Emotional: CaringAppraisal: feedback & Evaluation InfoInformational: Needed Info and AdviceInstrumental: Examples= Time, $$Students with Low Socio-Economic Status who have Support from Parents, Teachers, & Friends have
Example: Researching mathematicians from a wide range of countries and cultures.Has raised academic achievement by connecting schools to their Latino, Native, or African American Communities (Williams)Access in Rural Schools: Satellite Conferences, Online Gifted Program, Multiple Schools working together to provide a gifted programReflecting On Their Cultural Identity & Classroom PracticesEmpathy for those who are different from youRecognize the possibilities of what can be in others
Diverisity in Education
"Diversity is not simply a matter of the changingdemographics in students or faculty. Attending to ithas also altered the very knowledge base uponwhich the intellectual integrity of the academyrests. Institutions across the country are takingadvantage of the explosion of new scholarshipabout the diversity of cultural traditions andhistories in America and around the world. Diversityhas also provided additional interpretive lensesthrough which to analyze ideas and society. . ." -from Diversity Web (www.diversityweb.org)
Poverty & Academic Needs of Students Factors of the Achievement Gap English Language Learners Gender Inequalities Inclusion
Poverty Academic Needs The extent to which an School Attendance individual does without resources Social Support Financial Emotional Parental Involvement Mental Spiritual School Support Physical Relevant Curriculum Support Systems (Network of Relationships) Relationships/Role Models Gifted Programs Knowledge of Hidden Rules Among Social Classes Culturally Sensitive Teachers (Payne)
Communication Discipline Poverty Child, Adult, Forgiveness & Penance & Parent Voices Not about Change Adult Usually absent in poverty Used for Negotiation Effective Discipline Structure When a Student is Choice Disciplined at School Child Voice Teach That There are Powerless Parent Voice Two Sets of Behaviors Disrespectful to Educator School Street (Payne) (Payne)
Social Support Effects Acts as a Protector/ Students with Support Buffer to Help Stabilize from Students Parents, Teachers, & Friends have: Sources Higher GPA Better Standardized Test Parents Scores Teachers Provide Emotional, Appraisal, Inf Parental Involvement ormational, & Better School Instrumental Support Attendance Classmates More completed Close Friends assignments Schools (Malecki & Demaray)
Relevant Curriculum Culturally Sensitive Teachers Social Class & Culture Reflect On Their Own Cultural Identity & Classroom Practices Connects Schools to (Mitchell, Boutte & Hill) their Communities Raises Academic Achievement Help Students Learn about Multiple Worldviews (Williams) (Boutte & Hill) Gifted Programs Make Classroom Culturally Diverse Interactions & Discussions Curriculum Culturally Sensitive Groups of Students Chinese: Do not make mistakes Access in Rural Schools in public Give students time to prepare (Ford , Cross & Burney) for a class discussion (Fu)
Factors of the Achievement Gap What Does the Future Hold? Matt Hoffman
The Achievement Gap Refers to the observed disparity between students academic performance, especially groups defined by gender, race and social class. Factors Concerning the Achievement Gap School Districts Large/Small Districts Lack of support Urban/Rural Funding Staff Accountability Student Population Support from home English Language Learners Learning Disabilities (NCTAF)
Who Is Accountable? The Disparity Between Minority and Majority Students: The Educators Race Do school systems “water down” their material for minority students? The School District Are English Language Learners and English as a Second Language students adequately instructed? The State (Fu) Castaneda v. Pickard 1. The program must be based on an The Student educational theory recognized as sound by experts in the field or that is considered by The Nation experts as a legitimate experimental strategy 2. The program must be implemented with adequate resources and personnel. 3. The district must evaluate the program to determine whether it is achieving results and make appropriate adjustments, where needed, to ensure that language barriers are actually being overcome. (McBride) Gender Do educators differ in their instruction between Girls and boys? Boys are statistically called upon more
Districts need to support their star teachers Union/District collaboration The Union and the school district cooperated with each other to create a new series of schools known as “Empowerment Schools” Clark County (Las Vegas) Empowerment Schools Bonuses for “Job Well Done” Based upon school performance Increase of schools meeting Adequate Yearly Progress Increase of 12th grade graduation rate Decrease in dropout rate 9th through 12th grade Higher proficiency scores (NCTAF) Teachers need to recognize past tendencies and be willing to adapt The importance of recognizing cultural differences and priorities All children can learn
Students whose first language is not English, and canencompass both students who are just beginning tolearn English and those who have already developedconsiderable proficiency.The term is used to describe a student whose firstlanguage is not English and has difficulties inspeaking, reading, writing, or understanding theEnglish language. These difficulties may be sufficientto deny the student the ability to meet the State’sproficient level of achievement on Stateassessments, the ability to successfully achieve inclassrooms where the language of instruction isEnglish, or the opportunity to participate fully insociety.
USA 1980 – 4.7% of all students were ELL 2000 – 7.4% of all students were ELL 2030 – 40% of all school age children may be ELL. (Berliner and Biddle 1995) Concentration of ELLs in a handful of states Hispanic – largest group Asian – second largest group 70% of ELLs are in only 10% of elementary schools and most are in urban areas
English “Sink or Swim” approach – teach children in English (Sheltered English or even as students learn the Immersion Education) language – Some students have pull out ESL English and Native Language Use both languages and transition over time to (Transitional Bilingual English. Develops literacy in Education) primary language as foundation for English reading. English and Native Language Use both languages – all (Two-Way Bilingual students are learning 2 Education Immersion) languages
Dropout Rates School resources Social and academic language NCLB and Achievement Tests – ELLs score lower on standardized tests Low expectations of teachers. They may receive less access to standard grade-level curriculum Labeling of students – Language learning disability versus a child is manifesting the normal process of acquiring a second language. Interference/Codeswitching/Language Students put on an IEP because they do not understand the language. Lack of qualified bilingual education programs and teachers High percent of ELLs in urban schools that generally have more new teachers and also more teachers uncertified than those at other schools. (13)
Get to know your Students Create a Community of Learners Make tasks relevant, meaningful and engaging. Weave students’ first language and culture into instructional conversations and curriculum. Believe that all students can learn and have a high expectations Create context for students with manipulatives, pictures and video. Teach academic strategies, socio-cultural expectations, and academic norms, as these are not readily acquired otherwise. Use parent volunteers, especially parents of English language learners. Enrich print environment of your classroom – books and magazines in student’s first language. In younger grades put color and number words in different languages. Writing, class instruction/tests, and reading Take professional development classes.
Children notice differences between the sexes, races, and ethnicities by age 2 or 3 Stereotypes are internalized and acted upon about age 4 Gender differences are the most prevalent bias in children Societies rules, customs, and values have shaped the differences in male and female children › Each sex is taught to behave in different ways › Children learn their gender stereotypes based on the society they live in › Females are raised to be submissive and dependent
Teachers may push their own beliefs about gender roles onto students › See boys as needing competition, discipline, structure and support › See girls as lacking confidence and losing out on teacher attention Different expectations and behavior standards exist for boys and girls › Girls are expected to do better at Language Arts › Boys are expected to be better at mathematics and sciences Teachers unknowingly restrict areas of study and goals of their students reducing their potential Parents reinforce gender biases by expecting boys to perform better in mathematics and sciences while discouraging girls from pursuing excellence in these subjects Teachers treat behavioral offenses by boys more strict than similar offenses by girls
Boys Girls Stereotyped as lazy, badly Stereotypes as talkative behaved and immature Raise hands and wait on Shout out answers to questions teacher to call on them to in classroom answer questions Are encouraged to pursue Are discouraged from careers in areas requiring pursuing careers in areas mathematics and science requiring mathematics and Given leadership roles in science mixed sex groups Receive less extensive More severely punished for feedback on assignments misbehavior Relegated to submissive role in Prefer careers as doctors and group projects scientists Career ambitions often include teaching
Schools and school districts should increase the percentage of girls who take the trio of core science courses: physics, biology, and chemistry. Algebra I and geometry should be mandatory for all students. Teachers and counselors should encourage girls to take math and science classes at the challenging AP or honors level. Educators need to develop programs at the classroom, school district, or state level to increase girls enrollment in computer science courses. Equity must be viewed as essential to teacher education and the achievement of academic excellence. Producers and purchasers of educational materials should establish processes and criteria by which to screen curricula and instructional materials for bias in images, text, or logic. Colleges and universities should continue to use a broad range of material to assess students. Testing organizations should consider adding a writing section to the SAT exam to more accurately reflect students academic skills. The relationship between girls and boys test scores and grades should be further researched. Much more research is needed on gender equity and technology.
Diversity Reflective Practice › placement regardless of › Educators reflect and modify learning ability, race, linguistic their attitudes, teaching and ability, economic status, cultural classroom management background, etc. practices and curricula to › acknowledge, affirm and accommodate individual needs. celebrate the value of all › Educators are learners flexible, responsive and aware › promote acceptance, equity of student’s needs and collaboration in response to › Think critically and examine individual needs. their practices for self improvement and to ensure that all student’s needs are met Collaboration Individual Needs › It is a group effort between › Sensitivity to and acceptance of educators, other individual needs and differences professionals, students, families and community agencies (Salend)
FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS › Provides a diverse stimulating environment with more engaged instructional time and a greater exposure to academic activities › Enables development of friendships with same age peers › Enhances self-respect & self-esteem by sharing same activities as non-disabled peers › Provides peer models who can facilitate communication, social and adaptive behaviors (Berg)
› Allows students to be more accepting of differences among individuals› Reduces fear and uneasiness of disabled classmates› Opportunity to experience diversity in a small scale› Develop leadership skills, increased ability to help and teach others, mentoring, tutoring, self- empowerment and improve self-esteem (Berg)
› Creates an awareness and appreciation of individual differences in all students› Allows teachers to learn new teaching techniques that can help all their students› Allows greater creativity with teaching methods, avoids monotony› Allows them to develop team work/ collaboration skills› Increases awareness of the importance of direct individual instruction (Berg)
› Focus on socialization part of their education may take precedence over the academic part› Some students with disabilities may need the special education classroom to get the maximum it benefit of their education: smaller class size, less distractions, more one-on- one instruction› May lower self-esteem and self-concept if they become frustrated and are ridiculed or isolated› Many feel that students with disabilities will become depressed upon realizing what they cannot do compared with their peers (Berg)
› General education students may feel that their classroom is more disruptive due to the distractions from additional teachers, aides, paraprofessionals, and from special education students leaving the classroom frequently and making involuntary vocalizations, etc.› Fear that their education is being jeopardized› May resent special education students for all the attention children with disabilities get (Berg)
› May have a constant thought of fear that they are going to fail at successfully and appropriately carrying out inclusion› May not have the proper training to teach and deal with students with disabilities› Discomfort with giving up control of their classroom when they will have to co-teach and collaborate› May not have proper support, and an appropriate amount of planning and collaboration time (Berg)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N105TGmMkLk&feature=relatedCONNECTS with students whohave disabilities as individualswho are contributors first.COMMUNICATES enthusiasm andact comfortably around studentswith disabilities.CHALLENGE students withdisabilities to work their besttoward high standards.CREATIVELY adapts and UTILIZESappropriate strategies andmaterials to help students withdisabilities learn and succeed.COLLABORATES with others tomaximize students’ development.A teacher who has developedand/or creatively implementedspecialized skills, but alsorecognizes that this expertisemust be accompanied byappropriatebeliefs, attitudes, and behaviorsin order for the skills being utilizedto prove most beneficial.An extraordinary inclusionteacher demonstrates on aregular basis how ordinary it canbe for students with disabilities toparticipate successfully in a widerange of activities with their (Henderson)peers.