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  • 1. Annotated Bibliography: Elaboration Likelihood Model Chelsea Tanner Missouri State University
  • 2. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 2 Ching Ching, C. (2011). Enhancing Self-Referencing to Health Messages. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 45(1), 147-164. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6606.2010.01196.x Purpose and Scope of Article The purpose of this article is to figure out the best way to find information to dram interest from a target audience. In this study health campaigners are trying to draw interest from their target audience and properly persuade them to understand the information the campaigners are trying to convey. Summary of Literature Review The author cites Keller and Block(1996) for their study of conscious cognitive activities. Their study examines the importance of attracting your audience. The article explores the importance of relating a message to one’s personal experiences and its’ elaborative process (Klein and Loftus 1988; Rogers, Kuiper, and Kirker 1977). The author also refers to Parrot (1995) whose studies explore linguistic message tactics. The article frequently refers to Selfreferencing as discussed by Burnkrant and Unnava(1995). Lastly, the author uses Petty and Cacioppo’s ELM theory explaining the two thought routes: peripheral and central. Summary of Research Method The researcher performed a qualitative study where 103 university students ages 19-23 in Taiwan were used. They were each given a survey which asked questions about their concern for their own health. Then they were assigned to read a health magazine with two hepatitis B ads following. One ad was written in second or third person while the other was written in first person. The subjects were then given another survey which asked their thoughts about each ad. Summary Results
  • 3. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 3 The results showed that the subjects were more affected by the ads written in first person. This somewhat complies to the ELM theory because the subjects used their peripheral route when reading ad because they were in a low elaboration situation. They were shown someone’s story about hepatitis which means they did not have to apply their own idea of someone living with hepatitis B. Summary of Article Findings/ Conclusion The research discovered what it was supposed to. The goal was to discover if selfreferencing health message were more effective while using the ELM theory. The article correctly analyzed self-referencing while complying with the ELM theory. Critical Analysis of the Article This article is relevant to the ELM theory and my research. It shows the accuracy of the theory when subjects are in a low elaboration situation. When subjects are in low elaboration situations they are likely to use the peripheral route. Hockett, K. S., & Hall, T. e. (2007, February). The Effect of Moral and Fear Appeals on Park Visitors' Beliefs about Feeding Wildlife. Journal Of Interpretation Research, 12(1), 5-27. Retrieved February 28, 2013, from EBSCOHost (1092-5872). Purpose and Scope of Article This study was done to test the effectiveness of two written messages trying to change campers’ beliefs about feeding deer in a National park. The article uses the ELM theory of persuasion to stimulate the central route of thought of the campers. Summary of Literature Review
  • 4. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 4 The article pulls information form Hamilton, Dunn, and Well(1993) and Reynolds & Braithwaite(2001) about campers’ thoughts about wildlife and the dangers that occur do to human-wildlife interaction. Also, information about fear provoking message studies conducted by Baron, Logan, Lilly, Inman, &Brennan(1994), and Meijnders, Midden, & Wilke(2001)are cited. Petty and Cacioppo’s EMT theory is used to a basis of measuring persuasion of the created messages. Summary of Research Method The researcher performed a qualitative study to test the effectiveness of the signs. Two signs were created warning about feeding the wildlife along with the standard sign. One was a fear appealing message and the other was morally appealing. The signs were posted in campers’ view for one whole weekend. When leaving, more than 100 campers were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Summary of Results The results found that “For most visitors (68-71%), wildlife viewing was an important aspect of the current trip, although only a few (9-12%) said it was their primary reason for visiting. This suggests that the topic of wildlife had high personal relevance, which should increase the likelihood of central route processing (p.14).” The results also concluded that the fear appealing message was more effective. Summary of article findings/conclusion This research in this article was done to test the effectiveness of fear and moral appeal in messages while appealing to central thinking at explained in the ELM theory. The researchers discovered that they were more effective and appealed to the campers’ central thought. Critical Analysis of Article
  • 5. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 5 This article uses the ELM theory as a basis to appeal to the central route. This research helped me in discovering more methods that appeal to the central thought process. Jing, J., & Xiaobo, T. (2012). HOW DO FIGURES OF SPEECH, CUE RELATEDNESS, AND MESSAGE INVOLVEMENT AFFECT CONSUMER ATTITUDE PERSISTENCE. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 40(2), 201202. doi:10.2224/sbp.2012.40.2.201 Purpose and Scope of Article This article examines consumer behaviors concerning the role verbal peripheral cues in figurative advertising headlines and the attitude formation of the consumers. Summary of Literature Review The researchers cite Wang & Muehling(2010) and their study about how consumers’ attitudes towards an advertisement changes overtime and effect their motivation to process advertising messaged. They also cite Ang & Lim(2006) fir their suggestions about how nonverbal cues affect attitude formation. Petty and Cacioppo’s ELM theory is the framework for this research. Summary of Research Method A qualitative study was done involving 158 college students. A fake brand was created and presented in print advertisement. Data was collect twice with an interval of one week to test the delayed reactions. The high involvement group was asked to comment on the advertisement and the low involvement group was asked to check for spelling errors. In the relevance of the heading and the target brand was manipulated. The attitudes were measure using 7-point scales for the initial ad. Five 7-point scales were used for the delayed attitudes.
  • 6. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL Summary of Results The results found that the delayed attitudes were overall more positive in the highinvolvement group and the relevant headlines were more effective in both groups than the irrelevant headlines. Summary of Article Finding/Conclusion This research found what it intended to. The results suggested that the use of figures of speech can enhance the attitude formation, but mostly in the case of the high-involvement subjects. Critical Analysis of the Article This article is relevant to my research. It helps to explain ELM theory when it comes to advertising and what is successful in this situation and what could be considered ineffective. Karson, E. J., & Korgaonkar, P. K. (2001). An Experimental Investigation of Internet Advertising and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising (CTC Press), 23(2). Retrieved February 27, 2013, from EBSCOHost (5595835). Purpose and Scope of Article This article focuses on the ELM theory when applied to media and advertising online. Peripheral cues and argument is tested with the influence of high involvement and low involvement. Summary of Literature Review 6
  • 7. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL Petty and Cacioppo’s (1986) Elaboration Likelihood model is cited frequently and provides the basis for the study. Also referenced is Cho’s model and modification related to the influence on the motivation to process banner ads(p.56). Summary of Research Method The researchers performed a qualitative study where 24 university students involved in the experiment which lasted an average of 17.45 minutes. The subjects viewed a website with a banner for the focal brand. There were additional pages for the product that could be viewed. The subjects were told to choose between the two web pages. The high involvement group was told to analyze the pages carefully because they would be asked to choose between the two and the low involvement subjects were just told a second page was to be viewed next. After the test subjects’ attitudes toward the pages’ ads were measured. They were asked their thoughts about the different ads. Summary of Results The results showed that the subjects in the high involvement group were shown to have significantly more thoughts about the advertisements and spent much more time analyzing the web pages. Summary of Article Findings/Conclusion The results of this study complied with the ELM theory. The subjects with high involvement used the center route of thinking and analyzed the pages carefully, while the subjects with low involvement over looked many on the ads and used peripheral cues when looking at the web pages. This shows that advertisements on web pages are rarely noticed by users and need have strong peripheral cues to catch users’ attention. 7
  • 8. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 8 Montoro-Rios, F., Luque-MartÍnez, T., & RodrÍguez-Molina, M. (2008, December). How Green Should You Be: Can Environmental Associations Enhance Brand Performance? Journal of Advertising Research, 48(4), 547-563. doi:10.2501/S0021849908080525 Purpose and Scope of the Article This study conducted an experiment to investigate the connection between the relevance of information about the environment to the attitudes toward a brand. Summary of Literature Review The background information the authors used was about environmental information and its’ connection to products or brands (Kassarjian 1971, Henion 1972, Kinnear and Taylor 1973) Also, the dual mediation model (Lutz, Mackenzie, and Belch 1983) and the Elaboration Likelihood model (Petty and Cacioppo 1981) are used as the theoretical bases. Summary of Research Method The researchers performed a qualitative study consisting of three groups. Group 1 was stimulated with information about the brand unrelated to its environmental performance. Group 2 receive the same information as group 1 as well as the environmental information. Group 3 was given the same information as the second group and an independent certification. The groups were shown two products; milk and detergent. The milk was the high involvement product and the detergent was the low. The subjects were then asked about the attitude toward the brand, toward the advertisement, and their purchase decision. Summary of Results The results showed no direct effects of the environmental information on the attitude toward the brand. In all groups the intent to buy for milk was higher than the intent to buy for the detergent.
  • 9. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 9 Summary of article Findings/Conclusion The article set out to find the relationship between environment information and attitudes toward certain brand using the ELM theory as a basis. The researchers’ hypothesis that more environment information about a product would was a positive effect on the buyer, but the results did not support their hypothesis. The ELM theory did stand up in the study. In all groups the intent to purchase was higher for the milk, which was the high involvement product. Critical Analysis of the Article This article was useful to my research in complying with the ELM theory. This article placed the high involvement and low involvement on the product rather that placing the subjects in a high or low involvement situation, which is different from most of the research I’ve done. This made the research unique and helped me apply the ELM theory in a different way. Pantos, A. J. Defining the cognitive mechanisms underlying reactions to foreign accented speech An experimental approach.Review Of Cognitive Linguistics, 10(2), 427-453. doi:10.1075/rcl.10.2.08pan Purpose and Scope of Article This article seeks to analyze the attitudes toward foreign language accents. The article analyzes the cognitive route and peripheral route as they are used when in the presence of a person speaking with a foreign accent. The researcher seeks to understand the nature of reactions to speakers with a foreign accent and to discover whether the negative attitudes are immediate or at what point they become negative. The article also reveals whether other speaker traits such as likeability or knowledge can change the attitudes toward a speaker with a foreign accent.
  • 10. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 10 Summary of Literate Review The author cites Lippi-Green (1997) and Matsuda (1991) for their research on reactions of a listener to a foreign accent. These previous studies state that foreign accents generally receive a negative attitude towards the speaker and are not well received. Turner and Giles (1981) explain the negative reactions through social identity theory’s notion of social stereotyping. The author uses Implicit Social Cognition (Greenwald 2002) as framework for understanding attitudes and how they are formed. Also cited is research by Ryan, Carranza, & Moffie(1977), Gill(1994), Cargue & Ciles(1998), Cargile(1997), Frumkin(2007), and Mulac, Hanley, & Prigge(1974). All of these sources were done about the reactions to speakers from different countries such as: Malaysians, Japanese, Chinese, Mexicans, Lebanese, Germans, Italians, Norwegians, and Eastern Europeans. Lastly, Petty and Cacioppo’s theory of ELM theory is used to measure the use of the cognitive route compared to the peripheral route when reacting to a speaker with a foreign accent. Summary of Research Method The researcher performed a qualitative study. The hypothesis of this study stated, “A divergence in participants' implicit and explicit attitudes toward the speech samples will be found to exist. Specifically, implicit attitudes, which reflect immediate reactions based on stereotypes held, will indicate a bias in favor of US accented speech. In contrast, explicit attitudes — which are subject to cognitive control and thus potentially influenced by social pressures against stereotyping —will indicate no significant bias in favor of either accent (p.429)” The study used 165 undergraduates and graduate students from a U.S. university. The participants included 114 women and 51 men. They identified themselves as: 131 American, 16 Chinese, 4 Korean, 4 Mexican, 2 El Salvadoran, 2 English, 1 Honduran, 1 Malaysian, 1 Nigerian, 1 Spanish, 1
  • 11. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 11 Ukrainian, and 1 Zimbabwean. The first test administered was the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The subjects were given headphones and a computer screen and were told to respond to the stimuli. Through the headphones they would hear the different voice and on the screen would appear two images. When they heard the voice they were instructed to then choose an image. A speaker with a U.S. accent and a speaker with a Korean accent were used along with good and bad attributes. This was to discover if the participants attributed a positive or negative affluence to the voice. The subjects then were asked to write a self-report survey questionnaire to measure their reactions to the stimuli. In the second test, the subjects were told they were listening to a conversation between two doctors; one with a Korean accent and one with a U.S. accent. The subjects then were asked to fill out a questionnaire as a self-report. Summary of Results The IAT results showed a significant pro-U.S. accent bias. The results for the explicit part of the test, the doctors’ conversation, showed that more participants said they preferred the Korean speaker. This showed that in the implicit study, which would be considered the peripheral route; more people identified with or preferred the U.S. accent, which is because the subjects are more accustomed with a U.S. accent. When it comes to the explicit study, where the subjects were informed that they were hearing a conversation between two doctors, more students identified with the Korean accented speaker. According to the ELM theory this is because the subjects were using the cognitive route and understood they were listening to two doctors speaking, so they did not negatively react to the Korean accent. Summary of Article Findings/ Conclusion Although the author’s hypothesis were proven correct, the article did not establish a clear understanding of why or when the negative attitudes towards foreign accents. He proved that
  • 12. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 12 when using peripheral thinking the subjects did negatively respond to the foreign accent and when using cognitive thinking they were not as quick to negatively respond. Critical Analysis of the Article This article is helpful to the ELM theory and my research because it evaluates auditory judgment more than visual which is different than most research with ELM. Sher, P. J., & Hies-Sheng, L. (2009, February). CONSUMER SKEPTICISM AND ONLINE REVIEWS: AN Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 337-343. Retrieved February 27, 2013, from EBSCOHost. Purpose and Scope of the Article This article used the Elaboration Likelihood Model to test consumer and their skepticism towards online shopping. The researchers are testing the online messages and advertisements and how they affect costumers’ intentions of purchasing from websites. The researchers will use the ELM to analyze the customers and the willingness to purchase items from a website. Summary of Literature Review The research first cites Petty and Cacioppo’s Elaboration Likelihood Model (1986). The ELM helps them to understand persuasion and attitudes of the online shoppers and the cognitive and peripheral perspectives of people. They also refer to Skepticism, as explained by Obermiller & Spangenberg(1998), which explains the likelihood of an online shopping to believe or disbelieve an advertisement or message. This source applies skepticism to marketing and consumers. Also cited in the article is the work of Friestad and Wright (1994). Friestad and Wright’s work “developed a framework for examining the moderating influence of consumer persuasion knowledge in responses to marketing communications (p.139).” In their research they
  • 13. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 13 compare the “highly skeptical” consumers to the consumers that aren’t as skeptical. Basically, Friestad and Wright’s analysis of the skepticism of consumers help the authors’ of the article to understand the differences in skeptical consumers vs. consumers who aren’t as skeptical. Summary of the Research Method The researchers in the experiment conducted both a qualitative and quantitative study. They collective the thoughts of the participants, but also organized them by a number scale A focus group of 278 undergraduate students participated in the study. A virtual shopping website was set up and a cell phone was chosen for the product for sale. The participants then read 12 reviews for the cell phone. Six reviews were strong, objective arguments and the other six were weaker argument reviews. Then the participants were asked two questions: “How likely are you to choose “A Model” cell phone next time you plan to purchase a cell phone of similar nature?; “Would you recommend “A Model” cell phone to your friend?” Lastly, the participants rated the 9-item consumer skepticism measures that developed by Obermiller and Spangenberg (1998) on a scale of 1 (disagree strongly) to 7 (agree strongly) before responding to the demographic questions (p.140-141). The demographic questions helped determine the skepticism of each participant. Summary of Results The results in this study seemed to contradict the ELM theory when it comes to online shoppers. The participants were asked were asked about the number of reviews and 94% answered correctly. The number of participants who correctly received the nature of the number of the reviews was 83%. These results categorized them as high or low skeptics. The hypothesis for the study was that skepticism towards online shopping is likely to affect the purchasing of the product. The results concluded that the qualities and quantity of the online reviews had a
  • 14. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 14 positive impact on the consumers’ likeliness to purchase the product. The ELM theory was contradicted in this study. The effect of the argument quality did not significantly affect the subjects. “The result suggested that high skepticism subjects do not take the central route in formulating purchasing intention (p.141).” The majority of the subjects in this study were affected by the amount of consistent reviews of the product rather than the content or quality of the review overall. This section of the results, however, does comply with the ELM theory because while the “highly” skeptical subjects took the peripheral route, so did the subjects who were considered to have less skepticism. Summary of Article Finding/Conclusion The research in this article discovered what was intended, but also found that the results did not fully comply with the ELM theory. According to the theory, the participants who were considered to be more skeptical should be more likely to use the cognitive route when online shopping. The results, however, showed that the “skeptical” participants also used the peripheral route during the study and were affected by the quantity of the product reviews rather than the quality. Critical Analysis of the Article This article tests the ELM theory in a more current way and applies the theory to technology and the likeliness of an online shopper to purchase a product online. It states the inaccuracy that the ELM theory can have when applied to a situation. This article will be useful in my research mainly because it showed a flaw in the ELM theory. This will allow me to explain situations where the ELM theory may not be useful.
  • 15. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 15 Te'eni-Harari,, T., Lampert, S. I., & Lehman-Wilzig, S. (2007, September). Information Processing of Advertising among Young People: The Elaboration Likelihood Model as Applied to Youth. Journal of Advertising Research, 47(3), 326-340. Retrieved February 27, 2013, from EBSCOHost (0021-8499) Purpose and Scope of Article The main purpose of this article is to test Petty and Cacioppo’s Elaboration Likelihood Model’s effect on young people. The article sets out to discover the peripheral or central route work to change young peoples’ attitudes. Summary of Literature Review The articles framework stems from Petty and Cacioppo’s ELM theory. The authors’ research cites many researchers: Agostinelli and Grube(2002), Chang(2002), Chebat Charlebois, and Gelinas-Chebat(2001), Chebat, Vercollier, and Gelinas-Chebat(2003), Coulter(2005), Coulter and Punji(2004), Livingstone and Helsper(2006), Scholten(1996), and Whittler and Spira(2002). All of these sources cited have conducted studies about advertising and its’ affects on adults. Also cited, is Day, Stafford & Camacho(1995), and Zaichkowsky(1986). Their works explain the relationship between concept involvement and cognitive elaboration of advertisement. Summary of Research Method The study conducted was a qualitative study. In the study three groups of young people were used; ages 4-7, ages 8-11, and ages 12-15. Four advertisements were created, some with attractive characters and some without. Each child was shown one advertisement. They were then divided into two groups. One group was promised a gift at the end of the interview (high
  • 16. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 16 elaboration) and the other was not (low elaboration). They were then questioned about their attitudes toward the product or brand, Summary of Results There was no significant difference between the advertisement effectiveness among the high-evolvement and low-involvement. The attitudes toward the advertisements were mainly influenced by the message type. None of the groups were highly influenced by the advertisement’s characters. The intent to by decreased as the subject’ age increased. This shows that the ELM model doesn’t seem to apply when advertising to young people. Summary of Article Findings/Conclusion The researchers successfully tested the ELM theory among young people and advertising. The article states that young people do not majorly use the central or peripheral route when it comes to advertising. The high and low elaboration groups came to the same result and neither caused a significant change in their attitude to the advertisement. Critical Analysis of the Article This article is helpful to explain the ELM theory when it applies to young people and gives a clear example of the flaws in the theory. It also gives better understanding of the central and peripheral routes. Trampe, D., Staple, D. A., Siero, F. W., & Mulder, H. (2010, December). Beauty as a tool: The effect of model attractiveness, product relevance, and elaboration likelihood on advertising effectiveness. Psychology and Marketing, 27(12), 1101-1121. doi:10.1002/mar.20375 Purpose and Scope of Article
  • 17. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 17 This article discusses the effectiveness of attractiveness in advertising. The researchers examine the role of the elaboration likelihood model when it pertains to products and the relevance of the products. The article focuses on understanding when the attractive models paired with products is successful and when it is not a favorable advertising technique to pair and attractive model with a product. Summary of Literature Review This article uses a large amount of previous research and theories as well. The majority of their background information came from Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo(1986) and their Elaboration Likelihood Model. This theory is used throughout the article and is the main reason for the experiment. A substantial amount of marketing research is referred to this article. Research from Kamins(1990) and Kahle & Homer(1985) is often cited. In their research they say that attractive models and celebrities paired with products will increase positive attitudes towards products and, therefore, increase sales. The authors of this academic article use Kamins and Kahle & Homer’s research as a basis for the experiments. Another theory cited, like the Elaboration Likelihood Model, is the Heuristic/Systematic Model (Chaiken1987). This model gives explanation to how people send and receive messages. The Elaboration Likelihood and Heuristic/ Systematic models are very similar and are used simultaneously throughout the article. There is much more researched cited in the article, but the sources I’ve listed are referenced the most and attribute the most to the authors’ research in this article Summary of Research Method The study used in this experiment was both qualitative and quantitative. They experiment measured their attitudes using subjective questions, but also used a number system for the results. The researchers had three groups of participants; those who were placed in high
  • 18. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 18 elaboration likelihood conditions and those who were placed in low elaboration likelihood conditions. One group of participants was told that they were one of a few people selected to judge an advertisement, thus placing them in a high elaboration likelihood conditions. This group was also told to examine the advertisement carefully. The other groups were placed with a large group with other participants. Some were told to rely on their first impression of the advertisement and others were given no instructions. The theory behind this comes from Petty & Cacioppo and the Elaboration Likelihood model. Petty and Caioppo state that personal responsibility increases cognitive effort. So the participants that weren’t aware of the many other participants and were told to carefully examine the ad felt more responsibility to judge the advertisement than the participants that had shared responsibility. This is how the ELM was tested. Four mock advertisements were created for the participants to judge. The ads included an attractive model or an average-looking model. The models were paired with either a relevant product or a less relevant product. The same attractive model was used for both ad, but the image was digitally altered to make the model look more “average.” The participants viewed all the advertisements and then answered 5 questions about the ad. The questions were answered on a scale 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). After this, the participants’ memory for ELM was tested. They stated which instructions they had been give; careful examination, first impression, or no instruction. Summary of Results The researchers’ hypothesis was correct. The participants that were placed in the high elaboration likelihood conditions analyzed the advertisements more thoroughly. When the participants were asked about their instructions 97% of the participants in the high elaboration remembered their instructions and 99% of the low elaboration participants remembered their
  • 19. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 19 instructions. For the advertisement portion the results stated that the participants with high elaboration preferred the attractive model only when it was relevant to the product. Overall, the attitudes toward the attractive model in the irrelevant ad were not positive for the high elaboration participants. As predicted the attractive model was preferred for both the relevant and irrelevant product by the participants with low elaboration conditions. Summary of article Finding/Conclusion The research accurately applied the Elaboration Likelihood Model to the experiment as well as discovering the participants’ attitudes towards attractive models vs. average looking at products. They showed that better looking models are not always a better choice for advertising when the consumers use cognitive thinking over peripheral thinking. Critical Analysis of the Article This article is important in showing the Elaboration Likelihood Model at work. It clearly shows that when someone uses cognitive thinking over peripheral thinking the results can be significantly different. This article will help me in my own research and gave me a clearer understand of the ELM as a whole. Yang, S., Hung, W., Sung, K., & Farn, C. (2006, May). Investigating initial trust toward e-tailers from the elaboration likelihood model perspective. Psychology & Marketing, 23(5), 429445. Retrieved February 28, 2013, from EBSCOHost (0742-6046). Purpose and Scope of Article This article uses the Elaboration Likelihood Model to examine consumers’ initial trust with the websites they seek to purchase from. Summary of Literature Review
  • 20. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL 20 The authors refer to Kim & Benbasat’s (2003) previous research about the consumerwebsite relationship and Hoffman, Novak. They also cite Peralta’s (1999) research that suggests, “Trust building between businesses and consumers is critical for e-tailer success. (p.430)” Petty and Cacioppo’s ELM theory is used as framework for the study. Summary of Research Method The researchers formed a qualitative study to test subjects’ trust in websites. Several websites were created; some with third-party seals and others with banner advertisements. The subjects were to view the different websites and pick with one they would by a web camera from. The high-involvement subjects were told they could win the camera they chose. After choosing the camera the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire to measure their trust of the website they chose. Summary of Results The results showed that, “display of third-party seals and product information will positively affect consumers’ trust toward an e-tailer through assurance perception and result demonstrability, respectively. They also indicate that both the central route and peripheral route of Web-site trust formation are valid (p. 443)” Summary of Article Findings/ Conclusion The study intended to use ELM to examine shoppers’ trust on different websites. The study found that, complying with ELM, the study found that the highly-involved subjects change their attitudes through the central route, while the low-involvement subjects’ attitudes are formed by the peripheral route. Critical Analysis of the Article
  • 21. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL This article is helpful in evaluating the ELM theory as it pertains to online shopping. It helped me further understand the ELM theory more and will be useful to my final paper. 21

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