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  1. 1. Nazi Germany Initial Consolidation of Power 1933-34Monday, 18 March 13
  2. 2. Gleichschaltung "coordination", "making the same", "bringing into line" "forcible-coordination"Monday, 18 March 13
  3. 3. GLEISCHALTUNG is the process of Nazification of German political, social, economic and cultural life from 1933 onwards.Monday, 18 March 13
  4. 4. One people, one empire, one leaderMonday, 18 March 13
  5. 5. Hitler established a one-party dictatorship to realise the Nazi ideology of Volksgemeinshaft, a racially unified and hierarchical society in which the interests of individuals would be strictly subordinate to those of the nation, or Volk.Monday, 18 March 13
  6. 6. The period from 1933 to 1937 was characterised by the systematic elimination of non-Nazi organisations that could potentially influence people, such as trade unions, political parties and religious groups.Monday, 18 March 13
  7. 7. The Nazis used the term “Gleichschaltung” to refer to the specific legal measures taken by the government from the first months following January 30, 1933, when Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. It is through this process that Germany becomes a fascist state.Monday, 18 March 13
  8. 8. fas·cism  (fshzm) n. a. A system of government marked by centralisation of authority under a dictator, tight socio-economic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy of aggressive nationalism and racism.Monday, 18 March 13
  9. 9. November election, 1932Monday, 18 March 13
  10. 10. November election, 1932 Hitler’s attempts to become Chancellor are rebuffed by Hindenburg who said: A presidential cabinet led by you would inevitably develop into a party dictatorship with all the consequences of drastic intensification of the antagonism within the German nationMonday, 18 March 13
  11. 11. Work and food, 1932Monday, 18 March 13
  12. 12. January 28, 1933 Despite his earlier reservations, President Hindenburg agrees to appoint Hitler as Chancellor in a bid to end the ongoing political instability (in the previous year there had been 4 elections in 8 months)Monday, 18 March 13
  13. 13. January 30, 1933 Hitler is appointed Chancellor. "We have the power. Now our gigantic work begins."Monday, 18 March 13
  14. 14. January 30, 1933 From a window in the Reich Chancellery, German president Paul von Hindenburg watches thousands of Nazis in a torchlight parade to celebrate of Hitlers appointment as German Chancellor.Monday, 18 March 13
  15. 15. New York Times, January 31, 1933 “HITLER MADE CHANCELLOR OF GERMANY BUT COALITION CABINET LIMITS POWER; CENTRISTS HOLD BALANCE IN REICHSTAG.”  After losing several elections to President Von Hindenburg, Franz von Papen makes a deal with the WWI general to make Adolf Hitler, leader of the National Socialist Party, Chancellor of Germany even though they don’t have a majority in the Reichstag.  The story states: “The composition of the Cabinet leaves Herr Hitler no scope for gratification of any dictatorial ambition.” The front page also contains a story by the AP headed, “HITLER PLEDGES FIGHT IN CABINET.” The Nazi statement says, in part, “After a thirteen-year struggle the National Socialist movement has succeeded in breaking through to the government; the struggle to win the German nation, however, is only the beginning.”Monday, 18 March 13
  16. 16. Monday, 18 March 13
  17. 17. "It is almost like a dream – a fairytale. The new [Third] Reich has been born. Fourteen years of work have been crowned with victory. The German revolution has begun!" Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary, Jan. 30, 1933Monday, 18 March 13
  18. 18. Under the Weimar Constitution, the chancellor had little political power and acted as a chairman. Cabinet decisions were made by majority vote and there were 8 Conservative politicians and two Nazis: Frick and Goering These two factors meant that the Conservatives (backed by the Reichswehr, industrialists and Junkers), led by von Papen, believed they could use the Nazis to gain political control in Germany and end the rising support for Communists (up from 80 to 100 seats in the Nov, ’32 election)Monday, 18 March 13
  19. 19. "Within two months we will have pushed Hitler so far in the corner that hell squeak." von Papen, 1933Monday, 18 March 13
  20. 20. The infighting and jockeying for power had led the Conservatives to make a massive political miscalculation - within two years Hitler destroyed all who stood in his way and many who had supported him were dead (SA leaders, von Schleicher), in concentration camps or under house arrest (von Papen)Monday, 18 March 13
  21. 21. Monday, 18 March 13
  22. 22. February 4, 1933 “Decree for the Protection of the German People,” issued, using Article 48 - gives govt. temporary powers to: •prohibit public meetings •suppress publications deemed “dangerous” •ban strikes in vital areas. •expanded powers of arrest, This decree allowed the government to round up Communist and Social Democratic candidates in the weeks leading up to the March general elections.Monday, 18 March 13
  23. 23. February 22, 1933 Göering (Minister of the Interior for Prussia) takes control of the police Göering replaced hundreds of police officials with Nazis Göering set up an auxiliary police force (Hilfspolizei) of 50,000 men, composed mostly of members of the SA and SS.Monday, 18 March 13
  24. 24. February 27, 1933 “Democracy burns” - the infamous burning of the Reichstag. This event is seen as a pivotal moment in the beginning of Nazi Germany.Monday, 18 March 13
  25. 25. February 27, 1933 The alleged arsonist was Marinus van der Lubbe, a young Dutch Communist of questionable sanity; he was arrested on the spot and executed the following year. Nazi officials immediately claimed the fire was an attempt by the Communists to overthrow the government and took drastic action.Monday, 18 March 13
  26. 26. This is the beginning of the Communist revolution! We must not wait a minute. We will show no mercy. Every Communist official must be shot, where he is found. Every Communist deputy must this very day be strung up." Hermann GoeringMonday, 18 March 13
  27. 27. February 27, 1933 Decree for the Protection of the People and the State of February 28. Popularly known as the Reichstag Fire Decree Hitler convinced Hindenburg to use Article 48 to permanently suspend civil liberties protected by the Weimar Constitution These included: habeus corpus right to assembly freedom of speech freedom of the press all restraints on police investigationsMonday, 18 March 13
  28. 28. The “Decree for the Protection of the German People,” was a significant step to establishing a one-party Nazi dictatorship •Thousands were imprisoned in the days following the fire, including leading KPD (Communists), Social Democrats and trade unionists •March and April 1933 alone, over 45,000 women and men were taken in so-called protective custody and incarcerated in prisons and newly established concentration camps,Monday, 18 March 13
  29. 29. March 5, 1933 General election, NSDAP wins only 44% of the vote. Whilst they are unable to win a clear majority, the election gives the NSDAP legitimacy despite the fact that other parties were prevented from campaigning by new laws and SA intimidation and violenceMonday, 18 March 13
  30. 30. March 23, 1933 The Enabling Act, a law giving Hitler dictatorial powers, was passed. This “Law to Remedy the Distress of the People and the Reich”, allowed Hitler’s government to pass laws without approval of the Reichstag or President.Monday, 18 March 13
  31. 31. Otto Wels, leader of the SPD, had his citizenship revoked in 1933 and fled to Paris Social Democratic Party (SPD), the only party to vote against the Enabling Act, was banned. Its leaders were stripped of their citizenship (above) or arrested. All other parties disbanded to avoid persecution, arrest and being sent to concentration camps.Monday, 18 March 13
  32. 32. March- April, 1933 March 4 - SA raids on gay bars March 11 - SA attack Jewish-owned shops March 20 - Nazis build Dachau concentration camp March 26 - Hitler calls for boycott of Jewish shops April 1 - SA prevent people from entering Jewish shops April 7 - Jews and dissenters banned from civil service April 21 - Kosher tradition outlawed April 25 - quotas introduced on Jewish children in schoolsMonday, 18 March 13
  33. 33. April 26, 1933 The Nazis took over state and local government. The Nazis started to replace anti-Nazi civil servants, teachers and University professors.  Hitler set up the Gestapo (the secret police) and encouraged Germans to report opponents.   Tens of thousands of Jews, Communists, Protestants, Jehovahs Witnesses, gypsies, homosexuals, alcoholics and prostitutes were arrested and sent to concentration camps for crimes as small as writing anti-Nazi graffiti, possessing a banned book, or making anti-Nazi statements.Monday, 18 March 13
  34. 34. Monday, 18 March 13
  35. 35. May 2, 1933 Trade Unions offices were closed, their money confiscated, and their leaders put in prison.   Hitler established the German Labour Front (DAF) in their place, which reduced workers pay and abolished the right to strike.Monday, 18 March 13
  36. 36. May 10, 1933 In 34 university towns across Germany, the “German Student Association” of Nazi Germany ceremonially burnt 45,000 books in an attempt to “purify” the German language and culture. The books by liberal, anarchist, socialist, pacifist, communist, Jewish, and other authors whose ideologies conflicted with the National Socialism were viewed as “degenerate” or subversiveMonday, 18 March 13
  37. 37. “ The era of extreme Jewish intellectualism is now at an end. The breakthrough of the German revolution has again cleared the way on the German path...The future German man will not just be a man of books, but a man of character. It is to this end that we want to educate you. As a young person, to already have the courage to face the pitiless glare, to overcome the fear of death, and to regain respect for death - this is the task of this young generation. And thus you do well in this midnight hour to commit to the flames the evil spirit of the past. This is a strong, great and symbolic deed - a deed which should document the following for the world to know - Here the intellectual foundation of the November Republic is sinking to the ground, but from this wreckage the phoenix of a new spirit will triumphantly rise. ” — Joseph Goebbels,  Speech to the students in BerlinMonday, 18 March 13
  38. 38. July 14, 1933 The "Law against the establishment of political parties" declared the Nazi Party to be the countrys only legal party. However, for all practical purposes Germany had been a one-party state since the passage of the Enabling Act.Monday, 18 March 13
  39. 39. October 4, 1933 Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda, effectively takes control of Germany’s media with the Reich Press Law. The law stated that all journalism had to be “racially clean”. Any Jewish and liberal editors and journalists were sacked and all remaining editors had to take a Nazi citizenship test. Paragraph 14 of the law required editors to omit anything “calculated to weaken the strength of the Reich”.Monday, 18 March 13
  40. 40. April 24, 1934 Peoples Courts - Hitler sets up the Nazi peoples courts where judges have to swear an oath of loyalty to the Nazis. The "Peoples Court" was set up outside the operations of the constitutional frame of law. The court had jurisdiction over a broad array of "political offenses".Monday, 18 March 13
  41. 41. David Low, 1934, “They salute with both hands now June 30, 1934 Night of the Long Knives - members of the Nazi paramilitary Storm Division (SA) demanded that the Nazi party carry out its radical socialist agenda, and that the SA take over the army. The SS murdered the leader of the SA, Ernst Rohm, and 85 SA members, along with a number of Hitlers other opponents including former Chancellor von Schleicher. This operation eliminates opposition to Hitler within Nazi ranks.Monday, 18 March 13
  42. 42. August 19, 1934 When Hindenburg died, Hitler assumed the office of President and leader of the army (the soldiers had to swear to die for Adolf Hitler personally).   Hitler called himself Fuhrer.Monday, 18 March 13
  43. 43. SOURCES germany.htm power-1480162 AAAAAAAAATY/NveHYH9CKlo/s1600/ nazi_propaganda_ein_volk.jpg, 18 March 13
  44. 44. hitlerconsolidaterev1.shtml %2F~patchw%2FHis_214%2Fphotogallery%2F1932_Hitlers %2520Rise.pptx Germany-(PowerPoint)Monday, 18 March 13
  45. 45. nazi_genocide_timeline/index_embed.shtml Download-as-PowerPoint, 18 March 13