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1. 2013 Literacy in Art, Craft and Design
© Page 2 The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan 2007 -‐ 2013 Cultural and Environmental Education Professional Development Service for Teachers (PDST) Dublin West Education Centre, Old Blessington Road, Tallaght, Dublin 24. National Co-‐ordinator Conor Harrison Mobile: 087 240 5710 E-‐mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Administrator Angie Grogan Tel: 01-‐ 4528018 E-‐mail: email@example.com.
© Page 3 Acknowledgements PDST National Co-‐ordinator, Cultural & Enviromental Eduction: Conor Harrison PDST Associates for Art: Maria Moore, Galway Community College, Moinin na gCiseach, Galway Margaret O’Shea, Loreto Secondary School, Coleville Road, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary PDST Art Local Facilitator Team: Aine Andrews, Coláiste Choilm, Ballincollig, Co Cork. Jane Campbell, St. Joseph's Secondary School, Railway Street, Navan, Co Meath Sheena McKeon, Coláiste Pobail Osraí, Ormond Road, Kilkenny Niamh O’Neill, Coláiste Choilm, Ballincollig, Co Cork. Joe Caslin, Tullamore College, Tullamore, Co Offaly Tony Morrissey, Davis College, Summerhill, Mallow, Co Cork Niamh O’Donoghue, Loreto Secondary School, Balbriggan, Co. Dublin Monica White, Mountrath Community School, Dysartbeigh, Mountrath, Co Laois Keith O’Rahilly, Desonond College, Gortboy, Newcastle West, County Limerick. Siobhan Campbell, Retired from John Scottus Secondary School, Morehampton Rd. Dublin 4. With special thanks to Maria Moore, Margaret O’Shea, Keith O’Rahilly and Monica White who compiled and designed this document. Edited by Maria Moore and Margaret O’Shea.
© Page 4 Contents Foreword Looking and Responding 6 Looking and Responding 7 Questioning 8 Learning Windows 10 Active Teaching Methodologies 12 A Gallery Visit 14 Four Corners Debate 17 The Basics of Romanticism 20 Online Interview 24 Bring Art to Life 27 Back to Back 33 Guest Speaker 35 Skimming and Scanning 38 Art History Timeline 40 Art Workstation 44 Pass the Buck 54 Crossword 56 Distillation/Conversion 59 Annotating Drawings 62 Mind Mapping 65 Writing a Story based on Art 68 Art Language Explored 75 Word Search 80 Additional Literacy Information and Activities 83 Smog Readability Test 84 Before, During and After Reading Approaches 85 Writing Frames 86 Art Criticism 87 Word Meaning Checklist 88 Predicting Meaning 90 Matching Keyword to Definitions 91 Annotating Images 92 123 Strategy 93 SQ3R 94 Graphic Organisers 94 Visual Verbal Squares 97 Cloze Test 98 Warm Up Activity Ideas 99 Useful Websites 100
© Page 5 Foreword Welcome to our booklet which focuses on the use of literacy in the Art room. We are all aware of the importance of literacy and numeracy in education. There is plenty of evidence to show that educational attainment is adversely affected when fundamental skills are not acquired. It makes good sense to take a cross curricular approach to literacy and numeracy, rather than making it a subject specific one. By integrating, acknowledging and reinforcing skills in literacy and numeracy we can help our learners apply these skills in everyday life. As Art teachers this does not mean employing new or radically different methods. The good news is that we have been embedding and reinforcing literacy and numeracy skills in our classes for years. The difference is that we must now recognise, acknowledge and plan for the myriad of ways in which we facilitate those language and numeracy skills. This resource was developed by Art teachers for Art teachers.It focuses specifically on Literacy and demonstrates a variety of literacy methodologies which can be adapted by you for use with your learners. We have included a variety of exemplar materials which can be photocopied for use in the classroom. We have focused on the four strands in literacy-‐speaking, listening, reading and writing. Activities are provided in each area but you will find that these skills often overlap and some activities integrate one or more areas. There are suggestions provided for varying the activities as well as supporting materials which we hope you will find useful. This booklet is designed to enable us to develop some new strategies as well as reminding us of the techniques we already employ on a day to day basis. We are greatly indebted to the Art PDST team of Local Facilitators and their learners,both past and present, who have generously contributed materials for this booklet. Maria Moore Margaret O’Shea PDST Associates for Art Conor Harrison National Co-‐ordinator, Cultural & Enviromental Eduction February 2013
© Page 6 Looking and Responding
© Page 7 Looking and Responding Rationale for looking and responding in the art classroom Why is it important for our students to look and respond to their own work and the work of others? What effect does it have on students’ learning? How does it affect their completed work and how does it affect their performance? Why do we want our students to look and respond? • To use terminology • To understand • To develop confidence • To understand process • To develop a sense of wonder • To enjoy the experience If we facilitate looking and responding in the art class, what will the OUTCOMES be? Observations & Evaluative Judgments Improve ▼ Forms a Better Understanding ▼ Forms Better & More Informed Decisions ▼ Better Experience & Better Work How do we go about getting our learners to look and respond? One of the most useful ways of encouraging learners to look at and respond to their own work and important work by artists and designers is to encourage them to ask and answer questions.
© Page 8 Questioning The role of questioning in the art classroom • Can check prior knowledge • Can provide variety of focus • Can be targeted to gain attention • Can check that a lesson has been absorbed • Can cause learners to think in a critical fashion Targeted questions The reality in the majority of Art rooms is that we teach to mixed ability groups. It is obvious that we cannot ask every learner every question, so targeted questioning is a very useful technique. Targeted questioning is where you ask a named learner a question which is commensurate with their ability. • It helps build a sense of trust and fosters confidence. • Learners will be more willing to participate and learning increases. • When learners make mistakes it is important to correct the mistake in a sensitive manner, at the same time acknowledging their contribution. Wait time Research has proven the importance of allowing learners ‘wait time’ to answer questions. Allow 3-‐5 seconds of wait time for a lower order question and 5-‐8 seconds for higher order, when a learner answers give a further 2-‐3 seconds before you respond. This gives learners time to think further about the opinion given and may elicit further responses. Using Lower & Higher Order Questioning in the Classroom We use lower order questions to give learners the opportunity to demonstrate basic knowledge & understanding. Characteristics of lower order questions: • The answers are closed; there are often a single or limited number of answers.
© Page 9 • Who, when, why, how, where? • Describing in one’s own words. • Remembering (dates, details, etc.) • Recognising (styles, artists, art works) Higher order questions require learners to give answers which require synthesis, analysis and evaluation. Characteristics of higher order questions: • Compare & Contrast • Demonstrate how something is made & constructed • Identify motives behind the work • Create a new product based on similar or contrasting themes & materials etc.
© Page 10 Learning Windows LOOKING & RESPONDING -‐ ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES There are many ways of approaching the principle of looking and responding. One of the better ways to undertake this is to find interesting entry points into a piece of work. The Aesthetic Window The entry point through which, learners respond to formal and sensory qualities of a subject or work of art. Possible Methods • Examine Colour • Explore Line • Identify Composition • Look at Balance • Recognise Pattern The Narrative Window The entry point through which, learners respond to the narrative or story elements in a work of art. Possible Methods • Write a Story • Create a Poem • Script a Play • Compose a Story
© Page 11 The Logical/Quantitative Window The entry point through which, learners respond to aspects of a subject or work that invites deduction or numerical reasoning. Possible methods • Measure • List • Sort or Group • Compare & Contrast The Experiential Window The entry point through which, learners respond to a subject or work of art by actually doing something with their hands or bodies. Possible Methods • Doing, Role Playing or Performing • Peer Teaching & Group work • Reconstruct a Work of Art • Visit a Gallery The Foundational Window The entry point through which, learners respond to the broader concepts of philosophical issues raised by a subject or work of art. Possible Methods • Reflect & Consider • Question & Evaluate • Criticize & Judge • Reason & Justify
© Page 12 Active Teaching Methodologies
© Page 13 A Gallery Visit Looking at Art, Craft and Design Robert Ballagh ‘Three People with Jackson Pollock' (1973) How? 1. Introduce the students to an exhibition. 2. Divide the class into groups of four and assign artwork from the exhibition to be investigated. 3. Using a worksheet students research the artwork and plan a presentation. 4. Time is then allocated for group work to merge students’ key concepts. 5. Feedback is given to the class on a group by group basis. 6. Time is allocated to each speaker to answer questions. 7. Presentations are given, in turn, by each group during the following class. Applications • Use to encourage active and meaningful engagement with exhibitions. • Can be adapted to looking at resolved classroom artwork. • Use to introduce students to a local art gallery or heritage centre. • Can be a starting point for a written art history assignment. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation **** *** *** **** **** **** **** ***** Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice * **** **** ***** ** **** *** ***** *** Specific Room Layout Yes No
© Page 14 Why Do it? • This methodology will develop skills in observation, reading and writing, researching and speaking. • Students will learn to be selective about gathering relevant information for a presentation. • It will generate discussion and reflection on the exhibition content. • Critical thinking will be used by students when justifying their selections and opinions about the work to the larger group. • They will gain an appreciation for artists’ mediums by studying artwork in situ. • It gives learners the opportunity to engage with artwork and articulate their reactions and opinions openly. • This is a methodology for fostering team building skills. Variations • This methodology can be applied to artwork on display in a classroom context. • Students can work individually or in pairs, for smaller class sizes. • It can be adapted to suit group shows and museum exhibitions. • This work could lead to a PowerPoint presentation being compiled by each student group within the class. Additional Resources • Hand-‐out for Leaving Cert Students Visiting a Gallery can be found at http://www.nationalgallery.ie/Learning/Schools/Teachers/Leaving_Cert_Resources/ ~/media/Files/Education/Schools/Senior%20Cycle/NGI%20Exhibition%20Question% 20Handout%20pdf.ashx • A Guide to visiting a Gallery can be found on Wikihow http://www.wikihow.com/Visit-‐an-‐Art-‐Gallery • A Guide to looking at artwork can be found on: http://www.artjunction.org/archives/question_list.pdf Appendix • The worksheet used named ‘Looking at Art Craft and Design’.
© Page 15 Work Sheet: Looking at Art, Craft and Design Name of Student: Year: Date: 6 W’s Who Name the Artist and tell me something interesting about them? What Describe what you see? When Was the work made in the past or present, what is your proof? With What materials were used to create the piece of Art? Why Why did the Artist make the piece, what was the idea behind it? Wonder What do you think about the work?, do you like it? Is the art? (circle the medium that best describes the work) Fine Art Textiles Photography Design Jewellery Film/Video Craft Glass Installation Graphic design Wood work Architecture Painting Sculpture Street Art Ceramics Stone carving Combination/Something else?
© Page 16 Art Vocabulary Circle 6 keywords/ phrases from the boxes below that you would use as starting points to describe the piece of Art that you have chosen; Two of your selections must be from the box on right hand side. Thumbnail sketch Photograph here Shape Telling a story subject How it makes you feel? Form Composition Link to something you have seen before? Line Negative space What does it mean? Texture Colour Why did the Artist do it that way? Tone Warm/cold colours Would you make changes? Movement Figurative Is it well made? Mark making Style How does it compare to similar work?
© Page 17 Four Corners Debate Debate premise: ‘William Turner’s paintings should not be grouped with those of John Constable and Casper David Friedrich in the Romanticism movement’. Title: Snow Storm-‐Steam Boat off a Harbour’s Mouth 1842 How? 1. Begin by briefly revising the work of Turner, Constable and Friedrich using a slide show of one painting from each. 2. Place four large sheets in the four corners of the room with: I Agree, I kind of Agree, I Disagree, I kind of Disagree. 3. Select a controversial premise (see above) for the purpose of the debate. 4. Students move to the corner that best matches their opinion and discuss and formulate their opinions for 5 minutes. Notes, text books and Mind-‐Maps are permitted to support the development of their argument. 5. A spokesperson from the first group gives feedback to the class on their opinion for 30 seconds. 6. Students are permitted to change their groups having been persuaded by what was said before, moving on to the next group for feedback. 7. This is repeated until all four groups have given feedback once. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation **** * ** **** *** ** ***** Skills Used Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice * ***** *** *** *** *** *** * **** Specific Room Layout Yes Setup a seating area in each corner of the room. No
© Page 18 8. Now that groups are finalised, 10 minutes is spent on establishing and developing their arguments. Arguments should be balanced, clear and have logical conclusions. 9. Each group should draft one concise paragraph of writing expressing their rationale for choosing their opinion. 10. To conclude, each group’s spokesperson provides feedback on the final argument. Applications • The development of students’ fluency with the material through discussion. • To encourage deeper engagement with the reading material. • To help students to assimilate information. • A method of developing comprehension. Why Do it? • To challenge students to engage with the material by forming opinions and supporting them through discussion thereby developing critical thinking. • By sharing information with the class and listening to other perspectives, deeper learning is achieved by the participating students. • Students develop skills in negotiation and teamwork. • By engaging orally and through listening, students gain confidence in their understanding of the learning materials. Variations • Students can be involved in setting the debate question. • This methodology can be shortened by limiting it to ‘for and against’ a particular argument. • This can be used as a starting point for setting an essay assignment. • This can be used at the end of a chapter of Art History as a revision exercise. Additional Resources • Resources on debate in the classroom can be found on the following webpage sponsored by The Saskatchewan Elocution and Debate Association (SEDA). http://www.saskdebate.com/media/2875/2007gamesandactivitiesguide.pdf
© Page 19 Appendix • Attached are examples of the written work from this lesson conducted with a 1st year group. • Text and supporting material for drafting of arguments. Appendix 1st Year Students’ work from 3 Groups: I Agree, I kind of Disagree and I Disagree.
© Page 20 The Basics of Romantic Art Time Period: 1800-‐1860 Romanticism (or the Romantic era/Period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak from approx. 1800 to 1840. The Industrial Revolution emerged in the latter part of the 18th century, starting in England and spreading to France and America. This revolution brought with it a new market economy, based on new technology—machine tools and machine power instead of human tools and animal power. Romantic artists hoped to inspire an emotional response in those who viewed their art; but instead of seeking to inspire faith as their predecessors had, most sought to evoke a nostalgic yearning for rural, pastoral life, the stirrings of life’s mysteries and a sense of the power and grandeur of nature. Art of this period also depicted the romantic ideal of nationalism, but for reasons of length, we will focus on landscapes in this passage. Romanticism first showed itself in landscape painting and from as early as the 1760s British artists began to turn to wilder landscapes, storms and Gothic architecture, even if they had to make do with Wales as a setting. Caspar David Friedrich and J. M. W. Turner were born less than a year apart in 1774 and 1775 respectively. They were to take German and English landscape painting to the extremes of Romanticism. Turner was fascinated by the mood of nature and her ever changing effects. He continually sketched the clouds, the sky and his natural surroundings. Turner was particularly fascinated with the power of the ocean. It is said that he had once asked to be lashed to the mast of a ship in order to “experience the drama” of a mighty storm at sea. Romantics believed that God’s presence was embodied in nature and that nature was evidence of His existence. Turner saw light as a divine emanation and played with it in pictures to evoke that truth. Fishermen at Sea by JMW Turner, 1794
© Page 21 Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, by Caspar David Friedrich, 1818. German artist Caspar David Friedrich was a quintessential Romantic artist; this is a quintessential Romantic painting. It conveys both the infinite potential and possibilities of man and the awesome, mysterious grandeur of nature. The popular Romantic theme of the greatness of man contrasted with the sublimation and power of nature is shown here. The man has climbed high and conquered much, only to see that there are infinite vistas still out there, shrouded in a fog that hides what lies beyond. Abbey in an Oak Forest, by Caspar David Friedrich, 1810. Another captivating painting by Friedrich depicting the ruins of an abbey church which has become a graveyard. It captures several different Romantic elements at once. As in Turner’s abbey piece, nature has reclaimed man’s handiwork. Friedrich loved to paint scenes in wintertime; the stark leafless trees and grey pall evoke that sense of melancholy, yearning, and mystery that Romantics so prized. Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, by Caspar David Friedrich 1818
© Page 22 The Haywain by John Constable Romanticism also had to do with a renewed look at nature and mankind’s relationship with it, making landscape paintings in particular much more important and popular as a result. The Haywain by John Constable, shown above, is a great example of that. Other Romantic painters used emotion in their work to rally political awareness, like Eugene Delecroix did in his painting entitled Liberty Leading the People. Eugene Delecroix Liberty Leading the People. It was a fairly gruesome painting for that time, and although based on the French Revolution of 1830, it was obviously highly “romanticised” by Delacroix with bodies piled high and a symbolically bare-‐breasted woman (denoting liberty, or freedom) carrying the national flag through the burning city.
© Page 23 Steamer in a Snowstorm Joseph Turner was a man whose later landscapes and seascapes are often seen as a precursor to Impressionism in the later 19th century. You can barely make out the steamboat in Steamer in a Snowstorm (or even what the scene is at first) but once you know, the amazing power and fury of a winter storm at sea can clearly be felt throughout this painting. Turner’s painting is probably one of the best examples of Romanticism, clearly showing a deliberate move away from the perfection of classicism, towards modernism.
© Page 24 On-‐line Interview Interview with an Artist via How? 1. Students will have prior knowledge of topic related to the artist they will interview in order to generate interview questions. For example if they are to interview a sculptor they will perhaps have had an introduction to public art, an interview with a fashion designer preceded by a workshop in fashion design. 2. Students will work as a group to generate as many questions as they can. This can be undertaken as a group exercise or individually. 3. The questions have to be sorted/ranked by the students (in collaboration with the teacher). The teacher can then plan a structured approach to prior learning around the topic before the interview takes place. 4. Test the technology beforehand. Send the list of questions to the interviewee to ensure a more targeted response. If the group is large consider using a data projector rather than a P.C. 5. Students will have predetermined who asks which particular question and will have appointed a chairperson to record answers. 6. To conclude, the interviewee will have the opportunity to pose questions to the students. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation ***** *** ** * **** **** *** ***** Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice ** **** ** *** *** * ** ***** **** Specific Room Layout Yes No
© Page 25 Applications • An insightful way of comprehending a practitioner’s view of the world of Art & Design. • To encourage consideration of the artist’s role in society. • To develop familiarity with various forms of information gathering. Why Do it? • It provides a student centred staring point. It increases the student’s interest in the topic and raises their level of motivation. • It’s immediate. Students get instant feedback. It is a new way to uncover information and it brings the real world into the classroom, making art relevant. Everyone has access to the information, irrespective of ability. • Students are more receptive to information from questions they themselves have asked. It encourages students to ask for specific information. As they have determined the information sought they have experienced managing their own learning. • It helps to create an environment conducive to learning. Variations • Students can be involved in setting the questions. • They can search for a local artist and invite them to be interviewed. • Students can assume the guise of an artist (historical) and be interviewed by the class on screen. Additional Resources • www.skype.com (for details on how to set up Skype) • http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/752 (interviewing artists in the classroom) Appendix • Attached are samples of questions generated by a second year group interviewing a stone mason.
© Page 26 Questions for Skype interview • How do you engrave letters on stone? • How do you print letters on glass? • How long does it take? • How long will the lettering on the stone last? • What gave you the idea to do lettering? • What age were you when you started? • How did you paint the blue writing in the carved letters? • Where was the first place you did this? • How could we improve our lettering? • How useful is lettering to business? • What is the easiest material to carve into? • What machines do you use for lettering? • Have you ever done lettering on anything other than stone? • Have you ever done lettering on a grave for anyone famous? • Have you ever made a mistake in lettering? • How do you erase a letter if you get it wrong? • What inspired you to do this type (ransom) lettering? • Why did you decide to do lettering as a career?
© Page 27 Bringing Art to Life Re-‐enacting works of art http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/michelangelo-‐merisi-‐da-‐caravaggio-‐the-‐supper-‐at-‐emmaus Caravaggio ‘Supper at Emmaus’ (1601) How? 1. Introduce three artists and their work using a Power Point presentation to students. 2. Divide the class into three drama groups and assign a painting to each. 3. Groups begin by looking at their painting, consider casting roles and staging of the scene. In particular students should look carefully at clothing, pose and facial expressions. 4. Using a worksheet students write a script for a short drama lasting 3 minutes. 5. Students plan improvised props, costumes and stage movements. 6. Groups rehearse drama of paintings and video record them. 7. Films are edited adding titles and credits. 8. Films may be screened. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation ***** *** *** ***** **** **** ***** ***** Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice * ***** ***** **** * * *** **** **** Specific Room Layout Yes Students will use the room freely to develop drama. No
© Page 28 Applications • This methodology can be applied to both painting and sculpture. • Art work can be used as a starting point for a full length drama lasting 5 minutes. • It can be used to consolidate learning about a particular period in Art History or Artistic movement. • It can be carried out with any junior or senior cycle class. Why Do it? • By looking at the story behind the paintings students will gain a thorough understanding of the artwork. • Students will develop literacy skills in writing and speaking by drafting and performing scripts. • Imagining the dialogue or story preceding the painting is a good way of remembering the painting and its historical context. • This type of active learning recognises all abilities and styles of learning and is easily differentiated. • Students are encouraged to critically reflect on the paintings and interpret them. By students having autonomy over the learning process greater motivation and engagement is achieved. • Independent thinking and learning is encouraged through the use of this methodology as students are tasked with devising original scripts and dramas. • Students will learn to plan dialogue and dramatic movements suited to a specific theme. Variations • This methodology can be adapted to a photographic project presenting the work in comic strip format. • Certain paintings can be selected for dramatizing where all students in the class are involved in the same drama. • Student roles can be divided into: Story-‐board, scripting, actors, filming and editors making one resolved drama. Additional Resources • A YouTube re-‐enactment of ‘The Last Supper’: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpDG8eav2iQ
© Page 29 Appendix • Worksheet for dramatizing a painting. • Background Information on three artists given to TY students. Worksheet for Dramatising a Painting Artist: Title: Cast Names of Characters Names of Students Props and Costumes: Scene Description: Script:
© Page 30 Background Information for bringing Art to life Selected works: The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci Oath of the Horatii by Jacque Louis David Supper at Emmaus by Caravaggio Leonardo da Vinci -‐1452 -‐1519 (High Renaissance) ‘The Last Supper’ Renaissance -‐ a cultural movement which began in Italy and spread throughout Europe. Scholars of the time became interested in how the world works; the art of the time became more realistic concentrating on nature, real settings and perspective. The Last Supper-‐ The final meal that Jesus shares with his Disciples before he is crucified on the cross. Leonardo chooses the moment that Jesus tells them ‘one of you will betray me’. Repeated references are made to the number three …apostles sit in threes…three windows behind them…the three points of Jesus’s triangular form…perhaps a reference to the holy trinity From the left-‐ Bart, James and Andrew look on in surprise. Judas, Peter and John are next, Judas carries a money bag and has his arm on the table, Peter wields a knife and points it away from Jesus perhaps predicting the aggression that is to happen in the garden of Gethsemane. Young John swoons in shock. On the other side of Jesus,
© Page 31 Thomas is upset, James looks stunned with arms in air and Philip appears questioning. Final grouping is Matthew and Jude who turn to Simon in discussion. All diners are seated on one side of the table to avoid excluding the viewer. Jesus himself is in centre of the vanishing point, all lines, angles and lighting point to him. It is a fresco painting, found on the back wall of the Refectory in the chapel of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan. Jacques-‐Louis David 1748-‐ 1825. ‘The Oath of the Horaitii’ Neo Classical Art-‐ a movement which looks to the ancient art of Greece and Rome for its inspiration. The high ideals of classical art became the cornerstone of a new truth in art which looked to uncover a sense of moral integrity. It can be described as highly heroic, courageous and serious. Colours were at times sombre to imply high morals and self-‐ sacrifice. • This work is set in 699BC, a time when Rome was at war with Alba. It depicts three members of the Roman Horatii family, (left) who were chosen by their father (centre) to duel against three members of the Curiatii family from Alba. The women on the right are either sisters of or are married to the men on either side of the duel. The men show no emotion while the women are overcome with sadness.
© Page 32 • As is typical of David’s work the figures are heroic and full of integrity. Although painted before the Revolution, the painting became a symbol of loyalty to the French King and State. Caravaggio 1571 -‐ 1610 ‘Supper at Emmaus’ Baroque-‐ a very varied epoch in Art history which usually displays dynamic emotion in an immediate way. It can also show very high levels of detail in the rendering of cloth or skin. • This painting shows a common religious theme in Art history; the moment when the resurrected Jesus reveals himself to the disciples Luke and Cleophas who respond in disbelief. Luke wears a scallop shell, a sign of a pilgrim; the figures are life size and dramatic in their presence. It shows the recurring theme of an everyday event being interrupted by a sublime happening. • Achieves a heightened sense of realism that attempts to observe the human being in both a physical and emotional way. Creates intense drama and effect with dramatic use of lighting.
© Page 33 Back to Back A listening/speaking methodology Back to back in action in class How? 1. Sitting back to back in pairs, learner 1 describes an image in detail, while learner 2 draws the image. 2. Learner 2 does not see the image until the end of the exercise 3. Learners will need an image, pen/pencil and paper. 4. Learners are given 5-‐7 minutes to describe the image in as much detail as possible. 5. Their partner listens carefully and draws what they describe-‐no peeking! Applications • This method can be used to introduce a new topic. • To help learners to describe in words the contents of an image. • To encourage learners to listen carefully • To use correct terminology when describing a work of art, craft or design. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation ***** *** *** ** **** *** ***** ***** Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice * ***** ** ***** ***** * * ***** *** Specific Room Layout Yes Learners sit back to back, in pairs.
© Page 34 Why Do it? • To challenge students to engage with the material by using the correct terminology when describing a work of Art, Craft or Design. • It can be great way to generate discussion about a new topic. • It could be a fun way to revise. • It is very quick and easy to do. • Encourages whole class participation. Variations • This could evolve into a “Pictionary” game, with teams competing to describe and recognise a work of Art, Craft or Design. • Learners could reverse the process and write a description while looking at an image. • This exercise could be extended by asking learners to focus on adding the colours/tones to the correct part of the drawn image.
© Page 35 Guest Speaker Learning by Listening Inez Nordell giving a presentation on Costume Design How? 1. The teacher gives students background information they should take note of, engage with and respond to, using a template. 2. During the talk, students write down key words and any new vocabulary that they hear. 3. Following the talk the teacher writes the key words on the board. 4. Students are required to give their own definition of each word. 5. Students are then asked to look up the words in the dictionary and compare and correct the meanings. Applications • To encourage students to listen • To introduce new vocabulary. • To develop comprehension. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation **** ** ** ** ** ** **** ** Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice ***** * * ** ***** ** ***** **** ** Specific Room Layout Yes Room is prepared for speaker to give talk. No
© Page 36 Why Do it? • Pupils can engage with the guest speaker and can become independent learners through personal note taking and effective questioning. • They can assess what information is most relevant. • The language and vocabulary used by the guest speaker can help pupils gain a better understanding of the topic. These new terms can be promoted and used extensively in future art classes. • Pupils’ communication skills will be reinforced through active listening and questioning. Variations • The guest speaker can be brought to the class through digital means for example Skype. • A follow up visit by the speaker may be arranged to provide a workshop. • Students can watch a DVD or You Tube film and apply this methodology. • Mind Mapping can be used to record information while the speaker is presenting. Additional Resources • Webpage for Listening Strategies: http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/free-‐lesson-‐plans/listening-‐and-‐ speaking-‐strategies.cfm • A link to using MP3 player to develop listening skills: http://www.britishcouncil.org/professionals-‐podcast-‐english-‐listening-‐downloads-‐ archive.htm Appendix • Guest Speaker Visit worksheet
© Page 37 Guest Speaker Visit Worksheet Student Name:-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Class:-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Year Group:-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Topic:-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Name of Guest Speaker:-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Occupation:-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Background of Guest Speaker: Key words: Other information/questions I would like to ask :
© Page 38 Skimming and Scanning How? SKIMMING is a method of rapidly moving the eyes over text with the purpose of getting only the main ideas and a general overview of the content. SCANNING rapidly covers a great deal of material in order to locate a specific fact or piece of information. For example, you skim the dictionary to find the ‘T’ section but you scan for the meaning of ‘tympanum’. You skim the textbook for the Renaissance section and scan to find a painting by Raphael. Applications • To reinforce keyword vocabulary. • A way of developing comprehension and understanding of a particular topic. • To encourage deeper engagement with the reading material. Why Do it? Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation ***** *** ** * ** *** **** ***** Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice ***** **** ** * *** **** *** **** Specific Room Layout Yes No
© Page 39 1. Help students become fast, flexible and independent readers. 2. Skimming and Scanning helps students pick out specific information quickly, training them to tailor their reading rate depending on their purpose. 3. Aids students to critically evaluate their own understanding. Variations 2. Another strategy that uses the skills of skimming and scanning to help students read for meaning is SQ3R. 2. SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read, Review and Recall. Additional Resources http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/topic/skimming-‐and-‐scanning Appendix Student Guide Skimming When should I skim? When I want a quick idea of what the text is about. ü Skim means to look quickly through the text. Looking at headings, diagrams, pictures or words in bold. This will give you a quick idea of what the text may be about. ü Skim can mean to ‘skim’ through the text reading quickly to get the gist or main idea on the topic. ü Skim can also be to read the first and last paragraphs to get the gist of the topic. Scanning When should I scan When I want specific information. ü Scan means to look through the text quickly to find specific information, e.g. keywords ü Scan can also mean to look throughthe text to find the answers to questions.
© Page 40 Art History Timeline Using information to make a timeline Pablo Picasso (1881-‐1973) How? 1. Show documentary on Picasso by Alastair Sooke, (BBC Modern Masters series). 2. Make reference to the sequential development of Picasso’s life and work using this video. 3. Provide students with a timeline template (with hyperlinks to vetted websites) and an explanation of how to complete it. 4. Introduce the class to relevant websites that students can access during their development of a timeline. 5. In the second session, using an ICT room with internet facilities, instruct students to research and compile the timeline. 6. Rewriting and condensing text into the students’ own words is encouraged rather than copying and pasting exclusively. 7. Students are required to present their work for display in the classroom where a general discussion and reflection on the assignment will take place. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation ***** * *** ***** * * **** *** Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice ***** * * * * ***** **** ** **** Specific Room Layout Yes Carried out in ICT Room. No http://www.biographyonline.net/artists/pablo-‐
© Page 41 Applications • This methodology can be applied to any Art History period, movement or individual artist. • It can be used as an introduction or conclusion to Art History schemes of work. • Used to reinforce learning and develop new vocabulary related to a genre of art. • Could be applied to each section of the Art History course. Why Do it? • This methodology promotes independent learning by students. • Students will develop good research techniques. • It is suited to students of mixed ability as the complexity levels can be easily differentiated. • Students have autonomy over their selection of information leading to greater motivation in the subject area. • Sequential thinking is required to make a timeline and students gain experience in organising information. • ICT skills are developed by creating a timeline, by researching internet websites and presenting information on Microsoft Word. • Reading (skimming and scanning), writing and the summarising of information are skills developed by students using this methodology. Variations • This method can be carried out manually. Use Art History notes and pre-‐prepared timeline templates. • Students can work individually or in groups to compile a timeline depending on its level of complexity. • Comparative timelines can be constructed using a similar method comparing artists or Art History movements.
© Page 42 Additional Resources • Picasso by Alastair Sooke as part of the BBC Modern Masters series: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p007hs2n • Instruction on how to make a timeline using Microsoft Word: http://www.microsoft.com/education/en-‐us/teachers/how-‐to/Pages/creating-‐ timeline.aspx Appendix • Attached an example of a completed Timeline, compiled by a 1st year student.
© Page 43 !"#$%&&'())"*&+&,"-(./& & & 1903:Thiswastimewhen blindnesswasrepresented inmostofhisworkssuch asTheBlindman'sMeal andtheportraitofCelestina paintedthisyear. January,1907:!Beginspainting "LesDemoisellesd'Avignon" 1909: Cubismfirstdevelopedbetween 1909-Itisduring1909that Cubismfirsttookshapewiththe helpofGeorgeBraque.Both theseartistsanalysedshapes andtranslatedthemintoimages. Hespendsthemonthsin Avigon.BraqueandDerain aremobilisedinthewar whichpresentstheendof cubismasamovement.He returnstoPariswithEvain October. ! ! BirthofsonPaulo.Figures inpaintingsbecomemore classicalandmonumental GuernicawaspaintedbyPicassoto expresshisoutrageoftheGerman bombingoftheBasquetownof GuernicaonApril26,1937during theSpanishCivilWar.Guernicashowsthetragedies ofwarandthesufferingitinflictsuponindividuals, particularlyinnocentcivilians. WeepingWomanisanintensely personalimageandisanemblemof thesufferingoftheSpanishnation.It capturesamoodofmoralanxiety thathauntedthosewhowitnessed theSpanishCivilWar Thistalentedartistpassed awayon8thApril,1973. 19031907/91913/19141921/192219371973 1903 PicassopaintsTragedy WrightBrothersfirstflight FordMotorCompany founded Anti-Semiticpogromsin Russia ThefilmGreatTrain Robberyisreleased June5th -Automaticwasher& dryerareintroduced.1914OutbreakoftheFirst WorldWarstartswhen GermanyinvadesFrance ! ! JamesJoycePublishes Ulysses. OnNovember5,1937,Adolf Hitlerheldasecretconference intheReichChancelleryduring whichherevealedhisplansfor theacquisitionofLebensraum, orlivingspace,fortheGerman peopleattheexpenseofother nationsinEurope. Atabout16:30onMonday,26 April1937,warplanesoftheGermanCondorLegion, commandedbyColonelWolframvonRichthofen, bombedGuernicaforabouttwohours.Germany,at thistimeledbyHitler,hadlentmaterialsupporttothe Nationalistsandwereusingthewarasanopportunity totestoutnewweaponsandtactics.Later,intense aerialbombardmentbecameacrucialpreliminarystep intheblitzkriegtactic . Thedecisionbythevast majorityoftheIrishpeople tojoinwhatwasthenthe EuropeanEconomic Community(EEC)in1973. &&&&&&&&&&&&
© Page 44 Art Workstation Pop Art Worksheet Whaam! 1963 -‐ Lichtenstein How? 1. Set up resource stations in the classroom. These may include a combination of books (textbooks & reference books), prepared texts, short video, internet site addresses, posters etc. It is important that there are a variety of information sources. Students can use all available resources. 2. Begin by introducing and discussing Pop Art. Explain the learning objectives of the lesson. Students can work in groups. Each group is supplied with a Pop Art Worksheet. Students are encouraged to find the information for the Pop Art worksheets within a time frame. 3. Students must delegate work within their own group in order to complete the exercise on time. Therefore students must assess both the required information and the strengths/weaknesses of their group and plan accordingly. 4. Students may seek the teacher’s assistance however the focus is on working on their own initiative. The teacher’s role here is to support, monitor workstations and direct focus when necessary. 5. Students regroup to compile the information. 6. At the end of the allotted time, learning is consolidated by the teacher, drawing on the knowledge and understanding achieved by the students. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation ***** *** ** * *** **** **** ***** Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice ***** ***** ***** *** ** ** ** *** *** Specific Room Layout Yes No
© Page 45 Applications • To develop a familiarity with the variety of information sources available. • To encourage deeper engagement with a chosen topic. • To help students assimilate and qualify material by skimming & scanning. Why Do it? • To encourage independent learning within the security of a group. • To allow students the opportunity to experience a range of learning approaches. • Students will engage meaningfully with material, identify key points of information, record and share findings with their group. • Students learn to appreciate the value of teamwork, collaboration and decisive contributions to the group. • The physically active nature element of this activity will appeal to the kinaesthetic learner. • Students actively seek information rather than receive it passively. Variations • Can be used for any topic in Art History & Appreciation. • Students can work in pairs or individually to complete the worksheet. • Can be used to summarise a movement/period of Art History. • Source materials/resources can be provided to the group if space is at a premium. • Students could set up the resources for a topic for different groups. Additional Resources • Website: www.moma.org/collection • National Portrait Gallery website: www.npg.org.uk (information and activities). • Website: edu.warhol.org/ppt/Pop_Art.ppt (PowerPoint presentation) Appendix • Attached are a number of examples of the Pop Art Work Sheets.
© Page 46 Pop Art Worksheet Definition of Pop Art In the speech bubble below write how you would describe Pop Art… Include the following words in your definition… late nineteen fifties; nineteen sixties; consumer culture; popular media; cultural icons… Pop Artists Name the artists involved in this movement below… ________ _________ ________ _______ ________
© Page 47 Looking at Abstract Expressionism and Reasons why this new style of art emerged in both England and America… Describe the style of art that was popular before Pop Art emerged… (Use the images below to help write your answer)
© Page 48 Reasons Changes that happened in society during this time and which influenced many artists included: o New technologies (Hollywood movies, colour TV) o New popular interests (comic books, consumer goods such as coca cola) o History (post war art) o The rise of an affluent society in both America and Europe o A wealth of popular imagery o The rise of the celebrity… Give examples of each word underlined, in the world which we live in today…
© Page 49 How did the role of the artist change with Pop Art? Use some or all of the following words in your answer… Celebrity status Film maker Fashion designer Mass product rather than an individual work of art Humour Use of everyday objects Commercial brand Myth surrounding the artist Mass media Embracing consumerism Andy Warhol, David Hockney, Henry Geldzahler and friend…
© Page 50 Join the terms below with an image that best describes their meaning… (More than one term may be applied to the same image) Mass media Polular media Consumer society Mass reproduction Cultural Icons Soft sculptures Giant sculptures Repetition Garish/Bold colours Packaging Art for art’s sake Mass production Clean lines Flat colours Mass media Polular media Consumer society Mass reproduction Cultural Icons Soft sculptures Giant sculptures Repetition Garish/Bold colours Packaging Art for art’s sake Mass production Clean lines Flat colours
© Page 51 Mass media Polular media Consumer society Mass reproduction Cultural Icons Soft sculptures Giant sculptures Repetition Garish/Bold colours Packaging Art for art’s sake Mass production Clean lines Flat colours
© Page 52 Pop Art and You… Can you think of packaging we use in today’s world that is universally popular? Name an icon living in today’s world that Andy Warhol might use in his art practice, if he was still alive today… If you were to design a large scale sculpture or a soft sculpture, similar to the examples below, for your school what object would you chose and why?
© Page 53 Looking at and discussing an image of Pop Art ….. Just what is it that makes todays’ homes so different, so appealing? Poster collage designed by Richard Hamilton for exhibition entitled ‘This Is Tomorrow’, in 1956. Label this artwork with the following words and describe their meaning… Domestic interior scene; stereotyped couple; comfortable living; glamour; affluence; modern accessories; collage; magazine cut-‐outs; mass produced product; ironic tone; humour; scale; Dadaism reference; use of text; post-‐war Britain; American influence
© Page 54 Pass the Buck Art History and Appreciation Lesson Using Video, DVD‘You Tube’ or ‘Smart History’ videos to encourage learning through listening, writing and speaking. http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/Masaccio.html How? 1. Write a higher order question on the board and ask the students to listen carefully to a DVD, Video, You Tube or Smart History video. (In this example the smart History website was used , see link above, and the question posed was: • Masaccio’s (1401-‐1428) grasp of perspective and three-‐dimensional modeling is seen in the “The Tribute Money”. Discuss Masaccio’s work with detailed reference to the Tribute Money, the period in which it was produced, its subject matter, composition, materials and the techniques used in its production. (Q 2 European Section L.C. Higher Level 2012) 2. Students work in pairs and have a strict, short time limit (example 5 minutes) to draft an answer to a difficult question. It's best if they work on large A2 paper with felt pens. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation **** *** *** **** **** *** **** **** Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice ***** *** ***** ***** ***** ***** ***** *** Specific Room Layout Yes No
© Page 55 3. When the time is up, ask the students to pass their unfinished answer to the pair of students behind them and receive the work of the pair in front. 4. They now have five minutes to continue, not their own answer, but the received answer from the pair in front, picking up from wherever it was left. They are encouraged not just to add, but to cross out bits they don't agree with, redraft and correct spellings and grammar mistakes. 5. When 5 minutes are up, papers are passed on. 6. The newly received answer is continued for a further five minutes. 7. And so on until the students have complete answers or 10 minutes before the end of class time. 8. The answers are then returned to their original authors, who have the opportunity to draft the final polished version of the answer. Applications • Use to encourage students’ listening, speaking, writing and reading skills. • To help students to assimilate information by reading and scanning for keywords. • A way of developing comprehension and understanding of a topic. • Can be a revision exercise at the end of a scheme of work or topic. Why Do it? • This activity trains students in crucial exam technique, particularly the art of writing precise and full answers. • It promotes a more conscious approach to writing, including planning, accuracy, attention to time and speed, awareness of audience. • Even though the material might be heavy and serious, the activity itself is light. No one gets too bogged down. The pace and the passing make it sparky and fun. Variations There are so many variables in this activity, for example: • Vary the time for each round. Give four minutes for the first round, five for the second, six for the third and so on to allow enough reading and thinking time as the answers become fuller. • Vary the length and complexity of the tasks. Differentiation can be built in. • Vary the questions, so each pair starts with a different question -‐ this really keeps people on their toes. Students have to switch their thinking to a new subject every round. This simulates the pressure of an exam. • In the first round give students enough time to write a complete answer. Then, the pair behind don't continue it: they redraft it. • Or, the pair behind mark the answer to set criteria. This is particularly powerful if exam criteria are used. Students will need to know beforehand how an examiner approaches a script.
© Page 56 Crossword Crossword How? 1. Using keywords for the subject area, devise clues for a crossword suited to your learners. Input clues and solutions into puzzle maker of your choice. 2. Print and copy one per learner. 3. There are many web sites available. 4. This could be used for reinforcing key words in Art history, craft or design. Applications • Uses key words to reinforce learning. • Could be used for homework or as a form of revision • Taps into skills learners use both in and out of school. Literacy Purposes Thinking Emotional intelligence Independence Interdependence Multi-‐sensation Fun Articulation ***** * *** ***** * * *** *** * Other Skills Individual work Group work Moving Speaking Listening Reading Writing Looking Choice ***** * * * * ***** ***** *** **** Specific Room Layout Yes no
© Page 57 Why Do it? A quick way to reinforce learning; can be used as a homework exercise or as a method of revising a topic. Very popular with learners. Quick and easy to do. Fun Variations Students could devise their own crosswords using list words. The crosswords could be compiled and used in an Art crossword book. Learners could work in pairs to solve the clues. Additional Resources Good websites include…. https://crosswordlabs.com/ http://www.crosswordpuzzlegames.com/create.html http://edhelper.com/crossword_free.htm http://www.puzzle-maker.com/CW/ Appendix Attached is a crossword and answer page based on Neo-‐Classical Art.