Nutrition westside tech

513 views
372 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
513
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nutrition westside tech

  1. 1. Orange County Public Schools Nutrition for Foodservice Professionals 3rd Quarter
  2. 2. Orange County Public Schools Nutrition for Foodservice & Culinary Professionals 5th edition 2
  3. 3. Orange County Public Schools Nutrition Basics Award • Every Student getting a 80% or higher on the Nutrition final exam will receive an award letter for their above average achievement • Must score an 80% Including 9 Categories 1. Intro to Nutrition 2. Using food guides & food labels 3. Carbohydrates 4. Lips, fats and oils 5. Protein 6. Vitamins 7. Water and Minerals 8. Healthy Menu Options 9. Nutrition and Health
  4. 4. Orange County Public Schools QUOTE OF THE DAY What does this quote mean to you? Give a specific example of not eating less, just eating right. 4
  5. 5. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 1. Absorption: The passage of digested nutrients through the walls of the intestines or stomach into the body's cells 2. Acidosis: a dangerous condition in which the blood is too acidic 3. Alternative sweeteners: Sweeteners that contain either no or very few calories 5
  6. 6. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 1. Anaphylaxis: a rare allergic reaction that is very serious and can result in death if not treated immediately. 2. Anorexia Nervosa: an eating disorder most prevalent in adolescent females who starve themselves. 3. Atherosclerosis: the plaque buildup along artery walls 6
  7. 7. Orange County Public Schools CHUNKING NUTRITION1. Intro to Nutrition 2. Using food guides & food labels 3. Carbohydrates 4. Lipids, fats and oils 5. Protein 6. Vitamins 7. Water and Minerals 8. Healthy Menu Options 9. Nutrition and Health 7
  8. 8. Orange County Public Schools Intro to Nutrition Factors Influencing Food Selection • Flavor – A combination of all 5 senses – Eye appeal and Appearance – “Flavor” is really smell • Human nose can detect 10,00 scents – Inside of mouth “tastes” sweet, sour, bitter and salty. – Umami – 10,00 taste buds • Most numerous in children under six Friday 8
  9. 9. Orange County Public Schools • Other aspects of food – Food Cost – Convenience- easier than cooking raw produce – Familiarity – Nutritional content of food- Food Labels • Demographics – Age, sex, gender, education level, income • Culture and Religion – Culture: The behaviors of a certain social group Friday 9 Intro to Nutrition Factors Influencing Food Selection
  10. 10. Orange County Public Schools • Food Industry and the media – Television ads • Environmental Concern – Global warming Friday 10 Intro to Nutrition Factors Influencing Food Selection
  11. 11. Orange County Public Schools Intro to Nutrition Basic Nutrition Concepts • Nutrients: Nourishing substances that provide energy and promote growth. • Nutrition: The science that studies nutrients and other substances in foods and in the body
  12. 12. Orange County Public Schools Intro to Nutrition Basic Nutrition Concepts • Kilocalories or “calories” – A measurement of energy for the body • How many calories do I need? 3 Factors 1. Energy needs while at rest and awake (BMR) 2. Physical activity 3. Energy needed to digest food BMR (Basal metabolic rate) or “base rate” 1. Men: High 2. Elderly: Low 3. Growth: High 4. Height: High 5. Temperature: High 6. Stress: High 7. Sleep: Low
  13. 13. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition Kcalories spent hourly- Excercise • Slow Bicycling: 240 kcal • Speed Walking: 440 kcal • Tennis: 400 kcal • Running: 1280 kcal • Skiing: 700 kcal • Jumping rope: 750 kcal
  14. 14. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition Nutrients-6 Categories • Carbohydrates • Fats or “Lipids” • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals • Water • Vitamins, minerals and water do not provide energy or “calories” • Energy yielding nutrients – Carbohydrates- 4 kcal per gram – Lipids- 9 kcal per gram – Protein- 9 kcal per gram
  15. 15. Orange County Public Schools Quote of the Day Friday 15
  16. 16. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 1. Balanced diet: A diet in which foods are chosen tp provide kcalories, essential nutrients, and fiber in the right proportions 2. Bile: A liver secretion that is stored in the gall bladder and helps digest fat Friday 16
  17. 17. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 3. Bolus: A ball of chewed food that travels from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach 4. Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder characterized by overeating then vomiting or “purging” Friday 17
  18. 18. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 5. Carcinogen: Cancer causing substance 5. Chyme: A liquid mixture of partially digested food and stomach enzymes Friday 18
  19. 19. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition Macronutrients – “Large” • Proteins • Carbohydrates • Fats Micronutrients – “Small” • Vitamins • Minerals
  20. 20. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition Carbohydrates • Includes starches, sugars and fibers • Body’s main source of energy • Fiber: cannot be broken down and does not provide energy Lipids • Fats • Provide energy and store energy as fat • Mayo, butter, canola oil, lard, fat in meat, etc
  21. 21. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition Protein • Main structural component of all the body’s cells • Some fruits contain a small amount of proteins • Made up of chains called amino acids • Can be used for energy – The body prefers carbs and fat Vitamins • Non caloric • Can be destroyed by heat or light or radiation • Essential to maintain body functions (eyes, brain, nervous system)
  22. 22. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition Minerals • Noncaloric • Indestructible • Periodic table of the Elements • Zinc, potassium, magnesium, iron, etc Water • Humans can survive only 3 days without water • 2nd only to oxygen in importance on planet earth. • 60% of your total weight
  23. 23. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition Nutrient Density • Essential nutrient: All nutrients are as they cannot be made in the body in sufficient amounts • Must obtain nutrients from food • Nutrient Density: How much nutrient content as compared to the caloric content • Coke vs Milk • Chips vs Candy • Empty Calorie: Foods that deliver very few nutrients along with their calories. • List some empty calorie foods • List substitutes for these empty calorie foods
  24. 24. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition Nutrient Recommendations • Recommended Dietary Allowance or RDA: The recommended nutrient requirements usually in % • Estimated Energy Requirement or EER: The recommended amount of calories someone needs to maintain their weight- not lose or gain. • http://www.uned.es/pea-nutricion-y-dietetica- I/guia/PDF/DRI%20- %20Estimated%20Energy%20Requirements.pdf Friday 24
  25. 25. Orange County Public Schools Intro to Nutrition What happens when you eat? • Digestion: The process of breaking down food into useable forms for the body – Nutrients must pass through walls in organs to be absorbed – Nutrients are absorbed through blood or lymph – Lymph is like blood but without red blood cells. Carries nutrients Friday 25
  26. 26. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition What happens when you eat? GI Tract: A hollow tube running from your mouth to “ending” 1. Mouth – Saliva breaks down carbs – 32 teeth grind food – Epiglottis 2. Esophagus – Food is moved down through muscular movements called peristalsis 3. Stomach – Holds 4 cups food – Hydrochloric acid to break down proteins – Absorbs alcohol – 1-4 hours to empty 4. Small Intestine – 10-12 ft long – Most nutrients abosrbed here – 3 parts – Villi absorb nutrients 5. Large Intestine or “colon” – 5 feet long – Absorbs water and minerals Friday 26
  27. 27. Orange County Public Schools GI Tract Friday 27
  28. 28. Orange County Public Schools Introduction to Nutrition How many calories do I need? 1. Multiply your weight by 10.9 (male) or 9.8 (female) 2. Multiply this number by your activity level number provided 3. This number is the recommended amount of calories that you should have • Very light activity x 1.3 – Mostly seated or standing all day • Light Activity x 1.5 – Spend some time moving around • Moderate Activity x 1.7 – Job requires physical labor or exercise or you excercise • Heavy Activity 1.9 – A lot of exercise or manual labor Friday 28
  29. 29. Orange County Public Schools Intro to Nutrition Quiz • Match each nutrient to their functions 1. Carbohydrates a. provides energy 2. Lipids b. promotes growth and maintenance 3. Proteins c. serves as a medium for bodily process 4. Vitamins d. the main structure for cells 5. Minerals e. regulates body processes 6. Water Friday 29
  30. 30. Orange County Public Schools Intro to Nutrition Quiz 7. Which organ passes waste and absorbs water and minerals? 8. Which nutrient supplies the most calories per gram? 9. T or F: Vitamins are made up of chains called amino acids 10.T or F: Flavor is a combo of all 5 senses 11.T or F: Hydrochloric acid aids in digesting fats 12.What are the two systems that carry absorbed nutrients through the body? Friday 30
  31. 31. Orange County Public Schools Intro to Nutrition Quiz 13.What part of the GI tract absorbs most of the nutrients? 14.T or F: The enzymes in saliva begin to break down fats 15.Which macronutrient has the least amount of calories? Friday 31
  32. 32. Orange County Public Schools Video • Bill Nye- Nutrition Video Friday 32
  33. 33. Orange County Public Schools Quote of the Day Friday 33
  34. 34. Orange County Public Schools Joke of the Day Friday 34
  35. 35. Orange County Public Schools Friday 35
  36. 36. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 1. Diabetes: a disorder of characterized by high blood sugar and inadequate insulin 2. Dudenum: The first segment of the small intestine, 1 ft long 3. Fortified foods: Foods in which nutrients are added Friday 36
  37. 37. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 4. Free Radical: an unstable compound that reacts negatively in the body 5. Glucose: The bodys main source of energy 6. Heartburn: a burning sensation caused by stomach acid in the esophagus Friday 37
  38. 38. Orange County Public Schools www.mcdonalds.com Friday 38
  39. 39. Orange County Public Schools Hot Topic Organic Foods • Foods that are made with 100% – 95% organic ingredients can be labeled organic (excluding water and salt) • “Made with organic ingredients” at least 70% organic ingredients Friday 39
  40. 40. Orange County Public Schools Food Guide and Food Label TIPS Be physically active every day Choose variety Whole grains Diets low in fat (saturated and unsaturated) and sodium Limit intake of sugars Friday 40
  41. 41. Orange County Public Schools Food Guides and Food Labels • Goals of the Food Pyramid – Provide 1300-3000 kcal – 100% of proteins, vitamins and minerals – Increase fiber – Cholesterol- less than 300 mg – Sodium- less than 2 tsp per day – Limit total fat and saturated fat Friday 41
  42. 42. Orange County Public Schools Food Guides and Food Labels Mediterranean Diet Asian Diet Friday 42
  43. 43. Orange County Public Schools Food Guides and Food Labels Latin American Diet Friday 43
  44. 44. Orange County Public Schools Food Guide • www.myplate.gov Friday 44 Food Guides and Food Labels
  45. 45. Orange County Public Schools Nutrient Claims • Claims must be approved by the FDA • “Good source of calcium” – 10- 19% daily value • “Healthy” – No more than 20% daily value of cholesterol and sodium Friday 45 Food Guides and Food Labels
  46. 46. Orange County Public Schools 1. How many grams are in the package? (Net wt) 2. What is the main ingredient of the product? 3. What is the ingredient the product has the least of? 4. What common allergies does the product indicate? 5. How many total units are in the product? 6. How many total calories in the product? 7. How many calories from fat are in the product? 8. What the percentage of total fat? (#7 divided by #6) 9. What website can people visit for this product? 10. List any artificial colors, preservatives or flavors Friday 46 Food Guides and Food Labels
  47. 47. Orange County Public Schools Quote of the Day Friday 47
  48. 48. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Joke of the Day Friday 48
  49. 49. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C 5wjKg-8vws • http://www.cbsnews.com/news/proc essed-carbohydrates-are-addictive- brain-study-suggests/ Friday 49
  50. 50. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 1. Hydrogenation: a process in which liquid fats are turned into solid fats 2. Hypertension: high blood pressure 3. Lactose: a sugar found in milk and dairy products Friday 50
  51. 51. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 4. Lactase: an enzyme needed to “digest” lactose 5. Lecithin: an emulsifier 6. Megadose: a supplement intake of 10x the RDA of a vitamin or mineral Friday 51
  52. 52. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Key facts  Carbohydrates are the major component of most plants  60-90% of plant weight  Animals contain a very small amount of carbohydrates  Plants are able to make their own carbohydrates through…. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Friday 52
  53. 53. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Simple • Also called “sugars • Include natural and refined sugars • Converted or “digested” to energy quickly • Candy, cookies, table sugar, fruits, honey Complex • Includes: starches and fiber • Long chains of many sugars • Harder to digest – lasting energy • Brown rice, whole wheat bread, whole wheat pasta, etc Friday 53
  54. 54. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Functions of Carbohydrates • Fiber: a form of carbohydrate – Helps to promote a healthy GI tract – Helps control diabetes – Reduces the risk of heart disease • Body’s preferred energy source – Nervous system and red blood cells rely almost exclusively on a simple carb, glucose. • Result of 0 carbohydrates – Breakdown of fats and protein can cause the blood to become acidic called ketosis – Ketosis can lead to dehydration or death – 50-100 grams of carbs are needed to prevent ketosis Friday 54
  55. 55. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Sugars • Monosaccharide: single sugars – Glucose – Fructose • Disaccharide: double sugar – Lactose • Ending of –ose means sugar • Sucrose: table sugar • Fructose: mainly comes from… __ __ __ __ __ Friday 55
  56. 56. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Friday 56
  57. 57. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Sugar or Sweetener Name Sweetness compared to table Sugar (sucrose) Lactose 0.2 Glucose 0.7 Sucrose 1.0 High fructose corn syrup 1.2 Fructose 1.3 Aspartame (Equal) 160-220 Saccharin (Sweet n Low) 300 Sucralose (Splenda) 600 Neotame 7,000-13,000 Friday 57
  58. 58. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Sugars in Food • Added sugars: sugars not naturally found in food – Can increase weight gain, dental cavities and blood glucose level • Fruits – Excellent source of natural sugar – Canned fruits contain added sugars • Sugar Alcohols – Xylitol and Sorbitol – Found in gums and sugar free – Occur naturally – May cause diarrhea • High Fructose Corn Syrup – Found in most processed foods – Cheap sweetener Friday 58
  59. 59. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Added Sugars and Your Health • Gluten Allergies • Sugar Intake: 12 tsp a day recommended – 1- 12oz soft drink per day for 1 year and you will gain 15 lbs • Diabetes: Added sugars are dangerous as the person does not have insulin to metabolize carbohydrates • Dental Cavities: added sugars have been proven to increase cavities – Bacteria ferment carbs and produce acid. Acid destroys teeth • Obesity: cause has come from rise in empty calories and lack of exercise Friday 59
  60. 60. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Fiber • Soluble Fiber – Forms into a gel like substance • Insoluble Fiber – Structural component of plants • Abundant in plants • Fiber bonds to cholesterol and your body eliminates fiber • Fiber content in foods – Bran Cereal 9.7 g – Raspberries 5.5 g – Pecans 2.8 g – Applesauce 1.5 g Friday 60
  61. 61. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Digestion of Carbohydrates • Cooking carbohydrates makes them easier to digest • All sugars are broken down into single sugars __ __ __ __ saccharides • Mouth and Small Intestine – Digest carbs • Excess glucose is stored as glycogen • Adults should have between 25-38 grams of fiber daily Friday 61
  62. 62. Orange County Public Schools Carbohydrates Foods high in Carbohydrates • Whole Grains: Grains that have the outer bran intact – Excellent source of fiber – Minimally processed – Wheat bread, whole wheat pasta • Grains- rice, wheat, corn, etc – Use whole grains • Legumes-soybeans, peanuts, etc – Fresh or dried – Think color • Pasta-cous cous, macaroi, etc – Buy high quality dried pasta – Easy to make and versatile • Fruits- strawberries, raspberries • Vegetables- brocolli, squash, onion Friday 62
  63. 63. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 1. Night Blindness: A condition caused by Vitamin A deficiency 2. Pesco Vegetarians: Vegetarians who eat fish 3. Satiety: a feeling of fullness after eating Friday 63
  64. 64. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 4. Rickets: A disease that causes bowed legs and knock knees. 5. Scurvy: a vitamin c deficiency 6. Seltzer: artificially carbonated water Friday 64
  65. 65. Orange County Public Schools Joke of the Day Friday 65
  66. 66. Orange County Public Schools Quote of the Day Friday 66
  67. 67. Orange County Public Schools Protein • Protein Intro Quiz Friday 67
  68. 68. Orange County Public Schools Protein Key Facts  Derived from the Greek word meaning first  16% of body weight is protein  Proteins are the only macro nutrients that provide nitrogen Friday 68
  69. 69. Orange County Public Schools Protein Amino Acids 20 Amino Acids – 9 Essential-MUST EAT – 11 Non essential-MADE IN BODY Friday 69
  70. 70. Orange County Public Schools Protein Functions of Protein • Replaces and Repairs cells – A skin cell only lasts 1 month – New “skin” in 3 months • Structure – Found in skin, nails, hair, etc • Blood clotting • Antibodies – Bond with foreign matter and eliminate • Additional Protein – Infancy – Pregnancy – Burns or surgery Friday 70
  71. 71. Orange County Public Schools Protein Protein Digestion  Must be broken down into Amino Acids  Animal proteins are easier digested than plant protein  Digestion starts in the stomach  Completed in the Small Intestine Friday 71
  72. 72. Orange County Public Schools Protein Protein in Food • Incomplete Proteins • Complementary Proteins – Must have a legume and a grain – PB & J on bread – Corn bread and bean chili • Complete Proteins – Amaranth – Quinoa – Meats – Dairy Friday 72
  73. 73. Orange County Public Schools Protein Protein and Health • Eating too much protein has zero benefits • Extra protein is stored as fat • Most Americans eat more than their RDA of protein • 10-35% of calories from Proteins • Recommended Protein – 0.36 grams of protein per lb. – 185 x .36 g = ? Friday 73
  74. 74. Orange County Public Schools Protein Dairy • Milk is pasteurized and homogenized – Good source of: – Carbs – Riboflavin – Vitamins A & D (fortified) • Buttermilk – Thick tart “milk” • Cheese – Very High in Fat • Cheddar • Cream cheese • Muenster – High Fat • Blue Cheese • Parmesan • Provolone – Medium Fat • Ricotta • American cheese – Lowfat • Cottage Cheese Friday 74
  75. 75. Orange County Public Schools Protein Dairy • Cream – Skim Milk 86 kcal / .5 g fat – 2% Milk 121 Kcal / 5 g fat – Whole Milk 150 Kcal / 8 g fat – Heavy Cream 832 kcal / 48 g fat – Light Whip Cream 704 kcal/40g fat – Can keep for up to 6 weeks unopened – Use light cream as a sub for heavy cream • Yogurt – Cultured with bacteria-good for digestive health – Substitute yogurt for mayo or sour cream – Use low heat – Acidopholus – Lactobacillus – Streptococcus Friday 75
  76. 76. Orange County Public Schools Protein Tips  “Whipped Cream” 1. Remove liquid from yogurt with cheesecloth 2. Fold in whipped egg whites 3. Add honey for flavor  In baking sub two whole eggs with 1 whole egg and 2 egg whites  Replace 1 whole egg with 2 egg white  Non fat Omelet 1. Whip egg whites 2. Add white wine 3. Add ground mustard and chives 4. Finish with veggies Friday 76
  77. 77. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 1. Seasonings: substances used to bring out a flavor already present 1. Thyroid gland: a gland metabolism, located around the throat 1. Trans fat: similar to saturated fats in the body Friday 77
  78. 78. Orange County Public Schools 6 A DAY VOCAB 4. Type 1 Diabetes: a disorder seen in mostly children that make no insulin. No insulin 5. Type 2 Diabetes: a disorder seen mostly in overweight adults. Make insulin 6. Vegans: people relying EXCLUSIVELY on plant foods Friday 78
  79. 79. Orange County Public Schools Lipids Friday 79 http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/videos/m/32071992/how-to-shop- for-healthy-oils-and-fats.htm FATS QUIZ
  80. 80. Orange County Public Schools Lipids Key Facts  Lipid is the correct term for “fats”  Most fats are close to 100 calories per oz  Fat is solid at room temp  Mostly saturated-BAD  Oil is liquid at room temp  Mostly unsaturated-GOOD  15-25% of your weight Friday 80
  81. 81. Orange County Public Schools Lipids Learning Goal The student will be able to understand the functions of lipids (fats and oils) in food preparation including: saturated and unsaturated fat, added fats, natural fats and trans fats. Tracking Scale 4 – I can teach lipids 3 – I understand lipids 2 – I should go back and read my notes on lipids 1 – I don’t understand lipids Friday 81
  82. 82. Orange County Public Schools Lipids Functions of Lipids • Fat is stored in fat cells (adipose cells) and can expand to 20x their size • Lipids include cholesterol • Lipids are used for insulation and to cushion organs • Fat Soluble Vitamins – A, D, E, and K or A D E K • Fats increase flavor and crispness (fried foods) • Fatty foods make you feel fuller longer Friday 82
  83. 83. Orange County Public Schools Lipids Saturated • Solid at room temp • Include animal fats and hydrogenated fats • Mostly found in animals and animal products • Have been shown to lead to high cholesterol & heart disease Unsaturated • Liquid at room temp • Include nut, and seed oils Mostly found in plants but can be found in some seafood • Have been shown to improve overall health Friday 83
  84. 84. Orange County Public Schools Lipids Lipids in Food • Breads and Grains – Low in fat – Exception of cakes, pies and cookies • Fruits and Vegetables – Practically fat free – Exception of fried vegetables & avocados and coconuts • Dairy – High in fat – Choose low fat varieties • Skim milk • Non fat yogurt Friday 84
  85. 85. Orange County Public Schools Lipids Trans Fats • Occur naturally in very low levels • Most of what we eat is from hydrogenation – Mimics saturated fats- bad Common Lipids and Fat Content Name Saturated Fat Unsaturated Fat Coconut Oil 85% 15% Butter 65% 35% Chicken Fat 30% 70% Margarine 18% 82% Olive Oil 10% 90% Corn Oil 8% 92% Sunflower Oil 7% 93% Canola Oil 6% 94% Friday 85
  86. 86. Orange County Public Schools Lipids Cholesterol • Only found in foods of animal origin and animal by products • Never found in plants • Made in the liver and bodys cells • LDL-Bad Cholesterol – Deposits cholesterol on artery walls • HDL-Good Cholesterol – “Healthy” – Carries cholesterol to liver for disposal Friday 86
  87. 87. Orange County Public Schools Lipids Lipids and your Health • Less than 300 mg of cholesterol daily – 1 egg = 213 mg cholesterol • 30% of total calories from fat – 10% of calories from saturated fat • In 1999 725,000 died of heart disease – Attributed to high cholesterol • Cancer – 2nd leading cause of death • Heredity – Genes dictate how much cholesterol your body makes • Age and Gender – Cholesterol rises as you get older Friday 87
  88. 88. Orange County Public Schools Water, Vitamins & Minerals
  89. 89. Orange County Public Schools Vitamins • Certain vitamins and minerals are needed for the body to function. – 13 vitamins – 22 minerals • Two types of vitamins – Water-soluble – Fat-soluble
  90. 90. Orange County Public Schools Fat-Soluble vitamins • Vitamin A, D, E and K • Excess is stored in the liver and in body fat – It is possible to build up to a toxic level
  91. 91. Orange County Public Schools Vitamin A (Retinol)  Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A  Vitamin A: ◦ Promotes good vision ◦ Promotes healthy skin ◦ Helps with growth and maintenance of bones, teeth, and cell structure  RDA: 900 micrograms for males; 700 micrograms for females ( 1 carrot 450 micrograms)
  92. 92. Orange County Public Schools Too much vitamin A • May turn your skin orange • May cause fatigue, weakness, severe headache, blurred vision, hair loss and joint pain. • Toxicity: – May cause severe liver or brain damage – Birth defects
  93. 93. Orange County Public Schools Too little vitamin A • May cause night blindness • Lowered immune system
  94. 94. Orange County Public Schools Foods rich in vitamin A • Foods – Only animal products • Liver • Eggs • Milk, butter and cheese • Carotenoids – Orange/Yellow fruits and vegetables • Cantaloupes, carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash – Leafy green vegetables • Spinach, broccoli
  95. 95. Orange County Public Schools Vitamin D – “The Sunshine Vitamin” • Essential for building and maintaining bones and teeth • Responsible for absorption and utilization of calcium • Other health benefits: – May boost immune system – May also help decrease certain cancers • RDA: 5 micrograms until age 50 • 10 micrograms / day until 70; 15 mcg 70+
  96. 96. Orange County Public Schools Too little vitamin D • Vitamin D deficiency has been in the news a lot lately. • Deficiency may occur from: – Inadequate diet • Vegetarianism, lactose intolerance, milk allergy – Body unable to absorb needed vitamin D – Limited exposure to sunlight
  97. 97. Orange County Public Schools Vitamin D Deficiency • May lead to osteomalacia and/or osteoporosis
  98. 98. Orange County Public Schools Getting vitamin D • Sun exposure for 10 minutes a day • Foods: – Fortified milk – Tuna – Salmon – May need a supplement • Check with doctor first though
  99. 99. Orange County Public Schools Vitamin E • Important to red blood cells, muscles and other tissues • Deficiency is rare • Toxicity is rare – But Vitamin E acts as a blood thinner • Foods: – Vegetable oils, salad dressings, whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, peanut butter and wheat germ.
  100. 100. Orange County Public Schools Vitamin K • Important for blood clotting – Also has a role for bone health • Mostly made in the intestines • Foods: – Turnip greens, cauliflower, spinach, liver, broccoli, kale and cabbage
  101. 101. Orange County Public Schools Water-Soluble Vitamins  Vitamins Bs and C  Eight B vitamins: ◦ Thiamin (B-1) ◦ Riboflavin (B-2) ◦ Niacin (B-3) ◦ Pyridoxine (B-4) ◦ Cobalamin (B-12) ◦ Folic acid ◦ Pantothenic acid ◦ Biotin
  102. 102. Orange County Public Schools Thiamin or B-1 • Helps to convert carbohydrates to energy • Deficiency: – Fatigue, nausea, depression, nerve damage • Foods: – Pork, beef, liver, peas, seeds, legumes, whole-grain products, and oatmeal
  103. 103. Orange County Public Schools Riboflavin or B-2 • Key to metabolism and red blood cells • Deficiency: – Dry, scaly skin • Foods: – Milk, yogurt, cheese, whole-grain breads, green leafy vegetables, meat, and eggs
  104. 104. Orange County Public Schools Niacin or B-3 • Also involved with energy production • Also helps with skin, nerves and digestive system • Deficiency: – Rare but causes: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and death • Foods: – Meat, poultry, liver, eggs, brown rice, baked potatoes, fish, milk, and whole-grain foods
  105. 105. Orange County Public Schools Pyridoxine or B-6 • Involved in chemical reactions of proteins and amino acids • Deficiency: – Skin changes, dementia, nervous system disorders and anemia • Foods: – Lean meats, fish, legumes, green leafy vegetables, raisins, corn, bananas, mangos
  106. 106. Orange County Public Schools Cobalamin or B-12 • Helps with nervous system, red blood cells and DNA synthesis • Deficiency: – Nervous system disorders and pernicious anemia • Foods: – Only found in animal products • Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk products and clams
  107. 107. Orange County Public Schools Folic acid (Folacin, Folate) • Key role in red blood cell formation and cell division • Deficiency: – Anemia, digestive disorders • Foods: – Leafy, dark green vegetables – Also found in liver, beans, peas, asparagus, oranges, avocados
  108. 108. Orange County Public Schools Pantothenic Acid and Biotin • Help with metabolism and formation of some hormones • Deficiencies are rare • Foods: – Almost any food, plant-based or animal-based
  109. 109. Orange County Public Schools Vitamin C Important to bone health, blood vessel health, cell structure and absorption of iron Deficiency: ◦ Rare Too much vitamin C Foods: ◦ Melons, berries, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, fortified juices, kiwi, mangos, yellow peppers and citrus fruits
  110. 110. Orange County Public Schools Minerals • 22 minerals are needed by the body • Two categories: – Major • Include calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur – Trace • Include iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, arsenic, nickel, silicon, boron and cobalt
  111. 111. Orange County Public Schools Sodium • What does sodium do for you? – Helps maintain fluid balance – Helps transmit nerve impulses – Influences contraction and relaxation of muscles
  112. 112. Orange County Public Schools Sodium & Health • Too much sodium – Causes high blood pressure – May lead to fluid retention
  113. 113. Orange County Public Schools Sodium Savvy • The human body requires about 500 mg of sodium per day, while the average American usually ingests between 2,300-6,900 mg each day. • It is recommended to stay in a range of 1,500 to 2,400 mg / day.
  114. 114. Orange County Public Schools Where are you getting sodium? www.mayoclinic.com
  115. 115. Orange County Public Schools Sodium & Food • On food labels: – Monosodium glutamate (MSG) – Baking soda – Baking powder – Disodium phosphate – Sodium alginate – Sodium nitrate or nitrite
  116. 116. Orange County Public Schools Reducing sodium in your diet • Eat more fresh foods • Eat less processed foods • Look for low-sodium products • Limit the salt you add to foods • Experiment with other seasonings • Use salt substitutes with caution
  117. 117. Orange County Public Schools Calcium • The most abundant mineral in your body – 99% is stored in the bones • Known for bone health • How much do you need? – Males 19-50 years old: 1,000 mg / day – Females 19-50 years old: 1,000 mg / day
  118. 118. Orange County Public Schools Calcium & Foods • Dairy products, fortified juices, sardines Food Calcium Yogurt, plain (low-fat) Yogurt, flavored (low-fat) 1 cup - 415 mg 1 cup – 345 mg Milk, skim Milk, 1-2% 1 cup – 302 mg 1 cup – 300 mg Ice cream ½ cup – 88 mg Broccoli, cooked ½ cup – 68 mg Salmon, canned 3 oz – 165 mg Fortified orange juice 8 oz – 300 mg
  119. 119. Orange County Public Schools Iron • Iron deficiency is the most widespread vitamin or mineral deficiency in the world. – 70% of your body’s iron is in your hemoglobin – Too little iron = too little oxygen
  120. 120. Orange County Public Schools Iron & Foods • Heme iron: – Found in animal products • Red meats, liver, poultry and eggs • Non-heme iron: – Found in plant products • Beans, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, fortified breads and cereals
  121. 121. Orange County Public Schools Iron supplements Check with your doctor first. High risk groups: ◦ Strict vegetarians ◦ Those who do not eat a balanced diet ◦ Those who are over 60 ◦ Smokers and those who regularly drink alcohol ◦ Chronic dieters ◦ Those who suffer from food allergies, intolerances
  122. 122. Orange County Public Schools Water • Essential for life – It is possible to live without food than without water. • Water makes up about 45-75% of your body weight
  123. 123. Orange County Public Schools Why is water important? • Aids with transport • Mechanical functions • Helps to break substances down • Helps to maintain body temperature/pH
  124. 124. Orange County Public Schools How much water do you need? • Adequate intake: – For men: 125 oz / day – For women: 91 oz / day – Ideally 80% of water should coming from drinking fluids. • 20% of water intake should come from food
  125. 125. Orange County Public Schools “We are what we repeatedly do.” — Aristotle
  126. 126. Orange County Public Schools 140 calories 3-inch diameter Calorie Difference: 210 calories 350 calories 6-inch diameter 20 Years Ago Today BAGEL
  127. 127. Orange County Public Schools Calorie Difference: 257 calories 590 calories CHEESEBURGER 20 Years Ago Today 333 calories
  128. 128. Orange County Public Schools Calorie Difference: 165 Calories 250 Calories 20 ounces 85 Calories 6.5 ounces 20 Years Ago Today SODA
  129. 129. Orange County Public Schools What is Physical Activity?
  130. 130. Orange County Public Schools Physical Activity Reduces the risk of • Dying from heart disease or stroke • Developing high blood pressure, cholesterol & diabetes • Developing obesity • Developing osteoporosis – exercise builds strong bones & muscles • Helps people achieve and maintain a healthy weight • Reduces feelings of stress, anxiety & depression • Builds and maintains healthy bones, muscles & joints • Boosts energy level • Improves quality of sleep Benefits of Physical Activity
  131. 131. Orange County Public Schools • 64% of adults are overweight in the U.S. • Approximately 30% of adults are obese. • 17 % of children ages 6-18 are overweight. • Obesity is the second leading cause of unnecessary deaths. • Consumers spend $33 billion a year on the diet industry. • Every year, about 8 million Americans sign up for weight loss programs that offer a quick fix. National Trends
  132. 132. Orange County Public Schools Finding a Balance Calories in Food > Calories Used = Weight Gain Calories in Food < Calories Used = Weight Loss Calories in Food = Calories Used = Weight Control
  133. 133. Orange County Public Schools How Much Exercise Do I Need? • U.S. Surgeon General, CDCP, American College of Sports Medicine recommends: • Minimum of 30 minutes • Moderate-intense physical activity • Most days of the week.
  134. 134. Orange County Public Schools
  135. 135. Orange County Public Schools What is Physical Fitness? Good health or physical condition, especially as the result of exercise and proper nutrition.
  136. 136. Orange County Public Schools Components of Fitness? 4 Components of Fitness: – Aerobic – Muscular – Flexibility – Body Composition
  137. 137. Orange County Public Schools Aerobic Fitness Defined – The body’s ability to take in and use oxygen to produce energy. Aerobic activities make you breathe hard & they increase your heart rate. Some of these activities include: - Jogging - Walking - Cross-country skiing - Bicycling
  138. 138. Orange County Public Schools 138 Moderate physical activities • Walking briskly (about 3½ mph) • Hiking • Gardening/yard work • Dancing • Golf (walking and carrying clubs) • Bicycling (less than 10 mph) • Weight training (general light workout)
  139. 139. Orange County Public Schools 139 Vigorous physical activities • Running/jogging (5 mph) • Bicycling (more than 10 mph) • Swimming (freestyle laps) • Aerobics • Walking very fast (4½ mph) • Heavy yard work, such as chopping wood • Weight lifting (vigorous effort) • Basketball (competitive)
  140. 140. Orange County Public Schools
  141. 141. Orange County Public Schools Muscular Fitness Defined – The strength and endurance of your muscles. Benefits: • Improve performance • Injury prevention • Improves body composition • Improves self image Some activities include: - Weight Lifting - Push-Ups
  142. 142. Orange County Public Schools Flexibility Defined – The ability to bend joints and stretch muscles through a full range of motion. Some activities include: - Stretching (Sit & Reach) - Warm-up & Cool-down
  143. 143. Orange County Public Schools Body Composition Defined – The amount of fat tissue relative to other tissue in your body. - Your body composition is based not on how much you weigh, but rather on how much of your weight is fat as opposed to muscle.
  144. 144. Orange County Public Schools Exercise Your Body & Mind Yoga, Pilates, Tai Chi • Reduce Stress • Increase strength • Increase Flexibility • Increase Energy
  145. 145. Orange County Public Schools Measuring Physical Activity Intensity – Target Heart Rate Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) 220 – AGE = MHR Target Heart Rate MHR X .60 = Minimum Heart Rate MHR X .80 = Maximum Heart Rate
  146. 146. Orange County Public Schools Target Heart Rate Are you training at the right pace? 220-____ = _____ (MHR) _____x .60 = ______(low) ____ x .80 = ______ (high) My range is _____ – ______ (60-80%) Training Zones: Warm-up Zone: 50-60% Fat Burning Zone: 60-70% Aerobic Zone: 70-80% Red Line Zone: 90-100%
  147. 147. Orange County Public Schools
  148. 148. Orange County Public Schools Criteria for a Healthy Meal • 800 kcalories or less • 35% or fewer kcal from fat – Emphasize monounsaturated, polyunsaturated oils – 10% or less of total kcal from saturated & trans fats – 100 mg or less of cholesterol • 45-65% kcal from carbohydrates – 10 gram or more from fiber – 10% or fewer kcal from added sugars • 15-25% kcal from protein • 1200 mg or less of sodium – About 1 teaspoon of salt
  149. 149. Orange County Public Schools Develop Healthy Menu Items • Use existing menu items • Modify existing items to make them more nutritious • Create new selections
  150. 150. Orange County Public Schools Planning Considerations • Is the menu item tasty? • Can each menu item be prepared properly by the cooking staff? • Does the menu item blend with/complement the menu? • Does the menu item meet the food habits/preferences of the guests? • Is there a balance of color? • Is there a balance of texture? • Is there a balance of shape? • Are flavors varied? • Are the food combinations acceptable? • Are cooking methods varied?
  151. 151. Orange County Public Schools To Modify A Recipe 1. Change/add healthy preparation techniques 2. Change/add healthy cooking techniques 3. Change an ingredient by Reducing it Eliminating it Replacing it 4. Add a new ingredient
  152. 152. Orange County Public Schools 152 Vary Your Veggies • Buy fresh veggies in season. • Use more fresh or frozen, less canned (except low sodium). • Have cut veggies available for snacks. • Have salad with dinner every night. • Add veggies to casseroles, pasta sauce, quick breads, etc. • Choose dark salad greens over iceberg.
  153. 153. Orange County Public Schools 153 Focus on Fruits • Use fruits in salads, side dishes,main dishes, desserts, and for snacks. • Keep fresh and dried fruit handy for snacks. • Cut up fruit on cereal, pancakes, and waffles. • Include canned and frozen fruits. • Buy in season. • Try unusual fruits. • Choose fruit more often than juice.
  154. 154. Orange County Public Schools 154 Get Your Calcium Rich Foods • Focus on fat-free or low-fat milk. • Drink fat-free or low-fat milk with meals and snacks. • Choose low-fat cheeses. • Use milk to make hot cereals. • Have low-fat yogurt as a snack. • Use lactose-free products if needed.
  155. 155. Orange County Public Schools 155 Go Lean With Protein • Select leanest cuts of meat. • Trim all fat and remove skin from poultry. • Prepare with no added fat. • Choose lean luncheon meats. • Eat beans as main dishes.
  156. 156. Orange County Public Schools 156 Oils: Tips for Healthy Choices • Use vegetable oils rather than solid fats. • Substitute nuts for meat or cheese as snack or in a meal sometimes. • Use Nutrition Facts to select foods low in saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol. • Select foods prepared with little or no fat. • Select lean or low-fat foods most often.

×