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Perfect Perennials - Notes


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  • 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Perfect Perennials California Native Perennials for a Colorful Garden C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants April 7 & 11, 2012 Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDSo darned many perennials – where to begin? Our challenge today: the maturing garden We’ll be considering CA native herbaceous perennials in the next few classes © Project SOUND Time to assess what’s missing © Project SOUND 1
  • 2. 1/6/2013What is a perennial? Herbaceous  A perennial plant or simply perennial (Latin per, "through", perennials annus, "year") is a plant that lives for more than two years.  Live more than 1 year The term is often used to differentiate a plant from  Have soft/succulent above- shorter lived annuals and ground foliage biennials.  Usually are medium to small  Technically, perennials include: size - < 3-4 ft  Woody plants  Have a dormant period –  Sub-shrubs often die back to the  Herbaceous perennials ground during that period  Bulbs  Ferns  Perennial grasses Wild Ginger - Asarum caudatum © Project SOUND © Project SOUND What is the difference between Herbaceous perennials usually have a herbaceous perennials & sub-shrubs? dormant period  Perennial sub-shrubs:  Drought-induced  Local S. CA herbaceous  Part-woody; woody part extends at perennials like Diplacus least partway up the stem  Plant goes dormant and  Usually don’t die back all the way – dies back in summer re-sprout from wood  Cold-induced  Often the ‘juicy parts’ are eaten  Usually plants from back in the wilds – but not in our colder climates than ours gardens; that’s why we have to cut – N. CA; S. CA mountains them back ourselves in the fall What happens when we grow  Plant goes dormant in  Some S. CA native plants are these plants in our local gardens late fall/winter difficult to categorize – continuum – and don’t have drought- or between herbaceous & woody cold-induced dormancy? © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  • 3. 1/6/2013Native herbaceous perennials in S. CA Herbaceous perennials: might enhance gardens may be a bit different, but… our maturing garden So, you go to your favorite source of inspiration … © Project SOUND © Project SOUND …and feel like you fell These clearly are not down the rabbit hole ‘New California Gardens’… pathways.html …but they are sort of pretty and interesting © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  • 4. 1/6/2013 How do we apply the inspiration from Where do herbaceous perennials fit into‘non-California’ perennial gardens to our the ‘New California Garden’ design? own gardens?  The ‘perennial bed’ has been out of fashion for a while – but that’s changing (as the new books suggest)  The classical perennial bed is much more suited to colder climates than ours native-gardens.htm  It’s difficult to build an entire bed/garden around just CA native perennials – they just aren’t ‘backbone plants’ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Native herbaceous perennials can be And that’s where the new books on perennial used in several ways in our gardens gardens can be a source of inspiration  Use them as filler plants  In a new garden – until the larger woody plants grow  In mature gardens – to fill gaps or ‘difficult’ places  Use them as ‘fitted plants’ that provide specific additions to the mature garden – the plants are carefully chosen for their attributes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  • 5. 1/6/2013What can herbaceous perennials bring to Lessons from the new perennial garden the garden? books (for the New CA Garden)  Flower color 1. Learn to ‘read the pictures’ – what is it I like about the  Specific foliage attributes – colors, feel of this garden? shapes, textures  Sun and (especially) shade tolerance 2. Try to ‘capture the spirit’ -  Habitat value: particularly food not duplicate the plants (nectar, pollen, seeds, even foliage) 3. Take the time to choose the  Attractants for beneficial insects right native plant for the job  Food & medicinal plants 4. Choose ‘value added’ native  Other: dyes, fiber, scents plants that still capture the spirit of the image you love © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDOur mission: find the perfect perennials for this shady garden ch_term=tellima Delicate bloom spikes – succulent leaves © Project SOUND that-flowers-for-eight-months-a-boo.html © Project SOUND 5
  • 6. 1/6/2013 Heucheras are only one possibility Saxifragaceae - The Saxifrage Family  ~ 1250 species in 80 genera  Found worldwide, many from northern temperate regions.  Mainly perennial herbs and shrubs, some evergreen, with only a few annuals or small trees.  Includes many common garden plants;  Hydrangea  Astilbe  Bergenia  Heuchera  Escallonia © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Fringe Cups – Tellima grandiflora * Fringe Cups – Tellima grandiflora  Central to N. CA north to AK, MT, including coastal areas  Cool, moist woods & rocky places below 5000 ft.  Redwood Forest, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Yellow Pine Forest© 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2003 Craig Smith 6
  • 7. 1/6/2013 Fringe-cups: a woodland plant Flowers are enchanting  Size:  1-2 ft tall – flowers to 3 ft  Blooms: spring - usually April- May in S. Ca  spreading 2-4 ft wide  Flowers:  Growth form:  Like Heuchera – but fancier;  Herbaceous perennial fringed petals  Mounded – like Heuchera  Start pale, age dark pink  Foliage:  Long bloom season – flowers open in succession  basal clump of toothed, shallowly-lobed, rounded,  Sweet fragrance hairy, long-stalked, dark green  Hummingbirds adore them leaves  Leaves, twigs, and seeds  Seeds: tiny – like fine pepper inside fleshy berries are all  Vegetative reproduction: poisonous if eaten, and spreads by thick underground potentially fatal to small © 2007 Matt Below rhizomes© 2004, Ben Legler: child, animal © Project SOUND © 2007 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND  Soils: Fringe-cups: perennial delight Plant Requirements  Texture: most  pH: any local, though likes  Groundcover for shady moist slightly acidic, well-drained spots – under pine or redwood trees  Light:  North-facing exposures  Light shade to quite shady  Mixed beds  Typical woodland plant  Rain garden or pond edges  Water: show/2009/view+of+a+grouping+of+Alpine+plants+in+a+garden/606/  Winter: supplement in dry spells  Summer: regular water (Zone 2-3 to 3); older plants may tolerate Zone 2  Fertilizer: likes organic soils; amendments/compost fine  Other: use organic mulch © 2008 Steve Matson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  • 8. 1/6/2013 Our mission: find the perfect perennials ‘Forest Frost’ for this shady garden  Has variegated leaves – otherwise no different from straight species Tellima_grandifloraForestFrost.html © Project SOUND © 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND Something a little taller, bolder – with Common Cowparsnip – Heracleum maximum white flowers to brighten the area Are their any choices that would also attract butterflies? George G. Hawxhurst © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  • 9. 1/6/2013 Common Cowparsnip – Heracleum maximum The Apiaceae – Carrot Family  Throughout continental U.S.  Formerly called Umbelliferae except the Gulf Coast; locally in the San Bernardino Mtns  Commonly known as carrot or parsley  In a variety of habitats including family woodlands, forest openings,  Mostly aromatic plants with hollow grasslands, and riparian areas (wet meadows, stream terraces, stems. alluvial benches, floodplains, and  Large (16th largest flowering plant stream and lake margins. family) - more than 3,700 species/ 434 genera  Includes many well known plants:  Angelica  Anise, caraway, coriander/cilantro, cumin, dill, fennel  Carrot, celery, parsley, parsnip Many make excellent habitat plants for home gardens  Hemlock, lovage, Queen Annes Lace © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences Common Parsnip is ‘back of the bed’ big Flowers light up shady areas  Size:  3-8+ ft tall  Blooms: spring/summer usually  2-4 ft wide May-July  Growth form:  Flowers:  Herbaceous perennial; winter  Small and white deciduous  Sweetly scented – many  All parts large, robust butterflies are attracted  Stems succulent, hollow  In dense to more open umbels – like a starburst –  Foliage: typical of the family  Medium green  Leaves very large, coarsely  Seeds: toothed & lobed – sort of  Flat, ribbed seeds typical like Acanthus leaves for the family  Roots: stout taproot and/or  Vegetative reproduction: ??© 2005 Robert Sivinski fibrous © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  • 10. 1/6/2013 Common Parsnip  Soils:  Texture: well-drained best – but Deadheading  What is deadheading? Likes water adaptable Perennials  Removing spent flowers/seed heads after  pH: any local except very alkali the plant stops flowering  Clipthe stalk back to the first set of  Light: healthy leaves below the flower stalk;  Part-shade best leave the clippings as mulch/food  Takes over with full sun & lots of water  Why deadhead?  To make the plant look more attractive  Water:  Winter: supplement in dry years  To prolong the bloom season/encourage a  Summer: likes moist soil second bloom season  For many native perennials, and a few  Fertilizer: adaptable; does well in shrubs, a decent deadheading may be all amended soils the pruning they need! Plants that have a woody base but produce lots of lush growth  Other: Always wear gloves when cutting, each season, such as Monkeyflowers and breaking stems – the juices of all parts Penstemon seem to respond especially well to contain a phototoxin that can act on this technique. contact with skin and exposure to Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database ultraviolet light © Project SOUND  Must I deadhead? no © Project SOUND Big habitat plant Our mission: find the perfect perennials  Large filler plant in shady areas for this shady garden  Woodland gardens  Shady slopes  Butterfly gardens  Pond/poolside, other moist areas  Medicinal uses © 2004, Ben Legler © Project SOUND © 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND 10
  • 11. 1/6/2013 * CA Lomatium – Lomatium californicum * CA Lomatium – Lomatium californicum  Central & Northern CA from ]; Ventura and Kern Cos to S. OR  Wooded or brushy slopes to 5500, chaparral and foothill woodlands,426,428 J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND © Project SOUND CA Lomatium: shrubby perennial Flowers are pretty  Size:  2-5 ft tall  Blooms: spring-summer; usually May-July  4-5 ft wide  Flowers:  Growth form:  Typical for the carrot family  Herbaceous perennial  Many, small yellow flowers  Shrubby-looking; clumped © 2007 Matt Below  In a rather open umbel  Dies back to short stem/root in drought  Flowers attract a wide range of insect pollinators,  Foliage: including butterflies  Usually blue-green  Seeds:  Looks like celery – and  Flat, winged seed – typical of smells like it too! Carrot family  Larval food – Anise  If growing from seed, rinse Swallowtail several times in water –  Roots: taproot stout, thickened takes several days© 1998 Dean Wm. Taylor © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2009 Vernon Smith 11
  • 12. 1/6/2013 Garden uses for Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained Lomatiums  pH: any local  Accent plant – dry shade  Light:  In a mixed planting with  Part-shade; morning sun or grasses, annuals dappled shade best  In dry parts of the vegetable/medicinal garden  Water:  Winter: adequate © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College  Summer: let plants dry out after flowering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: cut back almost to ground in fall (or whenever you can’t take the dead branches any more!) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2010 Jean Pawek Lomatiums:  Spring leaves, stems and roots eaten useful plants raw or cooked as greens We’ll introduce some other great habitat  Leaves used as seasoning : perennials in the next few months  Pick it before it blooms for a more even, mellow flavor, or during or after the bloom for a stronger flavor.  Shade dry it in a warm spot with good ventilation, turning the leaves over every day or two. The flavor resembles celery.  Medicinal  Root chewed for sore throat; dried root smoked or decoction of roots taken for colds – makes at least 4 compounds with antibacterial action  Used as poultice for rheumatism Angelica hendersonii Lomatium utriculatum Native CA hunters chewed plant  Ceremonial uses to conceal their scent when hunting © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  • 13. 1/6/2013 In another part of our shady backyard… * California Hemp – Hoita macrostachya © 2009 Lynn Watson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * California Hemp – Hoita macrostachya Characteristics of CA Hemp  Western CA (except Great  Size: Central Valley)  4-6 ft tall  4-6 ft wide  Locally Long Beach, LA River, Santa Monicas, San Gabriels  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Wetland-riparian between 0  Erect to sprawling and 5000 feet; in many plant  Looks like a large shrub, but communities (Yellow Pine dies back in fall Forest, Foothill Woodland, Chaparral, Valley Grassland,  Foliage: Coastal Prairie)  Medium to blue-green  Leaves compound (3-part),  ho-IT-tay – Maidu name for sparse on stems this genus  Roots: nitrogen-fixing (nodules)  AKA: Psoralea © 2012 Aaron Arthur © Project SOUND © Project SOUND© 1994 Lee Dittmann 13
  • 14. 1/6/2013 Plant Requirements  Soils: Flowers are fantastic  Texture: just about any  Blooms: spring/summer usually  pH: any local May-July in S. CA  Light:  Flowers:  Best in light- to part-shade  On a club-like stalk that  Water: elongates  Winter: fine with flooding;  Flowers pea-like supplement if needed  Color is lovely: shades of  Summer: regular water (Water purple/pink/magenta Zone 2-3); taper off after  Beautiful contrasts – flowers blooming & foliage  Fertilizer: not picky; likes poor  Seeds: soils but OK with some fertilizer,  Bean-like amendments  In hairy, pea-like pods  Other: cut off old, dead branches in late fall © 2003 Michael Charters © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Garden uses for Fall/Winter tasks: native herbaceous  As a soil stabilizer along a perennials  In general, these plants are sunny stream, in a marsh or at the ponds edge. low maintenance: properly placed they come back year  As an accent plant for shady after year parts of garden  Plant near or around trees  Many need cutting back/removing dead© 2009 Lynn Watson © 2003 Michael Charters such as alder, sycamore, box elder, and dogwood for a material in fall/winter woodland garden retreat  Be sure you know which  Practical uses: roots perennials need to be  Fibers handled with care:  Yellow dye  Eaten (raw or cooked)  Toxicities  Pulverized for salve/poultice  Rashes/allergies for sores, skin ulcers © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  • 15. 1/6/2013 Why do the perennials Now a little something low to fill in… produce such interesting chemicals?  Plants in the genus Hoita produce furanocoumarins;  These substances can cause a serious photosensitive rash in some people  Precautions  Wear gloves, long sleeves  Be careful not to get plant juices on skin – wash off immediately if you do with soap & water  Always wash skin and clothes after pruning © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Native Honeysuckles make good * Orange Honeysuckle - Lonicera ciliosa groundcovers (as well as vines) for shade © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  • 16. 1/6/2013We could use Woodmints (Stachys spp.) Now a little something low to fill in… © Project SOUND © Project SOUND* Creeping Leather-root – Hoita orbicularis * Creeping Leather-root – Hoita orbicularis  California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley) S. to Baja  Locally: very occasionally in San Gabriels – more common in San Bernardino Mtns  Many plant communities including Yellow Pine Forest, Foothill Woodland, Chaparral, Valley Grassland up to 4-5000‘ ft elevation  In moist places: meadows, stream sides, moist hillsides, pond edges, seeps© 1995 Lee Dittmann © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16
  • 17. 1/6/2013 The flowers & Creeping Leather-root: it creeps (of course)  Size: leaves give it away  < 1 ft tall  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Proud member of the Pea  Herbaceous perennial Family - Fabaceae  Winter-dormant  Prostrate habit  Foliage:  Leaves a trefoil – like a giant clover (2-4” across)  Edible (young); used to fevers  Roots: N-fixing (nodules); produce yellow dye © 2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Easy plant in the  Soils: Flowers:clover on steroids  Texture: most right place  pH: any local except > 8.0  Blooms: spring - usually May- June in western L.A. county  Light:  Part-sun to shade  Flowers:  Good under trees or N-facing  On long spikes – up to 2-3 exposures ft long; flowers open up sequentially  Water:  Each of the many flowers is  Winter: fine with extra winter up to 1” long, pea-like, and water generally a shade of light  Summer: regular water keeps it to medium purple in color. looking best: Zone 2 to 3  Very showy for a ground- cover – like the Woodmints  Fertilizer: not picky; OK with a little fertilizer, compost, organic  Seeds: in a small, hairy pea-like mulch pod  Other: cut back old (dead/dying) foliage in fall © 2011 Barry Breckling © Project SOUND © 2011 Barry Breckling © Project SOUND 17
  • 18. 1/6/2013 Creeping Leather-root works And that’s not all… well in shade gardens  As a groundcover – alone or mixed  In rain gardens, infiltration swales  In pots and planters (incl. ‘mini-bogs’)  On slopes  Shady areas in a butterfly garden  Edges of vegetable or medicinal garden © 2011 Barry Breckling © 2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Round leaved boykinia – Boykinia rotundifolia Round leaved boykinia – Boykinia rotundifolia  endemic to southern California, where it grows in shady forested areas near streams in the mountains  Locally: Santa Monica Mtns (Malibu Cyn); more common in San,7093,7096 Gabriels  Boykinia:  Dr. Samuel Boykin (1786-1848), an eminent field botanist - did the majority of his collecting in Georgia.  He was one of the many collectors who sent significant numbers of plant samples to John Torrey and © 2011 Neal Kramer Asa Gray © 2008 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 18
  • 19. 1/6/2013Boykinia: woodsy & drapey  Size: Flowers are curious  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Blooms: late spring/summer;  Growth form: usually May-July in our gardens  Herbaceous perennial  Flowers:  Upright or vine-like –  Very tiny – plant where you depends on the conditions be able to see them  Evergreen with water  White  Spreads via underground  In dense ‘sprays’ along the stems (rhizomes) long (to 5 ft), thin flowering  Foliage: stalks  Medium green ; may be hairy  Would make an interesting addition to floral Leaves rounded, irregularly © 2011 Robert A. Hamilton  arrangement toothed – spread out along stems  Seeds:  Roots: fibrous  Many, small seeds in rounded capsule© 2003 Michael Charters © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2011 Neal Kramer © 2008 Thomas Stoughton  Soils: Boykinia in the garden S. CA Woodlands  Texture: just about any; well-  As an accent plant in shady areas, drained best around ponds/pools  pH: any local  Massed as an evergreen  Light: groundcover; woodsy look that  Part-shade to fairly shady fine under trees, near lawns  Flowers best in dappled sun or  As an interesting pot plant on bright shade, under trees shady porches  Water:  Winter: supplement is needed  Summer: likes regular water – Zone 2-3 or 3  Fertilizer: not too particular; fine with humus and light fertilizer © 2005 Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area  Other: use an organic mulch© 2003 Michael Charters © Project SOUND oykinia_rotundifolia.htm © Project SOUND Engine.asp?CCID=31090003&page=pdp&PID=836 6 19
  • 20. 1/6/2013One more bit of inspiration: compound leaves * Redwood Sorrel – Oxalis oregana Robert Potts © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The Oxalidaceae: the Wood Sorrel family The genus Oxalis contains some real bad boys  Small family of eight genera  Two members of the Oxalis genus in  Herbaceous plants, shrubs and particular have given it a bad name. small trees  O. pes-caprae, known by the common name Bermuda buttercup (even though  The great majority of the 900 Oxalis pes-caprae it comes from South Africa) is known species in the genus Oxalis (wood to take over a garden. When sorrels). pioneering California botanist Lester Roundtree was asked how to deal with  Members of this family typically O. pre-caprae, she replied, "You move.“ have:  Divided leaves  O. corniculata - creeping woodsorrel, also called Procumbent Yellow-sorrel  Leaflets showing "sleep or Sleeping Beauty, is a somewhat movements", spreading open in light delicate-appearing, low-growing Oxalis and closing in darkness. that has become a weed world-wide Oxalis corniculata © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 20
  • 21. 1/6/2013 * Redwood Sorrel – Oxalis oregana Redwood Sorrel: a sweet little creeper  Central/North coast up to WA  Size: state (coastal and Cascades)  ~ 1 ft tall  2-4 ft wide, spreading  Moist conifer forests (Redwood Forest, Douglas-Fir Forest)  Growth form: between 0 and 3300 feet  Herbaceous perennial  Mounded, spreading  AKA Oregon Oxalis,5528,5537  Foliage:  Bright green (may have some white or burgundy)  3 heart-shaped leaflets – trefoil (looks like large 3-leaf clover) – on long petiole (leaf stem)  Songbirds may eat young leaves  Roots: spreads moderately via stout underground stems (rhizomes) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2009 Neal Kramer Oxalis have a long history of human use Redwood Sorrel is used as a medicinal  An edible wild plant in  Fresh juice from plant applied to sore eyes. cuisines around the world  Decoction of whole plant used as a  Leaves/stems: wash for rheumatism.  Raw or cooked, as greens  Poultice of plant applied to swollen  Lightly fermented – for a side areas & sores on the skin and to dish draw out infections.  Dried to make a lemony-tasting © 2006, Clayton J. Antieau tea  Fresh or dried as an herb – to put a little ‘zing’ in dishes  Tuber:© Bud Kovalchik:  Cultivated & eaten like a potato in the Northern Andes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 21
  • 22. 1/6/2013 Oxalic acid & other compounds Flowers are wonderful  Giving the leaves and flowers a sour taste which can make them refreshing to  Blooms: primarily in spring - chew. usually April-June in our area  In very large amounts, oxalic acid may be  Flowers: considered slightly toxic, interfering  Usually translucent pink but with proper digestion and kidney may be white; beautiful contrast w/ foliage function.  Often have rays that are  Oxalic acid is also present in commonly of contrasting shade consumed foods such as spinach,  Medium size - ~1 inch broccoli, brussel sprouts, grapefruit,  5 petals – relatively simple chives, and rhubarb, among many others. design  General scientific consensus seems to be  Seeds: that the risk of sheer toxicity, actual © 2008 Neal Kramer  In dry capsule that pops poisoning from oxalic acid, in persons open, throwing the seeds© 2006, Clayton J. Antieau with normal kidney function is "wildly unlikely“. © Project SOUND © 2003, Tim Hagan © Project SOUND Fairly easy from seed or divisions Redwood Sorrel is a  Soils: woodland plant  Texture: most are fine  pH: any local except > 8.0  Soak the soil around the roots 24 hours before digging (if soil is  Light: dry).  Part-shade to shade Use fresh seed  Divide Oxalis oregana in fall (as  Naturally grows under trees the winter rainy season begins) or in late winter or early spring  Water: (when new shoots/leaves appear).  Winter: supplement in dry, windy periods © 2011 Zoya Akulova  Lift the Oxalis roots from the  Summer: like a moist soil – soil. Gently pull the roots apart Water Zone 2-3 or 3 into clumps containing three to © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College five new growth shoots  Fertilizer: likes a richer soil Use an organic mulch – leaf than many natives; fine with  Replant the divisions in the litter or leaf mulch is ideal added humus, compost, light garden. Soak the area to settle fertilizer the soil. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 22
  • 23. 1/6/2013 Woodsy groundcover Oxalis oregana Select Pink’, ‘Tilden Pink’,  Great in shady spots under ‘Smith River white’ trees – pines, junipers, etc. - with Lilies, Fringecups & Iris  Natural varieties  Does great in pots & planters chosen for their  Around shady fountains, flower color birdbaths, other moist areas © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Our challenge today: the maturing garden …and feel like you fell down the rabbit hole Time to assess what’s missing © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 23
  • 24. 1/6/2013 Our mission: find the perfect perennials for this shady garden – made a good start © Project SOUND © 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUNDLessons from the new perennial garden books (for the New CA Garden) So, visit the spring plant sales 1. Learn to ‘read the pictures’ – what is it I like about the feel of this garden? 2. Try to ‘capture the spirit’ not duplicate the plants 3. Take the time to choose the right native plant for the job 4. Choose ‘value added’ native Some great plants for your water garden – plants that still capture the now’s the time to plant spirit of the image you love Wild Mint – Mentha arvensis © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 24
  • 25. 1/6/2013And get out & get inspired: it’s spring! © Project SOUND 25