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  1. EUPHORBIACEAE H.M.T.I.Somarathna EP-1440 Department of Natural Resources Faculty of Applied Science Sabaragamuwa University of Srilanka 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 1
  2. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 2
  3. Content • Taxonomy of the Euphorbiaceae • Introduction • Characteristic of Euphorbiaceae • Flower parts • Economic importance • Common plants of the family • References 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 3
  4. Taxonomy of the Euphorbiaceae • Kingdom: Plantae • Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants • Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons • Subclass : Rosidae • Order : Malpighiales • Family : Euphorbiaceae 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 4
  5. Introduction • There are about 283 genera and 7,300 species in this family • Distribution: The plants of this family are found throughout the world. However, they are not found in arctic regions. In our country the family is represented by several genera such as, Euphorbia, Ricinus, Phyllanthus, Croton, Pedilanthus, Manihot. In the desert regions of Africa and elsewhere the family is represented by cactus-like plants of different species of Euphorbia. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 5
  6. • Habit: The plants exhibit great variation in their habit. The plants may be herbs, shrubs or trees. – Herbs - Euphorbia hirta, E. helioscopica, E. peplus – Shrubs - Pedilanthus sp., and Jatropha sp – Tree - Havea brasiliensist (rubber tree), Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) Characteristic of Euphorbiaceae 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 6
  7. Characteristic of Euphorbiaceae • Leaves: spiral, sometimes opposite or whorled, simple or compound. • Stipules: large, represented by small glands, or absent. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 7
  8. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 8 Characteristic of Euphorbiaceae • Flowers: unisexual, usually actinomorphic, cymose inflorescences. • Fruits: capsule or drupe. Seeds often with conspicuous caruncles.
  9. FLOWER PARTS • CALYX: reduced or absent, 5 when present, valvate or imbricate. • COROLLA: reduced or absent, 5 when present, valvate or imbricate. • ANDROECIUM: stamens 5-numerous. Filaments basally united. Anthers with longitudinal slits or apical pores. Nectary disc present. Rudimentary ovary present in male flowers. • GYNOECIUM: superior, usually 3-locular, with free or basally united styles. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 9
  10. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 10 FLOWER PARTS
  11. Economic importance • Source of food: The plant Manihot esculenta at gives starchy food from its tuberous roots. • Oils: Some plants give wood oil, artist oil and other drying oils. These oils are used in paints. These oils are extracted from the seeds of several species. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 11
  12. Economic importance • Lubricant and purgative: Castor oil • Poisons: The milky juice of many plants like Manillal. Mercuriolis has deadly poisons. Some are very dangerous for stomach. Some can cause blindness of eyes. These are also used to kill some insects. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 12
  13. v Economic importance • Medicinal uses: The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica has many medicinal uses. • Rubber: Several species of Hevea, gives common rubber in their latex. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 13
  14. Economic importance • Ornamental plants: The plants of this family have attractive colours. So they are commonly used as ornamental plants. Examples: Euphorbia splenden. Euphorbia pulcherrima, • Dyes: Chrozophora gives dye. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 14
  15. Common plants of the family • Codiaeum variegatum, croton (shrub). • Leaves: terminally whorled, variegated red-pink-yellow orange- bronze with green, very variable, narrow to broad, margins wavy or twisted. • Trunk: many-stemmed. • Flowers: inconspicuous; • Fruits: green, small capsules. • Uses: ornamental 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 15
  16. Euphorbia antiquorum, daluk (small tree) • Leaves: very small, fleshy, deciduous • Trunk: cylindrical; thick, very rough, young branches whorled, green, fleshy, jointed, 3-winged,; latex milky • Flowers: greenish yellow • Fruits: 3-lobed capsule. • Uses: whole plant-medicinal. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 16
  17. Hevea brasiliensis, rubber (tree) • Leaves: compound; leaflets elliptic/ tapering base/ acute apex; petioles long. • Trunk: patchy, smooth to slightly rough, greyish white; branches obliquely angular; latex milky. • Flowers: white to cream, small • Fruits: green-brown/ 3-lobed capsule. • Uses: Wood for furniture, fuel wood, latex-rubber. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 17
  18. Manihote sculenta, manyokka (shrub) • Leaves: dark green, each lob oblanceolate with an acute apex; petiole long. • Trunk: stems slender, glabrous, erect, leaf scars prominent; silvery grey to dark brown streaked purple. • Flowers: very small; terminal panicles. • Fruits: capsule with 6 longitudinal angled wings. • Uses: roots, young leaves-edible. 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 18
  19. Phyllanthus emblica, nelli (tree) • Leaves: 2-ranked, numerous, closely placed, overlapping, linear to strap-shaped, rounded base; deciduous. • Trunk: numerous bosses of leaf-bearing branchlets that resemble pinnate • Flowers: greenish yellow; male small, numerous, axillary clusters; female few, nearly sessile. • Fruits: pale green-yellow, fleshy berry. • Uses: whole plant-medicinal; fruit-edible 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 19
  20. Key Characters for the Euphorbiaceae – Alternate simple leaves – Petioles long and variable in length – Latex – Imperfect Flowers, monoecious plants – Three-lobed schizocarps 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 20
  21. References • Mark S. Ashton, Savitri Gunatilleke, Neela de Zoysa, M.D. Dassanayake, Nimal Gunatilleke and Siril Wijesundera(1997). A Field Guide to the Common Trees and Shrubs of Sri Lanka. WHT Publication (Pvt.) Ltd for the Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, 95 Cotta Road, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka. Page; 190 – 211 • ing-plants/an-overview-on-euphorbiales- familyeuphorbiaceae-botany/19597 2/10/2017 Euphorbiaceae 21
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Editor's Notes

  1. Under the taxonomy
  2. When we move to
  3. When we consider the habit
  4. When we consider about
  5. Now we will discuss about
  6. Lets move to
  7. We can identify eu family using this key characters