Simply succulent 2009

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This lecture was given in June, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

This lecture was given in June, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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  • 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND
  • 2. Simply Succulent C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve June 6 & 9, 2009 © Project SOUND
  • 3. It’s easy to fall in love with cacti & succulents http://www.cactus-mall.com/pictures/pic00024.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 4. This may (or may not) be your idea of heaven on earthhttp://www.dryscapes.eu/11.html © Project SOUND
  • 5. But most of us have at least one place in our yards where cacti/succulents might be the best solutionhttp://hotels.about.com/od/newmexico/ig/Sierra-Grande-Lodge/Cactus-Garden.htm © Project SOUND http://image61.webshots.com/161/0/69/53/520706953KNboGn_fs.jpg
  • 6. Succulents complement contemporary architecture...http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0006/73491/Succulent-Garden.jpg http://home-and-garden.webshots.com/photo/1476610400079711680tHyVBV © Project SOUND
  • 7. …and add interesting color & texture to many types of gardens http://succulentplants.net/garden.htm © Project SOUND
  • 8. Cacti & succulents can be valuable additions to water-wise gardenshttp://paradiseenvironments.com/OutdoorLiving/outdoor_living.htm © Project SOUND
  • 9. And can be easy to grow, with minimal effort http://www.ci.poway.ca.us/Modules/ShowImage.aspx?imageid=1146 © Project SOUND
  • 10. We already know that California (and Baja California) plants are special…  Our Mediterranean climate requires that plants adapt to summer drought.  One common adaptations is succulence. Modified tissues store large amounts of water, making the plant part appear fleshy, succulent, or swollen.  Species in various plant families and genera have independently evolved succulence as a mechanism for conserving water and survival in arid environments.  There are an estimated 10,000 succulent plant species throughout the world © Project SOUND
  • 11. Several types of succulence:  Leaf Succulents: Leaves are almost entirely composed of water storage cells covered by a thin layer of green photosynthetic tissue. Examples: Stonecrop family - Aloe, Dudleya, Sedum, non-native Iceplants  Stem Succulents: Fleshy stems contain water storage cells overlaid by photosynthetic tissue. Leaves are almost or entirely absent, reducing surface area to prevent evaporative loss of water. Examples: most cacti, Euphorbias; Giant Coreopsis.  Root Succulents: Swollen fleshy roots store water underground away from the heat of the sun and hungry animals. Stems and leaves are often deciduous and shed during prolonged dry seasons. Examples: Manroot (Marah), Abronia, . Combinations of the above types may occur where more than one organ is used to store water. Examples: Agave, Heliotropium curassavicum (Seaside Heliotrope) © Project SOUND
  • 12. Most, but not all, succulent plants are from hot dry climates Salty Susan - Jaumea carnosa Pickleweed - Salicornia virginica  Succulence developed for the same reason in saltmarsh plants – to allow the plant to conserve waterhttp://www.sanelijo.org/saltmarsh.html © Project SOUND
  • 13. What is a cactus (and how is it different from other succulents)?  Cacti are a distinct plant family (Cactaceae).  They are plants of hot environments  They are perennial succulent plants with thick stems usually covered with spines. Spines are not all over the surface but are borne in felty cushions called areoles.  Sometimes mistakenly called leaves, the joints of prickly pears are flattened stems. True leaves, if not completely absent, usually are very small and inconspicuous and soon fall away.  The more than 1500 different species of cacti are native to the Western Hemisphere, from Canada to Patagonia. © Project SOUND
  • 14. Coastal S. CA has a unique plant community : Southern Cactus Scrub  Dominated by cacti and coastal sage scrub species.  Must be 20% or more cover of coastal prickly- pear (Opuntia littoralis) and/or Oracle cactus (Opuntia oricola).  In coastal areas, coastal cholla (Cylindropuntia/ Opuntia prolifera) may be a common  Other common species CA Encelia, California sagebrush, buckwheat, black sage (Salviahttp://www.flickr.com/photos/liamkestrel/3383069515/You can use the Cactus mellifera), and Mexican elderberry (Sambucus mexicana).Scrub community asinspiration for your  The understory is frequently composed ofgarden foothill needlegrass, bent grass (Agrostis spp.), and a variety of herbaceous forb species.  Occurs primarily on south-facing slopes on low foothills away from the immediate coast. © Project SOUND
  • 15. The genus Optuntia Family: Cactaceae Opuntia genus has two branches  Prickly Pears "Platyopuntia" (flat joints)  Chollas "Cylindropuntia" (rounded joints) About three dozen species throughout the United States  Native to every state except Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire Natural hybridization common Lifespan <20 years (most short-lived of all cacti) Main food producing cacti - both pads and fruit. © Project SOUND
  • 16. Coastal Prickly-pear - Opuntia littoralis© 2002 Lynn Watson © Project SOUND
  • 17. Chaparral Pricklypear – Opuntia oricolahttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Opuntia_oricola http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Opuntia_oricola.htm © Project SOUND
  • 18. Yum – Pricklypears can be used in so many ways!  I’ll send out ahttp://farm3.static.flickr.com/2391/2383907636_378192341a.jpg?v=0 recipe sheet http://www.arizonagift.com/convention_mini_gifts.htm http://www.sacatomato.com/2008/06/cooking_with_diana_kennedy.html © Project SOUND
  • 19. Cylindropuntiahttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opuntia4_filtered.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 20. Coastal Cholla – Cylindropuntia/Optuntia prolifera© 2004 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  • 21. Coastal Cholla – Cylindropuntia/Optuntia prolifera  Pacific coast from southern California (USA) to central Baja California (Mexico)  Ocean bluffs, inland coastal sage flats, arid slopes below 600 near the coast, coastal sage scrubhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?2702,2726,2749  It’s name (prolifera) describes how it grows – with many offshoots © Project SOUND
  • 22. Coastal cacti depend on summer fogsGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  • 23. But they really are quite drought tolerant http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Opuntia_prolifera.htm © Project SOUND
  • 24. Coastal Cholla is a medium-sized cactus  Size:  4-8 ft tall  to 8 ft wide  Growth form:  Tree-like or shrubby cactus  Extensive branching; branches are cylindrical  Branches blue-green when young; covered with darker bark when older  Foliage:  None that is permanent  Spines and glochids typical of Opuntia-type cacti© 2004 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  • 25. Flowers are fantastic  Blooms:  Spring-summer  Usually Apr-June or July  Flowers open over several weeks  Flowers:  Small (for cactus) – 1-2 inches  Magenta to dark (burgandy) red  Very bright & showy  Seeds:  Often sterile – we’ll learn why in a second  Vegetative reproduction:  Most common means of http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/coastcholla.html reproduction; segments breakhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Opuntia_prolifera.htm off easily © Project SOUND
  • 26. Cactus flowers: unique and showy  Showy, colorful petals – attract insect pollinators;  many different insects visit the flowers  bees are most common pollinators  Sweet-scented (many)  Male (stamen) organs can move toward the center of the flowers when touched (thigmotropic).  Happens very quickly on a hot day  Explanation:  May force pollen onto the bodies of pollinators (bees) to assist in cross pollination  ? Role in getting flowers pollinated quickly so excess energy not spent in reproduction?  ? keeps non-pollinators from ‘stealing’ the pollen?http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/chollac2.htm © Project SOUND
  • 27. Opuntia fruits are often fleshy, brightly colored  Adapted for hot, dry conditions  Keep seed/embryo moist & protected during seed development  Attract birds/animals once seed is ready to spread  Develop sweet flesh  Color becomes more dark- red/purple once seeds are fully developed  This cholla has sterile seeds  Sterile hybrid – probably between several species now found only in Mexico (C. alcahes X C. cholla )  Note: fruits are green – not http://ucbglcs.blogspot.com/ red – and not particularly good to eat © Project SOUNDhttp://www.sanpedrorivervalley.org/old_road_byway.htm
  • 28. Growth requirements for  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils;local Opuntia-type Cacti sandy or gravelly/rocky the best  pH: any local, including alkali  Light:  Full sun in most gardens  Some afternoon shade fine in very hot gardens  Water:  Winter: winter rains usually adequate  Summer: likes to be fairly dry (Zones 1 to 1-2; Zone 2 in pots)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilshttp://www.cactiguide.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=6342  Other: use a rock mulch, if any © Project SOUND
  • 29. Garden uses for local Opuntia-type cacti  Good choice for coastal habitat gardens  Habitat for coastal cactus wren (rare)  Insects and hummingbirds drawn to flowers  Birds and mammals eat the fruits  Some mammals/lizards actually livehttp://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/dendrology/Syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=792 in/near to cacti for protection  For their food value  In a cactus/desert style garden  In large planters/containers  As accent plants in dry areas of the garden – placement is key  Excellent choice for hillsides  As a barrier or hedge plant © Project SOUNDhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Opuntia_prolifera.htm
  • 30. Some people use Opuntia-type cacti for hedgeshttp://www.backtonatives.org/nativelandscapes.htmAnd they work prettywell http://content.ci.pomona.ca.us/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/Frasher&CISOPTR=6863&CISOBOX=1&REC=20 © Project SOUND
  • 31. You may have heard of ‘Jumping Chollas’  Don’t not really jump.  The barbed spines allow them to seize the passer-by and "disarticulate readily" from the mother plant.  This allows the plant http://www.graci.com/photoday.htm to spread widely by vegetative propagation  Bottom line: consider garden placement of cacti carefully © Project SOUNDhttp://home-and-garden.webshots.com/photo/1053071767036424719YtiPgK
  • 32. Golden-spined Cereus – Bergerocactus emoryi© 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  • 33. Golden-spined Cereus – Bergerocactus emoryi  San Clemente Island, Santa Catalina Island, Coastal Orange Co., southern San Diego Co.  AKA ‘Goldensnake cactus’http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?2702,2703,2704 © Project SOUND
  • 34. In nature: Catalina Island© 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  • 35. Characteristics of Golden-spined Cereus  Size:  1-2 ft tall  3-5+ ft wide; spreading  Growth form:  Evergreen cactus  Many upright, cylindrical stems  Foliage:  No leaves  Fragile, glass-like spines - many © Project SOUND© 2007 John M. Taylor
  • 36. Flowers are showy  Blooms:  Late spring – typical for coastal cacti  Usually Apr-Jul. in our area  Flowers:  Lovely lemon yellow  ~ 2” wide  Long bloom period – open over a period of time  Showy indeed!  Fruits: red, globular, sweet; loved by birds, animals  Vegetative reproduction: yes© 2005 Dieter Wilken © 2007 John M. Taylor © Project SOUND
  • 37. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any local; well- drained is better  pH: any local  Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: likes good winter rains; supplement if needed  Summer: like to be dry in summer: Zone 1-2 probably optimal  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic mulch © Project SOUND
  • 38. Garden uses for smaller native cacti  Attractive as pot plants  In a cactus/succulent garden  In a local coastal garden with it’s natural associates: Coyote Bush, Sticky Monkeyflower,© 2007 Halleh Paymard Lemonadeberry, local native grasses and annual wildflowers  Note: plant is rare in CA, still common in Baja  Fire-retardant planthttp://cactiguide.com/Bergerocactus.htm © Project SOUND
  • 39. Propagating cacti from cuttings – easy (at least in theory)  Carefully remove a pad or offset (cut or pull off)  Let the wound callus over (a week to up to a month)  Place pad (wounded side down) in potting mix (I use commercial mix with added perlite or sand)  Place in bright shade  Water when soil begins to dry out  Wait – may take a while © Project SOUND
  • 40. Be careful of all the spiny structures when working with cacti  The glochids get into your skin and are very irritating. If you cannot get them out, you end up with something that resembles an infected mosquito bite.  Preferred method of removal: apply sticky tape to them and lift them out. Glochids are generally too fine to be grasped with tweezers. © Project SOUND
  • 41. Purchasing native cacti & succulents  Many native species are rare or endangered  Never collect in nature without a permit  Buy only fromhttp://calplants.biz/yuccawhipplei.html reputable dealers © Project SOUND
  • 42. Local cacti, Yucca & Agaves are great for those out-of-the way slopes © 2006 Vince Scheidt © 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  • 43. *Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei © 2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  • 44. Yuccas – the genus Yucca  There are at least 50 species of Yucca within the Agavaceae - numerous subspecies, varieties, forms, cultivars and hybrids.  Occur exclusively in the Americas, distributed over a wide area from Canada into Central America and the Carribean  There are species adapted to dry deserts, grasslands and tropical rainforests.  All but one species (Y. whipplei) can flower many times (polycarpic) and produce side-shoots to compensate for loss of the apical growing point by its conversion into a flower bud.http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Yucca_whipplei.htm © Project SOUND
  • 45. Yuccas are pollinated by special ‘Yucca Moths’  Self pollination of Yucca flowers of many species is impossible, although a few are self-fertile.  Most Yuccas are pollinated exclusively by small Yucca moths with the plant and moth totally dependent on each other.  Recent research has shown that there are at least 16 different Yucca Moths (Tegeticula species) - all are specialized in pollinating their "own" Yucca species.http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/chaparralyucca.html We’ll be talking about Yucca another time G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  • 46. The Agaves – genus Agave  Closely related to the Yuccas – both in Agavaceae Family  Agaves are not cacti (or even closely related to cacti) - are closely related to the lily and amaryllis families  Primarily from Mexico, but also occur in the southern and western United States and central and tropical South America.  Have a large rosette of thick fleshy leaves, each ending generally in a sharp point and with a spiny margin;  The stout stem (caudex) is usually short - the leaves appear to arise from the root.http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Agavaceae/Agave_shawii.html © Project SOUND
  • 47. The Agaves – genus Agave  Popular ornamental plants.  Each rosette grows slowly to flower only once. During flowering a tall stem or "mast" grows from the center of the leaf rosette and bears a large number of shortly tubular flowers.  After development of fruit the original plant dies, but suckers are frequently produced from the base of the stem which become new plants.  Agave species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) specieshttp://www.oceanoasis.org/fieldguide/agav-sha.html © Project SOUND
  • 48. *Coastal Agave – Agave shawii© 2005 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  • 49. *Coastal Agave – Agave shawii  Pacific coast from S. San Diego Co. to Baja  Grows immediate to the coast, often in sandy soils  coastal bluffs and slopes  coastal sage scrub community  maritime succulent scrub community  Grows with many of our local native plants, including Golden-http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8349,8350,8352 spine Cereus  Habitat is often quite low & open © Project SOUND
  • 50. Shaw’s Agave in maritime shrub community © 2005 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  • 51. Plant associates include many from our coastal shrub & prairie communities © 2005 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUNDhttp://www.geographylists.com/sandiegoplants.html
  • 52. Shaw’s Agave – stunning in the right place  Size:  2-3 ft tall (rosette); flowering stalk much taller (15-40 ft. tall)  3-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Clumping evergreen succulent  Spreads by suckering from the caudex (produces ‘pups’)  Very showy & unusualhttp://www.pitzer.edu/offices/arboretum/scott_lawn/desert.html  Foliage:  Leaf color: varies from dark blue-green to yellow-green  Stout sharp tip-spine as well as curved leaf margin spines – place away from walkways, etc. © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  • 53. http://www.delange.org/AgaveCoastal/AgaveCoastal.htm © Project SOUND
  • 54. What a show when Agaves bloom!!  Blooms:  Variable; almost any time of year in western L.A. Co.  Takes about 15 years to flower  Flowers:  On stout tall flowering stalk  Showy, bright yellow flowers  Attract a number of insects, including moths  Seeds:  Flat, black seeds in thick pod  Can grow agaves from seed – may have many infertile seeds  Vegetative reproduction: usually many ‘pups’ to replace the plant that just flowered. © Project SOUND
  • 55. Growing Agaves  Soils:  Texture: any as long as- well-drained soil drainage is good; love sandy, rocky soils  pH: any local except low pH (<6)  Light:  Coastal – full sun  Hot, inland gardens – light (afternoon) shade  Water:  Winter: needs good drainage; plant on slopes, or other well- drained situations  Summer: Like to be fairly dry (Zone 1-2; water several times per summer); no overhead water  Fertilizer: none; like poor soils © Project SOUND
  • 56. Agaves make great accent plants  In very large pots/planters – remember, these are large plants  Look wonderful in hillsides/slopes http://www.delange.org/AgaveCoastal/AgaveCoastal.htm  Looks equally at home with other cacti & succulents – or with coastal prairie/shrubland plants  Good player in a rock garden  Excellent accent against gray-green foliage © Project SOUNDhttp://www.sbbg.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=livingcollections.plantDetail&plant_id=28
  • 57. Agave & Yucca as food and fiber http://www.howka.com/scrapbook/ciba_2005/ http://www.cowboyshowcase.com/glossary%20personalgear.htmhttp://media.photobucket.com/image/Tequila/ccerna/tequila.jpg  Flowers, leaves & stem are edible http://www.so-utah.com/feature/anasazi/homepage.htmlhttp://www.nps.gov/zion/historyculture/yucca-sandal.htm © Project SOUND
  • 58. Agave attenuata: a Mexican species available in the U.S. http://www.geographylists.com/sandiegoplants.html http://www.cactusjungle.com/blog/2008/09/30/berkeley-succulent-garden-3/ © Project SOUND
  • 59. Agave ‘Blue Flame’  Combines the features of its parent species: A. shawii X A. attenuatahttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=2871 http://www.huntington.org/BotanicalDiv/ISI2005/isi/2005-06.html © Project SOUND
  • 60. Cacti & succulents from Baja & other parts of Mexico, SW U.S. http://museum.utep.edu/chih/gardens/succulen/succulen.htmLots of wonderful species – but are they right for my yard? © Project SOUND
  • 61. Using species from CA & SW desert regions  Contrary to popular belief, western L.A. county is not ‘a desert’  Challenges for using desert cacti/succulents:  Soil must be well-drained  Wet years and fog may kill the plants – fungal diseases  Some species (from Sonoran Desert – in south) need a ‘summer monsoon’ period – you’ll have to give them it  Advice:  Learn as much as you can about the requirements/ habitat of a species before you purchase it  Be really careful inhttp://www.nps.gov/cagr/forkids/the-sonoran-desert.htm planning your©Water Zones Project SOUNDhttp://gorp.away.com/gorp/resource/us_nm/top-national-monuments-7.html
  • 62. The same advice goes for succulents from other places  Know as much as you can about their requirements  Be sure that you group compatible plants – just because they are succulent doesn’t meanhttp://www.gardeninggonewild.com/?p=3666 they have the same requirements http://sdccs-oasis.blogspot.com/2008/02/bring-your-succulent-cuttings-your-old.html © Project SOUND
  • 63. Our local climate allows us to grow special succulents– the Dudleyas Dudleyas thrive in our mild, coastal-influenced Mediterranean climate © Project SOUND
  • 64. The Stonecrop Family: Crassulaceae  ~ 1500 species  Most genera exhibit some leaf succulence  Many species are used widely as garden and house plants Examples:  The genus Crassula includes the well-known Jadehttp://www.southampton.bcss.org.uk/images/image145.jpg Plants and other small sub-shrubs, choice minatures and mat-forming plants. Echeverias  Cotyledon includes interesting shrubby species with succulent stems and leaves. Some species have showy tubular yellow, orange or red flowers.  Echeverias are often used in rock gardens and indoor plants.  Kalanchoe includes plants with showy flowers.  Sedums are well known for hardy mat-forming Stonecrops which provides useful flower color in the garden in late summer and early autumn. Kalanchoe © Project SOUND
  • 65. The Live-forevers: genus Dudleya  Named for William Russel Dudley (1849- 1911), first professor of botany and head of the Botany Department at Stanford University  ~ 40 species; native to the arid western United States (in particular, Southwest/ Northern California and Oregon), Baja California.  Very similar in appearance to other Stonecrops (sempervivum; sedum;http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_Rus echeveria).sell_Dudley_(1849-1911).jpg  Often grow in stone crevasses or sand dunes with little or no organic soil.  Long-lived (to 100+ years for some species) hence the common name © Project SOUND
  • 66. Many Dudleyas have small or threatened distribution: some are very rare Dudleya greenii – a Channel Islands endemic Like many California native plants, dudleyas are now considered rare, threatened or endangered, depending on the species. All are protected by law, making it illegal to remove any plants from their natural habitat. More are coming into cultivation – but many still are not available © Project SOUND
  • 67. Taxonomic confusion: is that an Echeveria or a Dudleya? http://www.collectorscorner.com.au/Cacti/Echeveri a%20main.htm Echeveria Dudleya Quite similar-looking; but with a few important differences Several local species were formerly included in Echeveria:  Canyon Live-forever – Dudleya cymosa  Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta  Ladyfinger Dudleya – Dudleya edulis © Project SOUND
  • 68. Dudleya flowers are slightly different Dudleya flowers arise from somewhere near the bottom of the rosettes normally (rarely from the rosette center as most Echeveria flowers do). Dudleyas & Echeverias do not form hybrids between the 2 genera; Dudleyas only interbreed with other Dudleyas © Project SOUND
  • 69. But the real difference – and the most important for gardeners – relates to their history  Dudleyas  Native to the ‘Pacific Plate’  Adapted to rainy winters & hot, dry summers  Winter-growing; summer dormant  Can kill them with too much summer water  Echeverias  Native to the ‘North American Plate’  Adapted to rainy summers & dry winters  Summer growing; winter dormant  Can kill them with too much winter water The two genera have been separated for long enough that each is very well adapted to its own environment © Project SOUND
  • 70. So…it’s recommended to NOT combine both in the same part of the garden  Summer watering of Dudleyas should be very occasional: they are very summer ‘water-wise’ compared to Echeverias  Most Dudleyas & Echeverias do best in well-drained soils; gravelly/sandyDudleya virens ssp hassei  The roots of some Dudleya species do not absorb moisture well in the high heat; water simply rots the roots (susceptible to root rot fungi).  Treat as Zone 1-2 (water only several times a summer & not at summer’s end)  Dudleyas in very well-drained soils (sandy) or in pots should be treated ashttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.as Zone 2 © Project SOUNDp?plant_id=538
  • 71.  Dudleyas can also rot from the crown or leaves, particularly if water is left sitting on the delicate leaves (some are more sensitive than others). Dudleya virens ssp hassei  Either avoid getting water on the leaves, or plant them at angles so the water runs off.  In nature, many species grow naturally on cliff faces and steep slopes so water cannot sit on these plants.  Excess water also attracts snails and slugs – which love Dudleyashttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=538 Bottom line: best to not combine Dudleyas with succulents that have very different water requirements (Echeverias; Sedums; etc.) SOUND © Project
  • 72. Container gardens – allow you to provide just the right conditions http://slosson.ucdavis.edu/documents/2005-200610656.pdf © Project SOUND
  • 73. Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens ssp hassei © Project SOUND
  • 74. Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens ssp insularis © Project SOUND
  • 75. Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens  Two local subspecies:  ssp. hassei – Catalina  ssp. insularis – Palos Verdes, S. Channel Islands  On steep slopes in chaparral, coastal bluff scrub, and coastal sage scrub habitats below 1000http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Dudleya+virens ft. © Project SOUND
  • 76. Characteristics of ssp. hassei  Size:  < 6 in. tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Spreading clump of succulent rosettes  Evergreen; dries in summer  Foliage:  Succulent, cylindrical leaves  Color: blue-green to more yellow-green  Flowers: pale yellow on pale pink stalk © Project SOUNDhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Dudleya_virens
  • 77. Characteristics of ssp. insularis  Size: a bit bigger  ~ 1 ft tall  1-2+ ft wide  Growth form:  Spreading clump of succulent rosettes  Evergreen; dries in summer  Foliage:  Succulent, cylindrical leaves  Color: blue-green to more yellow-green; usually more glaucus (white farina) than ssp. hassei  Flowers: pale pink-yellow on© 2003 BonTerra Consulting brighter pink stalk © Project SOUND
  • 78. Dudleya flowers are usually showy Blooms:  Generally are mid-late spring- bloomers  Usually Apr-June even July in S. Bay Flowers:  In general small; < ¾ inch  Many flowers on flowering stems held above or away from the foliage  Often yellow, orange, pink or red; may be pale or bright  Often light fragrance  Great hummingbird flowers! © Project SOUND
  • 79. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: best in light, well- for Dudleya virens drained soil, but can succeed in many gardens  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun only in coastal area  Light shade (afternoon shade) in hotter inland gardens; needs enough sun for good color, shape  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains  Summer: keep fairly dry – Zone 1-2 best  Fertilizer: likes poor soils; can lightly fertilize (1/5 strength) in winter (esp. in pots)© 2005 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  • 80. Dudleyas in the garden  Attractive pot plants  Good for succulent ground-covers (best in small areas; smallerhttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=2987 varieties (spp. hassei) work best)  Excellent choice for rock gardens, dry-stone walls, retaining walls  Bordering paths or in fronts of dry beds  On hillsides, slopes © Project SOUND
  • 81. Growing Dudleyas in containers  Dudleyas grow well in pots and make excellent outdoor specimens in Mediterranean climates.  Potting soil should be very well- draining; amend potting soils with sharp sand and pumice to insure good drainage.  Watering: treat as Zone 2; monitor carefully in hot weather  Light: afternoon shade or bright shade bestDudleya farinosa  Propagation: easiest by removing rooted offsets (pups), but can be from seed © Project SOUND
  • 82. Other considerations for growing Dudleyas  Bright light is integral to the proper growth of this genus.  Plants grown in low-light will lose their color, grow tall and spindly and will eventually die.  Most Dudleyas make poor houseplants  Most Dudleyas do best with moderate temperatures - protect from blistering afternoon heat, frosts (particularly if in pots)  Potting soil should be very well- draining; use a cactus mix or amend available soils with sharp sand and pumice to insure good drainage. © Project SOUND
  • 83. Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta ssp. pulverulenta http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_pulverulenta.htm © Project SOUND
  • 84. Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta ssp. pulverulenta  Coastal regions from San Luis Obispo south into Baja  Locally in Santa Monica Mtns., western San Gabriels  Rocky cliffs and canyons below 3000 feethttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3327,3329  Coastal sage scrub, chaparral © Project SOUND
  • 85. Striking, large plant in the Santa Monica Mtnshttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_pulverulenta.htm © Project SOUND
  • 86. Chalk Dudleya is very Echeveria-like  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide (flower stalks wider)  Growth form:  Evergreen succulent  Becomes somewhat dry in summer  Foliage:  Leaves flat, end in sharp tips  completely covered with a mealy white powder - hence "pulverulenta" or "powdery."  Stem (caudex) becomes thickened with age – more so than other specieshttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=DUPU © Project SOUNDhttp://www.anniesannuals.com/plants/plant_display.asp?prodid=1536&account=none
  • 87. Flowers are like no others: dramatic!  Blooms: spring/early summer; typical for Dudleyas  Flowers:  On long flowering stalks – plan accordinglyhttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3003/2606066487_0aaaf1ed09.jpg?v=0  Note hummingbird-plant features:  Red color;  Shape;  Flowers held away from plant to allow access  Heavy duty, sweet nectar http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/Anna%27s_Hummingbird_on_chalk_dudlea.jpghttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/dudleyc5.htm © Project SOUND
  • 88. Why Crassulaceae are called ‘Stonecrops’ http://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2006/02/sedum_spathulifolium.php © Project SOUND
  • 89. Give them what they like…  Plant them in/near rockshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/241664905/  Naturally occurring  Local boulders brought in to Dudleya pulverulenta add interest  Plant them on slopes – or plant the rosette at an angle rather than horizontal  Water only occasionally during summer – Zone 1-2 about right  No overhead water in summer http://www.flickr.com/photos/93452909@N00/191287029/ D. virens ssp. hassei © Project SOUND
  • 90. Be creative with rocks & Dudleyas  Sometimes man-made stone structures are perfect places for Dudleyas http://img4.sunset.com/i/2009/04/dream-gardens-stone-seat-l.jpg http://www.marrsandersen.com/California-plants/California- plants-Pages/Image28.html © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/241665013/in/photostream/
  • 91. Silver Dollar Plant Dudleya brittonii  Baja native; widely available in native plant nurseries  Large rosette - > 1 ft. diameterhttp://www.hotgardens.net/succulent_cactus_gallery.htm  Brilliant white color; extremely showy  Requires excellent drainage:  Sandy or rocky soil  Niches in rock walls  Clay pots with well- drained soil © Project SOUND http://image54.webshots.com/154/5/90/28/539959028nsjBLY_fs.jpg
  • 92. Dudleya ‘Palos Verdes’ – a lucky accident  Probably hybrid : D. pulverulenta X D. brittonii  Good characteristics of both parentshttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=3232 © Project SOUND
  • 93. Maintaining Dudleyas: fairly easy  No pruning is necessary, although dudleya will benefit from a beheading (stem cutting) if the plant becomes old or tall and spindly.  You may want to remove any leaves which have died. This will help to avoid rot and bugs.  Avoid touching the healthy leaves - your body oils will leave marks or remove farina. © Project SOUND
  • 94. Keeping Dudleyas healthy: summary Plant in well-drained soils, at an angle Water properly; depends on soils Promote good air circulation Don’t stress the plants: heat, cold Prevent & treat common problems:  Aphids & Mealy bugs: prevent Argentine ants from introducing mealybugs or aphids to your dudleyas - Mealybugs particularly attack roots  Snails & slugs: don’t over-water; remove  Rabbits & deer: exclude from garden area For greatest success in cultivation, choose species from your local area. © Project SOUND
  • 95. Designing with succulentshttp://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/gXhU4_V-Hhg78Lwpg9OOZQ  Accent plants whether alone or interplanted http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/iiUK9e2RW16pM8msvsmB4g © Project SOUND
  • 96. Designing with succulents: use shape &color contrasts to createinterest Dudleya pulverulenta (l) & D. edulis (r) http://www.flickr.com/photos/72544341@N00/2310150657 © Project SOUND
  • 97. Containers, plants & mulch should complement Native succulents Dudleya pulverulenta (chalk dudleya) Dudleya edulis (San Diego dudleya) and a small Sedum spathulifolium (stonecrop)http://lasmmcnps.org/images/Dudleya%20pulverulenta%202.JPG © Project SOUND
  • 98. *Ladyfinger Live-forever – Dudleya edulis© 2000 Salvatore Zimmitti © Project SOUND
  • 99. *Ladyfinger Live-forever – Dudleya edulis  Orange, Riverside and San Diego Counties south to Baja  Rocky slopes, hillsides, ledges below 4000’  coastal sage scrub, chaparral  edulis : ediblehttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3319 © Project SOUND
  • 100. In the wild, grows on slopes or rock faces http://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/Crassulaceae/FotoIndex.htm © Project SOUNDhttp://www.miriameaglemon.com/photogallery/Plants.htm
  • 101. Ladyfinger Dudleya: small and upright  Size:  to 1 ft tall  1+ ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen succulent  Spreads by forming new rosettes; may become mat- like in right setting  Foliage:  Blue-green to light green with white cast; may be pink tinged  Leaves finger-like, upright© 2009 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND
  • 102. Ladyfinger flowers are delicate & pretty  Flowers:  Pale color- range from © 2005 Jasmine J. Watts white to light yellow or light peach  Open star shape – quaint appearing  Showy red or orange anthers – really distinctivehttp://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/Crassulaceae/FotoIndex.htm © Project SOUND
  • 103. Lady-fingers stars in pots or as a ground cover  Nice in a large pot – fills the pot or plant with other species; place it where you can enjoy the flowers  Great groundcover on slopes or in small areas; will fill in around rockshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/3526601427/  You can even use it as a house plant © Project SOUND http://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/Crassulaceae/FotoIndex.htm
  • 104. Or you can increase the drainage by creating small berms © Project SOUND
  • 105. Who knows, we may be talking about rock gardens in 2010… http://slosson.ucdavis.edu/documents/2005-200610656.pdf © Project SOUND
  • 106. From lawn tosucculent garden… http://www.indahbulan.com/tantenbaum.html © Project SOUND
  • 107. Hillsides work well for cacti & succulents  Promote plant health by providing good drainage  Allow the viewer to see/appreciate each species  A fire-wise alternative  Decrease challenges of watering steep slopes © Project SOUNDhttp://www.casperlandscape.com/22_view.html
  • 108. Sometimes a small succulent is neededhttp://www.hotgardens.net/succulent_cactus_gallery.htm Ladyfinger Dudleya would work well – but there are others http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/la/look/look-really-small-succulent- garden-050680 © Project SOUND
  • 109. ‘White Sprite’ – Dudleya gnoma  Native to Santa Rosa Island – rare in nature http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Dudleya_greenei  Small and charming  Readily availablehttp://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Crassulaceae/Dudleya_gnoma.html http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=1531 © Project SOUND
  • 110. More small-sized Dudleyas from S. CA Dudleya attenuata ssp. orcuttii Dudleya cymosa ssp. pumila© 2006 Steve Matson © 2006 Steve Matson© 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  • 111. Dudleyas are so versatile : formal or informal http://kristamaxwell.com/garden/photos2.htmlhttp://www.ecosalon.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/more-showcase-2009-023-341x455.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 112. Lance-leaf Dudleya Dudleya lanceolata  Local mountain ranges including both coastal & desert ranges; also Palos Verdes peninsula  Interesting foliage color & shape  Flowers very showy – hot pinkhttp://kristamaxwell.com/garden/photos2.html http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/lanceleafdudleya.html © Project SOUND
  • 113. Have a sunny spot, clay soil? Consider aSedum  The genus Sedum is composed of around 400 species native mainly to rocky, mountainous regions of the Northern Hemisphere  Sedum belongs to the plant family Crassulaceaehttp://www.villagegreenperennialnursery.com/images/sedums.jpg  Many sedums are easygoing, adaptable, and hardy  Generally they prefer full sun or light shade and moderately fertile, well-drained soil.  Most need some summer water We have a cute little Sedum from the San© 2008 Matt Below Gabriel Mtns © Project SOUND
  • 114. *Broadleaf Stonecrop – Sedum spathulifolium© 2003 Tim Sullivan © Project SOUND
  • 115. *Broadleaf Stonecrop – Sedum spathulifolium  From the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains to British Columbia  Coastal cliffs, rocky outcroppings and north and east facing slopes, often in somewhat shaded places, to about 7500’  Spring fed seeps or rainfall moist much of our winter and spring. In summer they are bone dry.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3347,3366  Common companion plants are mosses and liverworts. © Project SOUND
  • 116. A pleasant surprise in San Gabrielshttp://socalbutterflies.com/plants_html/sedum_spath.htm © Project SOUND
  • 117. Broadleaf Stonecrop looks like a garden succulent  Size:  < 1ft tall  1-3 ft wide; spreading  Growth form:  Evergreen succulent  Spreads quickly; mat-forming  Stems are fragile; don’t walk on© 2007 Neal Kramer  Foliage:  Leaves of coastal forms may be chalky white, or even white edged with red-purple.  Mountain/inland forms have vivid-green to blue-green leaves.  Leaves are succulent, in tight rosettes; ‘spoon-shaped’ hence the name.. © Project SOUND
  • 118. Flowers are typically Stonecrop  Blooms: usually May-July in W. L.A. county.Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Flowers:  Bright yellow  Star-like, on flowering stems  Plants are self-fertile  Seeds:  Many tiny seeds  Propagate like other Crassulaceae © Project SOUND
  • 119. Vegetative propagation of succulents: easy  Divisions (all succulents):  In the spring, dig around the outside of the mother plant with a trowel and pry away a few stems with roots on them.  Cut back each stem, leaving just one or two pairs of leaves, and either pot it up or plant it directly in the ground.  Stem/leaf cuttings (not Dudleyas):  Simply cut off about 6 inches of the stem tip, strip off the lowest set of leaves, and cut the remaining upper leaves in half.  Stick each cutting in damp sand, firming it in so that it’s snug, and in a few weeks your cuttings will have formed roots.  To determine when the cuttings have enough roots to plant, tug on them lightly from timehttp://www.cactuscenter.com/Sedum%20reflexum.jpg to time. When you feel resistance, the root system has established itself.http://www.flickr.com/photos/vsny/128010334/in/set-72057594106082534/ © Project SOUND
  • 120. Sedums – so easy  Sedums thrive in sunny places, but they will also manage well enough in partial shade.  They’re among the easiest of perennials. Stick them in clay soil and they thrive, plant them in rocky places and they flourish.  If you want them to grow quickly and heartily, mulch with a little compost.  You can water them on the same schedule as your other hardy perennials or treat them with benign neglect - their succulent leaves store water, making them drought-tolerant.© 2007 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND
  • 121. Sedum spathulifolium ssp. pruinosum ‘Cape Blanco’  Outstanding white http://www.rainyside.com/features/plant_gallery/nativeplants/Sedum_spathulifoliumCapeBlanco.html foliage  Dense rosettes © Project SOUNDhttps://appserver1.kwantlen.ca/apps/plantid/plantid.nsf/lookup/4572A7F6E488932B88256F020064A798?OpenDocument
  • 122. Sedum spathulifolium ‘Purpureum’  Purple-red foliage, with white centers  Really showy!http://www.rainyside.com/features/plant_gallery/perennials/Sedum_spathulifoliumPurpureum.html © Project SOUNDhttp://www.findmeplants.co.uk/plant-sedum--spathulifolium-2064.aspx
  • 123. Sedum spathulifolium ‘Blood Red’ The name says it all – truly red tipped foliage Nice contrast with white foliage plants or pink-flowering plants © Project SOUND
  • 124. Sedum spathulifolium ‘Carnea’  Cute little guy (< 6 inches) with pink- purple tinged foliagehttp://www.forestfarm.com/product.php?id=4255 © Project SOUND
  • 125. Garden uses for Sedums: the sky’s the limit© 2004, Ben Legler http://www.succulent-plant.com/tufa.html Sedum spathulifolium Cape Blanco’, Purpureum © Project SOUND
  • 126. Where to go for design inspiration?There are many good books that are a good starting place – butthe best option is to see our native succulents growing in localgardens © Project SOUND
  • 127. Local gardens for inspiration  Local native plant gardens  Huntington Library gardens  L.A. Arboretum  South Coast Botanic Garden  Getty Centerhttp://www.hotgardens.net/succulent_cactus_gallery.htm © Project SOUND
  • 128. Let’s go see some succulents! © Project SOUND