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# Thermodynamics

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### Thermodynamics

1. 1. Kinetic theory & thermodynamics<br />By: John Smith <br />Christopher Dale<br />
2. 2. Ideal Gases<br /> is the ideal situation of temperature, volume, and pressure for one mole.<br />one Mole is the amount of substance that contains as many atoms or molecules as would be is 12 grams of carbon 12.<br />
3. 3. Kinetic model<br /> collection of particles that are in a constant random collision with each other.<br />
4. 4. Ideal gas law<br /> relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed quantity of gas.<br />the equation is PV=nRT. <br />
5. 5. Thermodynamics<br /> first law is law of conservation of energy<br /> the second law is the flow of heat.<br />
6. 6. Law of conservation of energy<br /> the theory is that energy is nether created or destroyed.<br /> equation is U=Q-W<br />Which means the change of internal energy equals the net heat minus the net work done by the system.<br />
7. 7. Law of conservation of energy<br /> is a isothermal process, so temperature is constant<br />For an ideal gas, PV=a constant, so PV is a curve, as shown<br />Again, Q is heat added<br /> to the system<br />
8. 8. 2nd Law of thermodynamics<br />is the idea that heat flows from hot object to a cold object; but not the other way.<br /> *A refrigerator moves heat from a cooler environment to a warmer one, but only by doing work.<br />
9. 9. this is an example of heat transfer<br />
10. 10. Heat Engines<br />a heat engine is any devise that changes thermal energy into mechanical work, such as steam engines and automobile engines.<br />
11. 11. Example #1<br /> standard condition or standard temperature and pressure.<br /> T=237K<br /> P=1.00atm=1.013×10^5N/m^2=101.3kPa<br />
12. 12. determine the volume of 1.00 mol of any gas at stp, assume ideal gas<br /> V=nRT/P<br /> (1.00)(8.315)(237)/(1.013x10^5)<br /> =22.4x10^-3m^3<br />
13. 13. Example #2<br /> an amount of heat equal to 2500J is added to a system, and 1800J of work is done on the system. What is the change in internal energy of the system?<br /> Q=2500J<br /> W=-1800J<br />
14. 14. U = 2500J-(-1800J)<br /> =2500J+1800J=4300J<br />
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