Jan 29 Health Communication


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Jan 29 Health Communication

  1. 1. Health Communication Models & Persuasion
  2. 2. Different Kinds of Health Communication <ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Group communication </li></ul><ul><li>Public communication </li></ul><ul><li>Mass communication </li></ul>
  3. 3. Two approaches to communication <ul><li>Linear Approach (the Process Approach) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It describes the process of communication, i.e., encoding and decoding of messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HCP client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations __________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transactional Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A transactional process in which both participants in an interaction affect and are affected by each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HCP client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Textbook p. 16 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Basic assumptions about communication <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-dimensional (content and relationship base) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Different Models of Communication <ul><li>Shannon-Weaver model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does this model develop from the linear or transactional approach? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you describe the process of communication? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does the noise source refer to? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hargie and colleagues’ model of interpersonal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does this model develop from the linear or transactional approach? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This model highlights some individual’s features. What are they? How may these features be relevant to health communication? (age, gender, education, knowledge, emotion; these are the aspects that may affect the professional-client relationship) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rosenstock’s health belief model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the five factors that predict the likelihood of preventive health actions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the example of using condoms, what do you think the 5 factors may refer to? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rogers’ model of therapeutic communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the emphasis of Rogers’ model? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is this model called the “client-centered model”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the conditions necessary to help clients to be better able to cope with their problems? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory of Planned Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to this theory, an individual’s intention is a strong predictor of behavior. What are the three factors that affect an individual’s intention to adopt a healthy behavior? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the example of quitting smoking, what may the 3 factors refer to? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Persuasion <ul><ul><li>Efforts to change people’s attitudes through the use of various kind of messages </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) <ul><li>Persuasion can occur in either two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involves systematic processing, careful consideration of message content, and the ideas it contains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involves the use of rules of thumb or mental shortcuts, i.e., Beautiful people are kind; expensive things are good; experts can be trusted. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Two routes to persuasion <ul><li>When do we use the central route? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_____________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When do we use the peripheral route? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_____________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central route persuasion is more durable, more resistant to change, and more likely to trigger a behavioral change. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Questions to consider <ul><li>Can you give an example of how your attitude was changed through the central route? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give an example of how your attitude was changed through the peripheral route? </li></ul><ul><li>According to the EML (Elaboration Likelihood Model), if you want people to change behavior a permanently, should you use a long, well-reasoned argument, or a weak but impressive argument? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Factors affecting Persuasion <ul><li>The communicator </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Appeal: Arousal of fear </li></ul><ul><li>Personal versus media influence </li></ul>
  11. 11. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What makes an effective, persuasive communicator? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you more affected by emotional or rational arguments? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that fear-arousing ads are useful (i.e., smoking kills!) </li></ul><ul><li>How effective is using emotionally arousing pictures in advertising? (I.e., color photo of a smoky lung on cigarette package) </li></ul><ul><li>On a 1 to 10 point scale, how much are you influenced by ads? </li></ul><ul><li>On a 1 to 10 point scale, how much is the public influenced by ads? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you more easily affected by personal or media influence? </li></ul>
  12. 12. The communicator <ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived trustworthiness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attractiveness </li></ul>
  13. 13. Credibility <ul><li>Perceived expertise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olson & Cal 1984 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants received a message from a) Dr. Jim Rundle of the Canadian Dental Association; b) Jim Rundle, a local high school student who did a project his classmates on dental hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation: </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Credibility <ul><li>Perceived Trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eagly et al, 1978 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were undergraduates who were presented with a speech attacking a company’s pollution of a river. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some participants were told that the speaker was a politician with business background; others were told that the speaker was a pro-environment politician. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: _________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: ______________________________ </li></ul>
  15. 15. Credibility <ul><li>Perceived Trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were undergraduates who eavesdropped on graduate students’ conversation. It was actually a recording. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were told that the speakers were unaware that someone else was listening; others were told that the speakers were aware that someone else was listening. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___________________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The effect of arousing fear <ul><li>Wilson et al, 1987, 1988 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were smokers who received a letter from doctors. Some received a positively framed message (If you quit smoke, you could live longer.); the other received a negative framed message (If you continue to smoke, you could die sooner.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: _____________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion: __________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Personal versus Media Influence <ul><li>Farquhar’s Field Experiment (1977) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers tried to reduce the number of heart disease cases in 3 Californian cities - Tracy, Gilroy, Watsonville. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Tracy, people received no persuasive messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Gilroy, people received a two year multimedia campaign about heart disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Watsonville, media campaign and personal visits to some people in the high risk group. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul>
  18. 18. Two-step flow of communication <ul><li>The process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others. </li></ul>