAT 7 site (May 2011)Lots of enthusiasm to work with African universities
  54. 54. 5 2 2 3 1447411820421029 10 17 13 1274920100200300400500600The South African SKA ProjectHuman Capital Development ProgrammeCumulative statistics of intake by academic level
  55. 55. 37186354920100200300400500600South African Foreign African National Non African TotalNumberofbursaries,fellowshipsandgrants The South African SKA ProjectHuman Capital Development ProgrammeCumulative statistics by nationality
  57. 57. Numberofstudentsawarded1503424920100200300400500600Women Men TotalNumberofbursaries,fellowshipsandgrantsThe South African SKA ProjectHuman Capital Development ProgrammeCumulative statistics by gender
  58. 58. Noofstudentsgraduated
  59. 59. Post-graduate conference 2013
  60. 60. Delegates from African partners
  61. 61. Obinna Umeh - Nigeria• An SKA PhD student supervised by (Clark) and GeorgeEllis, has been an exceptional achiever. Obinna Umeh isabout to graduate, having recently been awarded his PhD.An examiner from Oxford thought it a ”remarkable piece ofwork” and one of the ”most impressive theses I have read”.He has published 5 papers already, with two awaitingacceptance, including an invited Key Issues Review forReports on Progress in Physics, a review journal with thehighest impact factor in Physics. With an internationalcollaborator, he has co-written a major new code foranalytically calculating the Einstein equations to highaccuracy. His work is high-impact: he has nearly 100citations already.67
  62. 62. 68
  63. 63. 69
  64. 64. 70
  65. 65. Cyber lab
  66. 66. The three signatures of an advancedcountry are technology, science &culture. Astronomy needs &enables them all – George