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Importance of nutrition

Nutrition is the study of the nutrients in food and how they nourish the body. Nutrients are components of food that are needed for the body to function

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The Importance of Nutrition
 Nutrition is the study of the nutrients in food and how
they nourish the body.
 Nutrients are components of food that are needed for the
body to function.
 Restaurant and foodservice professionals need to
understand the nutritional needs of their customers.
 When restaurant and foodservice professionals
understand how to combine nutrition science and culinary
arts, they are able to provide food that is both delicious
and healthful.
1
People need certain nutrients on a regular basis to maintain health and
prevent disease.
Nutrients: Carbohydrates
 Carbohydrates are the body’s main-energy source. They
help the body use protein and fat efficiently.
 Simple carbohydrates contain one or two sugars. They are
digested and absorbed quickly and provide a short burst of
energy:
 Glucose is a very important simple sugar. It is the primary
source of energy.
 Hormones are special chemical messengers made by bodies
that regulate different body functions.
 Complex carbohydrates contain long chains that include
many glucose molecules.
 Fiber is found only in plant food, along with starch and sugar.
It is the part of the plant that cannot be digested by people.
2
Nutrients: Lipids
 Lipids is another word for fat. Lipids are a group of
molecules that include fats, oils, waxes, steroids, and
other compounds:
 Fat is an essential nutrient with many functions.
 Fats are solid at room temperature and often come from animals.
Oils are liquid at room temperature.
 Essential fatty acids are required for good nutrition.
 Oxidation is a chemical process that causes unsaturated fats to
spoil.
 Cholesterol is a white, waxy substance that helps the body
carry out its many processes.
 Trans fatty acids are the result of taking a liquid fat and making
it solid.
3
Nutrients: Proteins
 Proteins are another class of nutrients that supply
energy to the body. They are needed to build new cells
and repair injured ones.
 Amino acids are chemical compounds that have special
functions in the body:
 Complete proteins are called complete because they contain all
the essential amino acids in the right amount.
 Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the essential amino
acids.
 Complementary proteins are two or more incomplete protein
sources that together provide adequate amounts of all the
essential amino acids.
4
Nutrients: Vitamins
and Minerals
 Without the right amounts of vitamins and minerals, people may
become deficient and develop deficiency-related diseases.
 Vitamins are chemical compounds found in food. They’re
needed for regulating metabolic processes, such as digestion,
and the absorption of nutrients.
 Minerals are classified as major or trace, according to how much
is needed in the diet.
 Some examples of major minerals are calcium, phosphorus,
potassium, sodium, and magnesium.
 Even though some minerals are needed in very tiny amounts,
getting the right amount is important to good health.
5
Vitamins and minerals help in growth, reproduction, and the operation
and maintenance of the body.
Nutrients: Water
 Water is an essential nutrient. It is essential to all forms of life.
 About 55 to 65 percent of the human body is water by weight.
Cells, tissues, and organs need water to function.
 Water has many important roles:
 Helping with the digestion, absorption, and transportation of
nutrients.
 Helping with the elimination of wastes through the kidneys, colon,
and lungs.
 Distributing heat throughout the body and allowing heat to be
released through the skin by evaporation (sweating).
 Lubricating joints and cushioning body tissues.
 The human body can live a long time without many other
nutrients, but only a few days without water.
6

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Importance of nutrition

  • 1. The Importance of Nutrition  Nutrition is the study of the nutrients in food and how they nourish the body.  Nutrients are components of food that are needed for the body to function.  Restaurant and foodservice professionals need to understand the nutritional needs of their customers.  When restaurant and foodservice professionals understand how to combine nutrition science and culinary arts, they are able to provide food that is both delicious and healthful. 1 People need certain nutrients on a regular basis to maintain health and prevent disease.
  • 2. Nutrients: Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates are the body’s main-energy source. They help the body use protein and fat efficiently.  Simple carbohydrates contain one or two sugars. They are digested and absorbed quickly and provide a short burst of energy:  Glucose is a very important simple sugar. It is the primary source of energy.  Hormones are special chemical messengers made by bodies that regulate different body functions.  Complex carbohydrates contain long chains that include many glucose molecules.  Fiber is found only in plant food, along with starch and sugar. It is the part of the plant that cannot be digested by people. 2
  • 3. Nutrients: Lipids  Lipids is another word for fat. Lipids are a group of molecules that include fats, oils, waxes, steroids, and other compounds:  Fat is an essential nutrient with many functions.  Fats are solid at room temperature and often come from animals. Oils are liquid at room temperature.  Essential fatty acids are required for good nutrition.  Oxidation is a chemical process that causes unsaturated fats to spoil.  Cholesterol is a white, waxy substance that helps the body carry out its many processes.  Trans fatty acids are the result of taking a liquid fat and making it solid. 3
  • 4. Nutrients: Proteins  Proteins are another class of nutrients that supply energy to the body. They are needed to build new cells and repair injured ones.  Amino acids are chemical compounds that have special functions in the body:  Complete proteins are called complete because they contain all the essential amino acids in the right amount.  Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the essential amino acids.  Complementary proteins are two or more incomplete protein sources that together provide adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids. 4
  • 5. Nutrients: Vitamins and Minerals  Without the right amounts of vitamins and minerals, people may become deficient and develop deficiency-related diseases.  Vitamins are chemical compounds found in food. They’re needed for regulating metabolic processes, such as digestion, and the absorption of nutrients.  Minerals are classified as major or trace, according to how much is needed in the diet.  Some examples of major minerals are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium.  Even though some minerals are needed in very tiny amounts, getting the right amount is important to good health. 5 Vitamins and minerals help in growth, reproduction, and the operation and maintenance of the body.
  • 6. Nutrients: Water  Water is an essential nutrient. It is essential to all forms of life.  About 55 to 65 percent of the human body is water by weight. Cells, tissues, and organs need water to function.  Water has many important roles:  Helping with the digestion, absorption, and transportation of nutrients.  Helping with the elimination of wastes through the kidneys, colon, and lungs.  Distributing heat throughout the body and allowing heat to be released through the skin by evaporation (sweating).  Lubricating joints and cushioning body tissues.  The human body can live a long time without many other nutrients, but only a few days without water. 6
  • 7. The Digestive System  Digestion is the process of breaking down food into its simplest parts so that it can be absorbed:  Digestion begins in the mouth.  The teeth grind food into smaller pieces and mix it with saliva.  After you swallow food, the stomach breaks it down with the aid of enzymes and acids, turning it into a fluid called chyme.  The chyme moves to the small intestine, where the majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs.  As the digestive system sends the nutrients to parts of the body to be used, the wastes of digestion are sent to the large intestine.  The large intestine absorbs water and stores feces for elimination through the colon and anus. 7
  • 8. Food Additives  Many additives occur naturally or are extracted from food. Others are synthetic but chemically identical to natural substances.  All food additives are carefully regulated by the Food and Drug Administration.  Additives help keep food wholesome and appealing during transport to markets.  Without additives, many food items would be less attractive, less flavorful, less nutritious, more likely to spoil, and more costly. 8 A food additive is a chemical substance or combination of substances present in food as a result of processing, production, or packaging. Food additives are chemical substances added to foods to improve flavour, texture, colour, appearance and consistency, or as preservatives during manufacturing or processing. Herbs, spices, hops, salt, yeast, water, air and protein hydrolysates are excluded from this definition. Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, (300) is extracted from fruit, and lecithin (322) from egg yolks. Aspartame, Benzoate, Monosodium glutamate Nitrates, Sulphite, Tartrazine
  • 9. A Healthy Diet  Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are recommended daily nutrient and energy intake amounts for healthy people of a particular age range and gender.  Recommended Dietary Allowances are daily nutrient standards established by the U.S. government.  Adequate intakes are similar to RDAs. They also identify daily intake levels for healthy people.  A vegetarian is a person who consumes no meat, fish, or poultry products:  Lacto-vegetarians consume vegetarian items plus dairy products  Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume vegetarian items plus dairy products and eggs.  A vegan follows the strictest diet of all and will consume no dairy, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, or anything containing an animal product or byproduct. 9
  • 10. A Healthy Diet (cont.)  The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 offers science-based advice about food choices to promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases:  Malnutrition is a condition that occurs when a body does not get enough nutrients.  A person who is overweight or obese has a weight that is greater than what is generally considered healthy.  Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones gradually lose their minerals and become weak and fragile.  Iron-deficiency anemia is a lack of iron in a person’s blood.  Cardiovascular diseases affect the heart and blood vessels.  Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the body cannot regulate blood sugar properly.  To reduce the risk of cancer, eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, limit red meat, and exercise. 10
  • 11. Reducing Excessive Fats  Saturated fats (butter, lard, tropical oils) and trans fats (margarine, shortening) can be reduced by using less and replacing them with alternative products.  Using high-quality lean meat is a good strategy for replacing the large amounts of fat found in prime cuts.  For food items that can’t be changed, limit the frequency with which they are eaten or decrease the portion size that is served.  When making substitutions, remember the purpose for the substitution and the role that fat plays in the food item. Not all fats can be reduced, removed, or replaced. 11
  • 12. (Summary)  Nutrition is the study of nutrients in food and how they nourish the body.  The six basic nutrients found in food are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water.  Food additives improve flavor, color, and texture; retain nutritional value; prevent spoilage; and extend shelf life.  Digestion breaks down food into its simplest parts.  A healthy diet emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. It includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. It is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt, and added sugars.  Malnutrition is the condition that occurs when your body does not get enough nutrients. 12
  • 13. 13 The Six Nutrients For Health  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats  Fibers  Vitamins  Water
  • 14. 14 Carbohydrates (CHO)  Compounds composed of single or multiple Sugars  Simple Carbohydrates  Complex Carbohydrates  Main source of energy for fueling body  Body can store CHO as glycogen for later use  60-65% of calories should come from CHO  Need 100-130 grams/day for protein sparing  Provide 4 calories/gram
  • 15. 15 Simple Carbohydrates  These include monosaccharides and disaccharides  Recommend limiting specific CHO in diet  Foods that fall into this category  Cakes  Candy  Cookies  Pies  Soda  Table Sugar
  • 16. 16 Complex Carbohydrates  These include 2 types of polysaccharides  Starches and Fiber  Recommend that majority of CHO in diet come from complex CHO  Foods that fall into this category include  Beans (black, kidney, refried)  Fruit, especially fresh fruit  Fruits (fresh or frozen over canned)  Whole grains • Whole wheat bread, pasta and cereals, brown rice, etc.
  • 17. 17 Importance of Dietary Fiber  Promotes feeling of fullness after eating  Beneficial for weight loss/maintenance  Helps prevent Diverticulosis*  Reduces blood cholesterol levels  Reduces heart disease and stroke  Slows digestion and absorption of CHO  Improves body’s handling of insulin and glucose  May reduce risk of colon cancer Diverticulosis is the condition of having multiple pouches (diverticula) in the colon that are not inflamed. These are outpockets of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall. They typically cause no symptoms.
  • 18. 18 Special Reasons to Pay Extra Attention to Carbohydrates  Diabetes (Type I and Type II)  Hypoglycemia  Sports Nutrition  Obesity Control
  • 19. 19 Diabetes  This is high Sugar levels  Fasting level > 140mg/dL  There are 2 types of diabetics  Type I: insulin dependent; pancreas is not producing insulin; typically in child/young adults  Type II: non-insulin dependent; pancreas is producing insulin but cells aren’t responding; typically in overweight adults  Diet and exercise are the best, natural ways to control blood sugar levels
  • 20. 20  This is low sugar/ glucose level  Fasting level < 70mg/dL  Diet is the best way to treat this condition Hypoglycemia
  • 21. 21 Sports Nutrition  Athletes or individuals that exercise regularly need to make sure their diet is rich in CHO for several reasons:  Energy  Helps recovery from a hard workout or event  Replenishes glycogen stores after they have been depleted from exercise
  • 22. 22 Weight Control  CHO can be a smart and healthy choice for weight control when eaten properly  Watch portion size  Choose the right kind of CHO  CHO are not fattening per say; HOWEVER  If one eats too many CHO in the diet, the body will convert the glucose to fat and will store it in adipose tissue
  • 23. 23 Proteins  Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen arranged in strands of amino acids  15-20% of calories should come from protein  Protein in foods provide 4 calories/gram
  • 24. 24 Types of Proteins in Body  Enzymes  Hormones  Antibodies  Cell Receptors  Transporters  Structural Components
  • 25. 25 Roles of Proteins in Body  Supports growth and maintenance  Builds enzymes, hormones, antibodies  Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance  Maintains acid-base balance  Provides energy
  • 26. 26 Protein Foods  Meat, Poultry, Fish  Cheese, Cottage cheese  Nuts  Peanut Butter  Eggs  Soy products such as Tofu
  • 27. 27 Special Reasons to Pay Extra Attention to Protein Intake  Children  Important due to growing  Diabetes  Hypoglycemia  Athlete/Exerciser  Need more protein than sedentary individuals to help rebuild muscle and tissue  Renal (kidney) Disease
  • 28. 28 Renal Disease  Individuals that suffer from renal insufficiency have specific protein needs  Before Dialysis  Decrease protein in diet  During Dialysis  Increase protein in diet
  • 29. 29 Fats  Lipids that are solid at room temperature  Main source of energy storage  20-30% of calories should come from fat  Fat provides 9 calories/gram
  • 30. 30 Types of Lipids  Fatty Acids  Triglycerides  Storage form of fatty acid  Phospholipids  Sterols  Cholesterol
  • 31. 31 Usefulness of Fats  Fuel  Storage of energy  Protection from the environment  Absorption of fat soluble vitamins  Provides flavors and texture to foods  Satiety
  • 32. 32 Different Types of Fats  Monounsaturated  Polyunsaturated  Essential Fatty Acids  Omega 3  Omega 6  Saturated  Trans Fatty Acid
  • 33. 33 Monounsaturated Fats  These fats are considered healthy fats  Sources of monounsaturated fats  Canola Oil  Olive Oil
  • 34. 34 Polyunsaturated Fats  These are considered healthier fats  Sources of polyunsaturated fats  Safflower Oil  Sunflower Oil  Corn Oil
  • 35. 35 Saturated Fats  These fats are the “bad” fats  These are the fats that raise cholesterol in the blood and lead to heart disease  Sources of saturated fats  Coconut Oil  Butterfat  Trans Fatty Acids
  • 36. 36 Trans Fatty Acids  These are the “newer” discovery of bad fats  Have unusual shapes that can arise when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated  Sources of trans fat  Margarines and shortenings  Salad dressings and mayonnaise  Biscuits, cookies, crackers  Chips, doughnuts  Fried foods
  • 37. 37 Special Reasons to Pay Extra Attention to Fat Intake  Heart Disease  High Cholesterol  Thrombosis  Obesity  Removal of Gallbladder
  • 38. 38 Heart Disease  Number 1 killer in USA  A high fat diet causes arteries to clog and build up plaque  High Cholesterol  Total Cholesterol  < 200 mg/dL  LDL Cholesterol: “Bad”  < 100 mg/dL  HDL Cholesterol “Healthy”  > 60 mg/dL  Triglycerides  < 150 mg/dL
  • 39. 39 Thrombosis  Stationary blood clot that closes off a blood vessel  Embolism  A blood clot that breaks loose • This leads to a heart attack or stroke depending on where the breakage occurs • Obesity  High fat diets lead to increase risk of weight gain  Remember that fat has the most calories per gram out of the 3 macronutrients  Obesity increases the risk of  Diabetes  Heart disease/stroke  Hypertension  Mobility problesm