S. Khadke


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S. Khadke

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. <ul><li>CANDIDATE NAME – KHADKE S.B. </li></ul><ul><li>BRANCH – MECHANICAL ENGG. </li></ul><ul><li>ROLL NO.- 1031 - ME-4C </li></ul><ul><li>COLLEGE – GOVT. POLYTECHNIC,NANDED. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>FUNDAMENTAL OF THERMODYNAMIC </li></ul><ul><li>PURE SUBSTANCE :- </li></ul><ul><li>A substance that has a fixed chemical composition throughout its mass . </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. air . </li></ul><ul><li>a mixture of water and oil is not apure substance . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>B) BOUNDRAY:- The envelop enclosing the system , which may be real or imaginary . </li></ul><ul><li>C) SURROUNDING :- The region outside the system . </li></ul><ul><li>D) UNIVERS :- When system and surrounding put together is known as universe . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEM :- </li></ul><ul><li>A) CLOSED SYSTEM :- In this system only transfer of energy but no mass. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Piston & cylinder without valve. </li></ul><ul><li>B) OPEN SYSTEM :- In this system ,both of energy as well as mass transfer. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Steam turbine </li></ul><ul><li>C) ISOLATED SYSTEM :- It is purely theoretical system . </li></ul>
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY :- <ul><li>A) INTENSIVE PROPRTY:- It is defined as the property do not depend upon mass. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. pressure ,temp. specific volume . </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXTENSIVE PROPERTY :- It is defined as the property which depend on mass of the system. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Total volume,enthalpy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>1) STATE - it is define as the exact condition </li></ul><ul><li>of a substance to define it at least two </li></ul><ul><li>properties are known . </li></ul><ul><li>2) PROCESS – it define as transformation </li></ul><ul><li>in which change from one initial state to final state . </li></ul><ul><li>3) CYCLE – Cycle is defined as a process of </li></ul><ul><li>combination of processes to so conducted </li></ul><ul><li>that the initial and final state of the system </li></ul><ul><li>are the same . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>TYPE OF SYSTEM :- </li></ul><ul><li>A) SYSTEM :- The term system is defined as region where transfer of energy or mass are to be studied . </li></ul><ul><li>boundary. </li></ul><ul><li>surrounding. </li></ul>system
  9. 9. <ul><li>4) PATH - it thermodynamic system </li></ul><ul><li>passing through series of state constitute </li></ul><ul><li>a path . </li></ul><ul><li>5) POINT FUNCTION – The each property </li></ul><ul><li>has a single valve at each state </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. property of system depend upon </li></ul><ul><li>state of the system therefore function </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Internal energy, flow energy </li></ul><ul><li>volume, entropy , enthalpy . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>6) PATH FUNCTION :- </li></ul><ul><li>A path function can be define as a </li></ul><ul><li>quantity whose integral is zero . </li></ul><ul><li>The thermodynamic quantities which </li></ul><ul><li>are dependent on path followed between </li></ul><ul><li>the two end state of the process and </li></ul><ul><li>independent on the two end state are </li></ul><ul><li>the path function . </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE- HEAT AND WORK . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>FLOW WORK :- </li></ul><ul><li>The working substance push in and out of the device . The work done in causing such a flow is known as flow work </li></ul><ul><li>F.W = PVs N-M. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>ENTHALPY - </li></ul><ul><li>it is a “Total heat “ content of the system and defined as energy which is algebraic sum of internal energy and flow work . </li></ul><ul><li>ENTROPY – </li></ul><ul><li>energy is a thermodynamic property of a working substance which increase with the addition of heat a and decrease with removal of heat . </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>WORK </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINATION – work is the energy transfer </li></ul><ul><li>associated with a force acting through </li></ul><ul><li>a distance . </li></ul><ul><li>1] positive work – If works done by the system on the surrounding , work is </li></ul><ul><li>said to be positive . </li></ul><ul><li>2] Negative work – If work done on the system then work is said to be negative work . </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>HEAT </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINATION – Heat is the energy interaction driving force caused by the </li></ul><ul><li>temperature difference between the </li></ul><ul><li>system and surrounding . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>A] POTENTIONAL ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>- It is the energy possessed by a body due to its molecular arrangement. </li></ul><ul><li>B] KINETIC ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>It is the energy possessed by a body when it is in motion . </li></ul><ul><li>C] INTERNAL ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>I.E. may be defined as the algebraic sum of kinetic energy and potential energy of its molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>it is extensive property. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>LAW OF THERMODYNAMIC </li></ul><ul><li>ZEORTH LAW THERMODYNAMIC – </li></ul><ul><li>STATEMENT- “If two bodies are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third body then must be in equilibrium with each other . </li></ul><ul><li>E.G </li></ul>A B C
  18. 18. <ul><li>FIRST LAW:- </li></ul><ul><li>This law state that “ The energy can neither be created nor destroyed through it can be transformed from one form to another . According to this law , when a system undergoes a change of state both heat & WORK takes place .the energy stored in internal form . </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>SECOND LAW :– </li></ul><ul><li>1) KELVIN- PLANK STATEMENT- </li></ul><ul><li>It is impossible to construct an heat engine working in a cyclic process whose sole effect is not convert all the heat supplied to it into an equivalent amount of work . </li></ul><ul><li>2) CLAUSIUS STATEMENT- </li></ul><ul><li>It state that “It is impossible for heat energy to flow from a body at low to high temp. </li></ul>
  20. 20. any question ...?