Two students in the class have been asked by Mr Cassidy to inform on the behaviour of the other students in the class and will report back to me after class. These students have been told not to tell anybody else (even fellow informers) what they are doing.
How does this make you feel? Happy? Annoyed?
THE POLICE STATE
Hitler’s dictatorship-how he kept control of Germany
Explain how the Nazis used fear and terror to maintain their control over Germans.
Explain why the SS and Gestapo were so important.
“ Terror is the best political weapon for nothing drives people harder than a fear of sudden death.”
How did Hitler keep control of Germany? Everyone was scared of being arrested by the Gestapo and being put in a concentration camp. The Police State’s aim is to control EVERY aspect of people’s lives Use of Terror Secret police ( Gestapo ) would spy on and arrest enemies of the state. SS were responsible for running the concentration camps.
After June 1934, Night of Long Knives became main instrument of terror
What was the Gestapo?
Originally Prussian secret police , run by Goering
June 1936, became branch of SS run by Himmler
Tapped phones, intercepted mail, received denunciations from informers
How useful were informers?
NSDAP had strong local structure – Gauleiters responsible for Gau, divided into towns, streets & blocks
Activists were ‘eyes & ears’ of Party
Reports compiled on any form of opposition – telling anti-Hitler jokes, refusing to give Hitler salute, not flying Nazi flag
What were concentration camps?
Began as temporary prisons in disused warehouse or temporary enclosures
Political opponents & ‘ asocials ’ imprisoned
Slave labour used to manufacture weapons or work on public works schemes
Did the Nazis obey the law?
Existing police forces, courts, laws remained in force
Police put under command of Himmler & SS
Judges swore oath of loyalty
People’s Court & Special Court tried political opponents & traitors
How did the Terror State Work? Start here: Gestapo Spies inform on you You are woken up by the Gestapo at 1 am in the morning and told that you have 5 minutes to pack your bags. You are arrested and thrown into a cell at the police station Days or maybe weeks later you are interviewed and asked to sign form D11 By signing this form you are giving your consent to be put into a concentration camp. You are handed over to the SS who run the concentration camps. You are imprisoned for up to six months doing hard physical labour. When you are released you tell everybody what has happened to you Fear
How did the Terror State Work?
Everyone knew someone who knew someone else who had been in a concentration camp.
Favourite Saying amongst Germans: ‘Speak through a Flower.’
800,000 Germans were imprisoned from 1933 – 1945 as ‘Enemies of the State.’
500,000 were executed by being shot in the neck.
Enemies of the State
Germans who bought from Jews
Radical Christian Organisation
Anyone who criticised Hitler or the Nazi Party.
Enemies of the State
A list of German women who were still purchasing goods from Jewish shops.
Printed to scare or terrorise other people into not buying from the Jews.
David Low, ‘Who is it for this time?’, 1942.
Terror/ police state- keeping control The Nazis controlled all information
In the media (radio/ newspapers/ cinema etc)
Through youth groups
Through the SS & Gestapo
“ Terror is the best political weapon for nothing drives people harder than a fear of sudden death.” Many Germans didn’t know what was really going on. They were afraid to speak out because the Nazis encouraged people to inform on anybody who didn’t support them- and these people would be arrested.
The policy of using threats to discourage opposition was widespread. OPPOSITION Leaders made it clear in their speeches that all _____would be ______. _______ in posters, newspapers, radio and films contained veiled threats. The ___ was a _______ presence in public places and at marches and rallies. The _______ was greatly feared. There was a _____of ____and informers in factories and public places. Gestapo; propaganda; SS; threatening; opposition; crushed; network; spies Intimidation
How did Hitler keep control of Germany? Everyone was scared of being arrested by the Gestapo and being put in a concentration camp. Hitler Youth & the Young Maidens. Creating Jobs Keeping Control of Germany Propaganda Mass Rallies, Posters and Propaganda films. The Nazis controlled and censored the radio & newspapers. School children were indoctrinated with Nazi ideas at school. The Terror State Secret police called the Gestapo would spy on and arrest enemies of the state. SS were responsible for running the concentration camps. Popularity Ripping up the Treaty of Versailles. The Police State’s aim is to control EVERY aspect of people’s lives
Read the sources on the sheet and answer the questions on the task sheet
Sources Task sheet
Imagine you are a German citizen who hates the way Hitler and the Nazis are using terror to govern the country. You want to smuggle a secret message out to the rest of the world describing how awful the situation is. You make contact with a local anti-Nazi agent who tells you to write down the facts on a slip of paper that can easily be memorised and destroyed! Write a summary of the individuals and methods used to terrorise ordinary Germans in no more than 75 words. Can you memorise your secret message?