Paljaljim Rusagasag (Che-Wei Lee), MA
Program Coordinator, Institute for International Studies in Education,
University of...
Aims of Critical Inquiry
1. Examine if indigenous community-based education
can effectively achieve the ideal of self-
det...
Research Concerns
1. To what extend could indigenous community
members exercise their power/rights/influence of
self-deter...
• Premise: All cultural life is constant tension between control and
resistance.
• Case school: located in an indigenous a...
Considerations from the school members
• Close to school, reduce the burden of family economy,
promote the retention rates...
What has changed?
• Two systems in one track of administration and
management
• Multiple budgets
• New facilities
• Close ...
• General or mixed senior high school?
• Indigenous community-based school has a
richly cultural environment but has not a...
Dilemmas of Tribal Language
Education
1. Parental contradictory expectations between
dominant and tribal languages learnin...
Uncertain Leadership
• The power of school members is
bigger than the one of community
members (realistic).
• Professional...
Should we leave or stay at the indigenous
community-based school?
For
• We can protect them well (school faculty
members)
...
• Community members do not know to engage in
school administrative operation.
• School members do not know how to evaluate...
Signs of high awareness
• Community members have sysmatically prepared the cultural
materials.
• Some non/indigenous teach...
Conclusion
• The subjectivity of community is weak in
various school engagement.
• The framework of mainstream education s...
• School should allow community’s voices in a democratic
way to communicate, negotiate, and collaborate with
each other.
•...
Critical Reflections for Insiders,
Outsiders, and In-Betweens
1. Who is the real subject in the indigenous
community-based...
Thank you for your attention!
COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE
AND KUAN-TING TANG
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Potentials and Challenges on Indigenous Community-Based Education: A Critical Ethnography of Indigenous Community-Based School

256
-1

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
256
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Potentials and Challenges on Indigenous Community-Based Education: A Critical Ethnography of Indigenous Community-Based School

  1. 1. Paljaljim Rusagasag (Che-Wei Lee), MA Program Coordinator, Institute for International Studies in Education, University of Pittsburgh, USA Kuan-Ting Tang, PhD Professor, Department of Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan (ROC) Potentials and Challenges on Indigenous Community-based Education: A Critical Ethnography of Indigenous Community-based School 11 March 2013. Paper presented at the 57th Annual Conference of The Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
  2. 2. Aims of Critical Inquiry 1. Examine if indigenous community-based education can effectively achieve the ideal of self- determination among Taiwan Aboriginal-based schools; 2. Analyze the relationships, dynamics, and issues between the community and its neighborhood school; and 3. Form the pattern of indigenous community-based education with its corresponding challenges for Taiwan Aborigines as a reference. COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  3. 3. Research Concerns 1. To what extend could indigenous community members exercise their power/rights/influence of self-determination in an indigenous community- based secondary school (from grades 7 to 12)? 2. What is the relationship between the community and the school? 3. What are the challenges of indigenous community- based education in our case study? COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  4. 4. • Premise: All cultural life is constant tension between control and resistance. • Case school: located in an indigenous area in the southern Taiwan • School members: principal, staff, teachers, & students • Community representatives: village heads & president of the village council • Community family members: president of the parental association & students’ parents • Ethnicity Han Chinese, including Mainlanders, Fukien Taiwanese, and Hakka Taiwanese; Taiwan Aborigines or the indigenous peoples of Taiwan—Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Kavalan, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiat, Sakizaya, Seediq, Tao (or Yami), Thao, Truku, and Tsou Why Critical Ethnography? COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  5. 5. Considerations from the school members • Close to school, reduce the burden of family economy, promote the retention rates, reduce the cultural difference, raise the indigenous consciousness, & enhance the cultural identity (school staff) • Lack of competition (students) • Accessibility in secondary education vs. persistence in higher education, & top universities/colleges (students) Attitudes from the community members • Skeptical: wait and see or indifferent • Affirmative: fully supportive whenever school needs community’s assistance 1. Divergent thoughts on the transformation of indigenous community-based school COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  6. 6. What has changed? • Two systems in one track of administration and management • Multiple budgets • New facilities • Close to indigenous environment • Teaching staff were overloaded with extra administrative affairs at the same time and failed to well prepare lessons that negatively affected the accountability of administration as well. What stays intact? • The contents of the whole curricula are based on the national standards and principals. COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  7. 7. • General or mixed senior high school? • Indigenous community-based school has a richly cultural environment but has not a cultural soul (practicing courage and having positively internalized recognition). • Stigmatized identity • Homeless identity 2. Ambiguous, dilemmatic, and contradictory praxis of indigenous community-based education COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  8. 8. Dilemmas of Tribal Language Education 1. Parental contradictory expectations between dominant and tribal languages learning (family attitude) 2. Students cannot continue speaking tribal language at home, school, and normal life because of its practicability (real life). 3. Chinese has been the medium of instruction since preschool education, besides dialect taught as a subject until primary education (language shift). COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  9. 9. Uncertain Leadership • The power of school members is bigger than the one of community members (realistic). • Professionalism vs. Tribalism • Do we have any alternative option for eclecticism? COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  10. 10. Should we leave or stay at the indigenous community-based school? For • We can protect them well (school faculty members) • Education advancement rate (students) • Fear to situate the strange/unfamiliar surrounding (students) Against • I want to see outside world . . . (tribal schooled students) • Individual educational pursuit . . . (high achievement students) COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  11. 11. • Community members do not know to engage in school administrative operation. • School members do not know how to evaluate the effectiveness of community members’ voices in decision-making. • The use of indigenous language in school administration is inefficient. • Both can hold the traditional activities together. 3. Community and school become mutually exclusive in the structure of the mainstream(dominant) values. COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  12. 12. Signs of high awareness • Community members have sysmatically prepared the cultural materials. • Some non/indigenous teachers are trying to integrating indigenous knowledge into their instruction. Factors of low agency • Lack of powerful legal support and multiple resources • National standardized test • Challenges for tribal language use in a formal education/pedagogy, e.g., time-consuming in bilingual translation, and rare compatible terminologies can be used interchangeably between Chinese languages and dialects 4. High consciousness of indigenous self- determination vs. Low agency of decolonizing practice COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  13. 13. Conclusion • The subjectivity of community is weak in various school engagement. • The framework of mainstream education still affects the indigenous community-based school system. • Both school and community did not prepare well to practice indigenous community-based education. COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  14. 14. • School should allow community’s voices in a democratic way to communicate, negotiate, and collaborate with each other. • When a school becomes organic to its local indigenous community, its community would be possible to integrate its own values into the school’s organization, management, pedagogy, curriculum, and modes of evaluation. • Emancipatory leadership should be constructed dialectically between professionalism and tribalism. • School and community should conduct a complete longitudinal study or archives to follow up the development of their graduated students. Implications COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  15. 15. Critical Reflections for Insiders, Outsiders, and In-Betweens 1. Who is the real subject in the indigenous community-based education? 2. Who has changed and unchanged? 3. What role should I play in this study? 4. To cultivate more indigenous transformative intellectuals becomes an indispensable pathway for indigenous community-based education. COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG
  16. 16. Thank you for your attention! COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY CHE-WEI LEE AND KUAN-TING TANG

×