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Photo Credit: Mikey Ottawa




Do your friends make you smarter?
  Exploring social interactions in search

      Brynn M....
i. Search as an activity
ii. Related work
iii. My previous work
iv. Theoretical orientation
v. Conclusion
Search as an activity
Search Question




What hummingbird species is this?
Photo Credit: OpenThreads
Apr 13   Apr 16   Apr 20   Apr 30   May 9




                                            Icon Credit: fasticon.com & icon...
Apr 13   Apr 16   Apr 20   Apr 30   May 9


GOOGLE




                                            Icon Credit: fasticon.c...
Apr 13   Apr 16   Apr 20   Apr 30   May 9


GOOGLE   BOOK




                                            Icon Credit: fas...
Apr 13   Apr 16   Apr 20    Apr 30   May 9


GOOGLE   BOOK     FRIENDS




                                             Ic...
Apr 13   Apr 16   Apr 20        Apr 30           May 9


GOOGLE   BOOK     FRIENDS                   SOCIAL NETWORK




  ...
Apr 13   Apr 16   Apr 20    Apr 30       May 9
                                                         Anna’s            ...
search ≠ database lookup
search ≠ keyword queries




                     Photo Credit: B1gJ4k3
search ≠ database lookup
         search ≠ keyword queries




search = an activity
                              Photo Cr...
Even smaller searches are embedded in rich activities
Even smaller searches are embedded in rich activities
Even smaller searches are embedded in rich activities




                            Photo Source: Peter Voerman

       ...
A reaction to the classic view of search
Photo Credit: David Wild
                       Photo Credit: Thomas Hawk


    classic view of search                    ...
Photo Credit: David Wild
                       Photo Credit: Thomas Hawk


    classic view of search                    ...
Photo Credit: David Wild
                       Photo Credit: Thomas Hawk


    classic view of search                    ...
With a revised notion of search...
             ...comes a revised method of study

Searches are composed of:


   Activit...
With a revised notion of search...
             ...comes a revised method of study

Searches are composed of:
            ...
With a revised notion of search...
             ...comes a revised method of study

Searches are composed of:
            ...
Related work
SEARCH LOCATION
                  SEARCH GOAL
SEARCH LOCATION
                  SEARCH GOAL
Information seeking in physical contexts




                                                  Photo Credit: Rachael Lovin...
Information seeking in physical contexts




                                                  Photo Credit: Rachael Lovin...
Information seeking in physical contexts




                                                      Photo Credit: Rachael L...
(Joint) collaborative search online
   M ORRIS 2008; P ICKENS ET AL . 2008; P AUL & M ORRIS 2009; S HAH 2008.




  SEARCH...
(Joint) collaborative search online
   M ORRIS 2008; P ICKENS ET AL . 2008; P AUL & M ORRIS 2009; S HAH 2008.




  SEARCH...
SEARCH LOCATION
                  SEARCH GOAL
SEARCH LOCATION
                  SEARCH GOAL
Research Questions



Empirical question: How do social interacTons help 
                  with individual search tasks?
...
My previous work
study one    survey: everyday searches

 study two    survey: difficult or failed searches

study three   observaTons: cogni...
Characterization studies of social search
                           (studies one and two)




                          E...
Large scale characterization studies


      SEARCH STUDY                              N=

 generic or “everyday”         ...
Large scale characterization studies


   SEARCH STUDY                   N=

generic or “everyday”            150

difficu...
Large scale characterization studies


   SEARCH STUDY                   N=         INFORMATIONAL

generic or “everyday”  ...
Large scale characterization studies


   SEARCH STUDY           N=         INFORMATIONAL

generic or “everyday”     150  ...
Large scale characterization studies


   SEARCH STUDY           N=         INFORMATIONAL         SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

gen...
SEARCH LOCATION
                  SEARCH GOAL
SEARCH LOCATION
                  SEARCH GOAL
Cognitive benefits of social searching
                                               (study three)




               E V...
Recruiting subjects


                  PRE-TEST SURVEY                               PARTICIPANTS (N=8)




             ...
Recruiting subjects


                  PRE-TEST SURVEY                               PARTICIPANTS (N=8)




             ...
Two task questions




    Icon Credit: iconfactory.com, http://ecotechdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/oil_drums_450....
Two task questions




          55 mph

“If we lowered the speed limit 
nationally to 55 mph, how many 
fewer barrels of ...
Two task questions




          55 mph                                              Pyrolytic oil

“If we lowered the spe...
Two search conditions

         SOCIAL                                        NON-SOCIAL




                             ...
Two search conditions

         SOCIAL                                        NON-SOCIAL




                             ...
Protocol

 SOCIAL         INTERVIEW          NON-SOCIAL                         INTERVIEW




                         Blo...
Protocol

 SOCIAL         INTERVIEW          NON-SOCIAL                         INTERVIEW




                         Blo...
Three social tactics


  SEARCHING



NETWORK ASKING



TARGETED ASKING



                                Icon Credit: fa...
Coding of activities




SS03
       !,!!,!!quot;   !,!),#$quot;        !,#&,$"   !,$#,%(quot;    !,$*,&*quot;    !,%...
Coding of activities
       SEARCHING




SS03

        !quot;
             [
        !,!!,!!quot;
                       ...
Coding of activities
       SEARCHING
                   NETWORK ASKING




SS03
        !,!!,!!quot;
        !quot;
     ...
Coding of activities
       SEARCHING
                   NETWORK ASKING                       TARGETED ASKING




SS03
   ...
Coding of activities
       SEARCHING
                   NETWORK ASKING                         TARGETED ASKING




SS03
 ...
Depth of processing

       SCORE             DESCRIPTION


         1     identified or perceives facts, data, or info

 ...
Depth of processing

       SCORE             DESCRIPTION


         1     identified or perceives facts, data, or info

 ...
Coding of activities
                       !,!!,!!quot;     !,!),#$quot;                 !,#&,$"               !,$#,...
Coding of activities
                       !,!!,!!quot;     !,!),#$quot;                 !,#&,$"               !,$#,...
Coding of activities
                       !,!!,!!quot;     !,!),#$quot;                 !,#&,$"               !,$#,...
Coding of activities
                       !,!!,!!quot;     !,!),#$quot;                 !,#&,$"               !,$#,...
More social tactics leads to better performance


              #social   Performance
       ID
              tactics     ...
More social tactics leads to better performance


              #social   Performance
       ID
              tactics     ...
Number of social tactics is more 
predictive of task performance than...
Number of social tactics is more 
predictive of task performance than... ...social network size
Number of social tactics is more 
predictive of task performance than... ...social network size
                          ...
Number of social tactics is more 
predictive of task performance than... ...social network size
                          ...
Are there complimentary benefits to
      different social tactics?
Results




NETWORK ASKING




TARGETED ASKING
Results


                  Thinking before    Thinking a'er
                  posTng quesTon    receiving replies


NETWO...
Results


                  Thinking before    Thinking a'er
                  posTng quesTon    receiving replies

      ...
Results


                  Thinking before     Thinking a'er
                  posTng quesTon     receiving replies

    ...
Results


                  Thinking before      Thinking a'er
                  posTng quesTon      receiving replies

  ...
Social networking sites: Thinking before posting to many
Social networking sites: Thinking before posting to many



“Now, what could I say?”
                                     ...
Targeting friends: Thinking after getting replies from few
Targeting friends: Thinking after getting replies from few




                                    Pyro means...


       ...
Targeting friends: Thinking after getting replies from few

“What are people’s
average driving speeds
anyway?”

          ...
Nature of Replies

    NETWORK ASKING                      TARGETED ASKING


• short, conversa2onal              • long, d...
Nature of Replies

      NETWORK ASKING                      TARGETED ASKING


  • short, conversa2onal              • lon...
Nature of Replies

      NETWORK ASKING                       TARGETED ASKING


  • short, conversa2onal               • l...
Network prediction
Network prediction
                                                    PREDICTED

                   100

                ...
Network prediction
                                   OBSERVED          PREDICTED

                   100

               ...
Network prediction
                                   OBSERVED          PREDICTED

                   100

               ...
Research Question




Design question: How can we improve search with 
               social networking technologies?
Theoretical orientation
“Inhabitedness”
“Inhabitedness”




                  Photo Credit: Niall Kennedy
Social Presence Theory

                                            “A communicator’s sense of awareness of
              ...
Social Presence Theory

                                            “A communicator’s sense of awareness of
              ...
Social Presence Theory

                                            “A communicator’s sense of awareness of
              ...
??




R OBERT & D ENNIS 2005
Inhabitedness




Photo Credit: Carlo Nicora; George Duncan,
Sebastian Tauchmann,Guennadi Ivanov-Kuhn
Inhabitedness

Social Presence




Photo Credit: Carlo Nicora; George Duncan,
Sebastian Tauchmann,Guennadi Ivanov-Kuhn
Inhabitedness

Social Presence                                   Structure of the Space




                              ...
Structure of the space




Banks of the Seine, Paris   A street cafe in Manchester, UK



                                ...
Structure of the space




                 Banks of the Seine, Paris
Structure of the space




A street cafe in Manchester, UK
Structure of the space




A street cafe in Manchester, UK
Structure of the space




A street cafe in Manchester, UK
Structure of the space




A street cafe in Manchester, UK
Inhabitedness


Social Presence
                                           +   Structure of the Space

nature of the relaT...
Next Steps...


     Analytical   • operaTonalize the model
                  • develop hypotheses about how 
            ...
Conclusion
Photo Credit: David Wild
NETWORK ASKING




TARGETED ASKING
SEARCH STUDY         SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

generic or “everyday”          40%

difficult or failed            61%
Observed            Predicted
100

80

60
                                                         old models ??
40

20

 ...
“Inhabitedness”




                  Photo Credit: Niall Kennedy
Thank you!!

Third year class           Supervisor        Third year advisor
 Kaya de Barbaro           David Kirsh       ...
Discussion

Search as an ac2vity: 
• Searches are embedded in rich acTviTes that benefit from social 
  interacTons with ot...
Do your friends make you smarter? Exploring social interactions in search
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Do your friends make you smarter? Exploring social interactions in search

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This was my end-year talk to my department (Cognitive Science at UCSD). It is a pre-advancement talk, but one where I can explore ideas that I might pursue for my dissertation.

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Transcript of "Do your friends make you smarter? Exploring social interactions in search"

  1. 1. Photo Credit: Mikey Ottawa Do your friends make you smarter? Exploring social interactions in search Brynn M. Evans Supervised by: David Kirsh
  2. 2. i. Search as an activity ii. Related work iii. My previous work iv. Theoretical orientation v. Conclusion
  3. 3. Search as an activity
  4. 4. Search Question What hummingbird species is this?
  5. 5. Photo Credit: OpenThreads
  6. 6. Apr 13 Apr 16 Apr 20 Apr 30 May 9 Icon Credit: fasticon.com & iconaholic.com
  7. 7. Apr 13 Apr 16 Apr 20 Apr 30 May 9 GOOGLE Icon Credit: fasticon.com & iconaholic.com
  8. 8. Apr 13 Apr 16 Apr 20 Apr 30 May 9 GOOGLE BOOK Icon Credit: fasticon.com & iconaholic.com
  9. 9. Apr 13 Apr 16 Apr 20 Apr 30 May 9 GOOGLE BOOK FRIENDS Icon Credit: fasticon.com & iconaholic.com
  10. 10. Apr 13 Apr 16 Apr 20 Apr 30 May 9 GOOGLE BOOK FRIENDS SOCIAL NETWORK (http://watch.birds.cornell.edu) Icon Credit: fasticon.com & iconaholic.com
  11. 11. Apr 13 Apr 16 Apr 20 Apr 30 May 9 Anna’s ✔ GOOGLE BOOK FRIENDS SOCIAL NETWORK Hummingbird! Icon Credit: fasticon.com & iconaholic.com
  12. 12. search ≠ database lookup search ≠ keyword queries Photo Credit: B1gJ4k3
  13. 13. search ≠ database lookup search ≠ keyword queries search = an activity Photo Credit: B1gJ4k3
  14. 14. Even smaller searches are embedded in rich activities
  15. 15. Even smaller searches are embedded in rich activities
  16. 16. Even smaller searches are embedded in rich activities Photo Source: Peter Voerman examples from E VANS & C HI 2008
  17. 17. A reaction to the classic view of search
  18. 18. Photo Credit: David Wild Photo Credit: Thomas Hawk classic view of search revised view of search activity can involve other people (remotely or  single‐user activity co‐located) query‐response mechanism highly dynamic, fluid process  few keywords, short sessions search can last over an extended period search takes place in a rich ecology of social and  log files from single search engine  information resources
  19. 19. Photo Credit: David Wild Photo Credit: Thomas Hawk classic view of search revised view of search activity can involve other people (remotely or  single‐user activity co‐located) query‐response mechanism highly dynamic, fluid process  few keywords, short sessions search can last over an extended period search takes place in a rich ecology of social and  log files from single search engine  information resources
  20. 20. Photo Credit: David Wild Photo Credit: Thomas Hawk classic view of search revised view of search activity can involve other people (remotely or  single‐user activity co‐located) query‐response mechanism highly dynamic, fluid process  few keywords, short sessions search can last over an extended period search takes place in a rich ecology of social and  log files from single search engine  information resources
  21. 21. With a revised notion of search... ...comes a revised method of study Searches are composed of: Activities Goals Operators
  22. 22. With a revised notion of search... ...comes a revised method of study Searches are composed of: Log files reveal operators Activities Goals Operators
  23. 23. With a revised notion of search... ...comes a revised method of study Searches are composed of: Observations reveal activities Activities Goals Operators
  24. 24. Related work
  25. 25. SEARCH LOCATION SEARCH GOAL
  26. 26. SEARCH LOCATION SEARCH GOAL
  27. 27. Information seeking in physical contexts Photo Credit: Rachael Lovinger A LLEN 1977; C ROSS ET AL 2001; C ROSS & S PROULL 2004; B ORGATTI & C ROSS 2003
  28. 28. Information seeking in physical contexts Photo Credit: Rachael Lovinger A LLEN 1977; C ROSS ET AL 2001; C ROSS & S PROULL 2004; B ORGATTI & C ROSS 2003
  29. 29. Information seeking in physical contexts Photo Credit: Rachael Lovinger HIERARCHY (STATUS) PROXIMITY SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS A LLEN 1977; C ROSS ET AL 2001; C ROSS & S PROULL 2004; B ORGATTI & C ROSS 2003
  30. 30. (Joint) collaborative search online M ORRIS 2008; P ICKENS ET AL . 2008; P AUL & M ORRIS 2009; S HAH 2008. SEARCH TOGETHER CO-SENSE
  31. 31. (Joint) collaborative search online M ORRIS 2008; P ICKENS ET AL . 2008; P AUL & M ORRIS 2009; S HAH 2008. SEARCH TOGETHER CO-SENSE
  32. 32. SEARCH LOCATION SEARCH GOAL
  33. 33. SEARCH LOCATION SEARCH GOAL
  34. 34. Research Questions Empirical question: How do social interacTons help  with individual search tasks? Design question: How can we improve search with  social networking technologies?
  35. 35. My previous work
  36. 36. study one survey: everyday searches study two survey: difficult or failed searches study three observaTons: cogniTve benefits of  social interacTons during search
  37. 37. Characterization studies of social search (studies one and two) E VANS & C HI 2008; E VANS & C HI 2009
  38. 38. Large scale characterization studies SEARCH STUDY N= generic or “everyday” 150 difficult or failed 150 Mechanical Turk Photo Credit: egoldviet (USED WITHOUT PERMISSION)
  39. 39. Large scale characterization studies SEARCH STUDY N= generic or “everyday” 150 difficult or failed 150 INFORMATIONAL searching for informaTon  assumed to be present, but  otherwise unknown
  40. 40. Large scale characterization studies SEARCH STUDY N= INFORMATIONAL generic or “everyday” 150 59% difficult or failed 150 87% INFORMATIONAL searching for informaTon  assumed to be present, but  otherwise unknown
  41. 41. Large scale characterization studies SEARCH STUDY N= INFORMATIONAL generic or “everyday” 150 59% difficult or failed 150 87% BEFORE DURING AFTER • reflecTon, synthesis • search preparaTon • search execuTon • feedback, iteraTon • problem formulaTon • lookup, foraging, re‐finding • sensemaking
  42. 42. Large scale characterization studies SEARCH STUDY N= INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INTERACTIONS generic or “everyday” 150 59% 40% difficult or failed 150 87% 61% BEFORE DURING AFTER • reflecTon, synthesis • search preparaTon • search execuTon • feedback, iteraTon • problem formulaTon • lookup, foraging, re‐finding • sensemaking
  43. 43. SEARCH LOCATION SEARCH GOAL
  44. 44. SEARCH LOCATION SEARCH GOAL
  45. 45. Cognitive benefits of social searching (study three) E VANS , K AIRAM , P IROLLI 2009; E VANS , K AIRAM , P IROLLI 2009
  46. 46. Recruiting subjects PRE-TEST SURVEY PARTICIPANTS (N=8) • knowledge of energy policies • computer and internet use • search experTse • social acTviTes Icon Credit: Iconaholic.com, dryicon.com E VANS , K AIRAM , P IROLLI 2009; E VANS , K AIRAM , P IROLLI 2009
  47. 47. Recruiting subjects PRE-TEST SURVEY PARTICIPANTS (N=8) • knowledge of energy policies • computer and internet use • search experTse • social acTviTes Icon Credit: Iconaholic.com, dryicon.com E VANS , K AIRAM , P IROLLI 2009; E VANS , K AIRAM , P IROLLI 2009
  48. 48. Two task questions Icon Credit: iconfactory.com, http://ecotechdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/oil_drums_450.jpg
  49. 49. Two task questions 55 mph “If we lowered the speed limit  nationally to 55 mph, how many  fewer barrels of oil would the  U.S. consume every year?” Icon Credit: iconfactory.com, http://ecotechdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/oil_drums_450.jpg
  50. 50. Two task questions 55 mph Pyrolytic oil “If we lowered the speed limit  “What role does pyrolytic oil (or  nationally to 55 mph, how many  pyrolysis) play in the debate over  fewer barrels of oil would the  carbon emissions?” U.S. consume every year?” Icon Credit: iconfactory.com, http://ecotechdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/oil_drums_450.jpg
  51. 51. Two search conditions SOCIAL NON-SOCIAL Talk-aloud protocol • friends  • search engines   (email, phone, IM, etc.)   (Google, Yahoo) • social networks • Wikipedia • blogs • QuesTon‐Answer sites  Icon Credit: fasticon.com, deleket.com, sykonist.deviantart.com
  52. 52. Two search conditions SOCIAL NON-SOCIAL Talk-aloud protocol • friends  • search engines   (email, phone, IM, etc.)   (Google, Yahoo) • social networks • Wikipedia • blogs • QuesTon‐Answer sites  Icon Credit: fasticon.com, deleket.com, sykonist.deviantart.com
  53. 53. Protocol SOCIAL INTERVIEW NON-SOCIAL INTERVIEW Block duration 12:00 - 35:00 5:00 - 40:00 5:00 - 20:00 5:00 - 18:00 Icon Credit: mugenb16.deviantart.com, bombiadesign.com, dryicon.com
  54. 54. Protocol SOCIAL INTERVIEW NON-SOCIAL INTERVIEW Block duration 12:00 - 35:00 5:00 - 40:00 5:00 - 20:00 5:00 - 18:00 Icon Credit: mugenb16.deviantart.com, bombiadesign.com, dryicon.com
  55. 55. Three social tactics SEARCHING NETWORK ASKING TARGETED ASKING Icon Credit: fasticon.com, deleket.com, walrick.deviantart.com
  56. 56. Coding of activities SS03 !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$" !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$" !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; #quot; TIME $quot; %quot; " 'quot; LEGEND (quot; SEARCHING NETW. ASKING TARGETED ASKING CHECKING THINKING OFF-TASK )quot;
  57. 57. Coding of activities SEARCHING SS03 !quot; [ !,!!,!!quot; ] !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$" !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$" !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; #quot; TIME $quot; %quot; " 'quot; LEGEND (quot; SEARCHING NETW. ASKING TARGETED ASKING CHECKING THINKING OFF-TASK )quot;
  58. 58. Coding of activities SEARCHING NETWORK ASKING SS03 !,!!,!!quot; !quot; !,!),#$quot; [ !,#&,$" ] !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$" !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; #quot; TIME $quot; %quot; " 'quot; LEGEND (quot; SEARCHING NETW. ASKING TARGETED ASKING CHECKING THINKING OFF-TASK )quot;
  59. 59. Coding of activities SEARCHING NETWORK ASKING TARGETED ASKING SS03 !,!!,!!quot; !quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$" [ !,$#,%(quot; ] !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$" !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; #quot; TIME $quot; %quot; " 'quot; LEGEND (quot; SEARCHING NETW. ASKING TARGETED ASKING CHECKING THINKING OFF-TASK )quot;
  60. 60. Coding of activities SEARCHING NETWORK ASKING TARGETED ASKING SS03 !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$" !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$" !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; #quot; TIME $quot; %quot; CHECKING THINKING " OFF-TASK FOR REPLIES 'quot; LEGEND (quot; SEARCHING NETW. ASKING TARGETED ASKING CHECKING THINKING OFF-TASK )quot;
  61. 61. Depth of processing SCORE DESCRIPTION 1 identified or perceives facts, data, or info understands the meaning of info;  2 presents a translaTon of info 3 integrates and synthesizes learned info TIME Ex. of learning of one fact over time SCORE 1 2 3
  62. 62. Depth of processing SCORE DESCRIPTION 1 identified or perceives facts, data, or info understands the meaning of info;  2 presents a translaTon of info 3 integrates and synthesizes learned info TIME Ex. of learning of one fact over time (FINAL) SCORE 1 2 3 SCORE FOR FACT #1
  63. 63. Coding of activities !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; SS03 !quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !,!!,!!quot; #quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; $quot; #quot; %quot; $quot; &quot; each line = one fact %quot; 'quot; &quot; (quot; 'quot; )quot; (quot; *quot; )quot; +quot; *quot; #!quot; +quot; ##quot; #!quot; #$quot; ##quot; #%quot; #$quot; TIME -./012quot;345quot; 607/18quot;9:;<=quot; 607/18quot;9:/.>=quot; ?8.@5.@Aquot; #%quot; -./012quot;345quot; 607/18quot;9:;<=quot; 607/18quot;9:/.>=quot; ?8.@5.@Aquot;
  64. 64. Coding of activities !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; SS03 !quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !,!!,!!quot; #quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; $quot; #quot; %quot; $quot; &quot; each line = one fact %quot; 'quot; &quot; (quot; 'quot; )quot; (quot; *quot; )quot; +quot; *quot; the U.S. enacted a 55mph speed limit in 1974 #!quot; +quot; ##quot; #!quot; #$quot; ##quot; #%quot; #$quot; TIME -./012quot;345quot; 607/18quot;9:;<=quot; 607/18quot;9:/.>=quot; ?8.@5.@Aquot; #%quot; -./012quot;345quot; 607/18quot;9:;<=quot; 607/18quot;9:/.>=quot; ?8.@5.@Aquot;
  65. 65. Coding of activities !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; SS03 !quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !,!!,!!quot; #quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; $quot; #quot; %quot; $quot; &quot; each line = one fact %quot; 'quot; &quot; (quot; 'quot; )quot; (quot; *quot; )quot; +quot; *quot; #!quot; +quot; ##quot; #!quot; #$quot; ##quot; #%quot; #$quot; TIME -./012quot;345quot; 607/18quot;9:;<=quot; 607/18quot;9:/.>=quot; ?8.@5.@Aquot; #%quot; -./012quot;345quot; 607/18quot;9:;<=quot; 607/18quot;9:/.>=quot; ?8.@5.@Aquot;
  66. 66. Coding of activities !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; SS03 !quot; !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; !,!!,!!quot; #quot; !quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; 1 2 !,!!,!!quot; !,!),#$quot; !,#&,$&quot; !,$#,%(quot; !,$*,&*quot; !,%(,!!quot; $quot; #quot; %quot; $quot; 3 &quot; 3 each line = one fact %quot; 'quot; &quot; 2 (quot; 'quot; 3 )quot; (quot; *quot; )quot; +quot; *quot; #!quot; +quot; ##quot; #!quot; 2 #$quot; ##quot; 1 #%quot; + #$quot; TIME -./012quot;345quot; 607/18quot;9:;<=quot; 607/18quot;9:/.>=quot; ?8.@5.@Aquot; #%quot; PERFORMANCE SCORE 17 -./012quot;345quot; 607/18quot;9:;<=quot; 607/18quot;9:/.>=quot; ?8.@5.@Aquot;
  67. 67. More social tactics leads to better performance #social Performance ID tactics score S04 1 1 S07 1 3 S02 1 6 S06 2 2 S05 2 9 S08 3 7 S01 3 9 S03 3 17 Spearman R: 0.77
  68. 68. More social tactics leads to better performance #social Performance ID tactics score SOCIAL TACTICS S04 1 1 S07 1 3 S02 1 6 SEARCHING S06 2 2 S05 2 9 S08 3 7 NETWORK ASKING S01 3 9 S03 3 17 Spearman R: 0.77 TARGETED ASKING
  69. 69. Number of social tactics is more  predictive of task performance than...
  70. 70. Number of social tactics is more  predictive of task performance than... ...social network size
  71. 71. Number of social tactics is more  predictive of task performance than... ...social network size ...how much knowledge is in  the network
  72. 72. Number of social tactics is more  predictive of task performance than... ...social network size ...how much knowledge is in  the network ...the user’s: • background knowledge  • and interest in energy policy
  73. 73. Are there complimentary benefits to different social tactics?
  74. 74. Results NETWORK ASKING TARGETED ASKING
  75. 75. Results Thinking before Thinking a'er posTng quesTon receiving replies NETWORK ASKING TARGETED ASKING
  76. 76. Results Thinking before Thinking a'er posTng quesTon receiving replies 60% OF USERS 0% OF USERS NETWORK ASKING TIME 29% OF USERS 100% OF USERS TARGETED ASKING TIME
  77. 77. Results Thinking before Thinking a'er posTng quesTon receiving replies 60% OF USERS 0% OF USERS NETWORK ASKING TIME 29% OF USERS 100% OF USERS TARGETED ASKING TIME More thinking before posting questions on social networking sites
  78. 78. Results Thinking before Thinking a'er posTng quesTon receiving replies 60% OF USERS 0% OF USERS NETWORK ASKING TIME 29% OF USERS 100% OF USERS TARGETED ASKING TIME More thinking after receiving replies sent from targeted friends
  79. 79. Social networking sites: Thinking before posting to many
  80. 80. Social networking sites: Thinking before posting to many “Now, what could I say?” “Is this better phrased as two questions?” “Let’s see...what do I really want to be asking?”
  81. 81. Targeting friends: Thinking after getting replies from few
  82. 82. Targeting friends: Thinking after getting replies from few Pyro means... instant messenger Long reply... email
  83. 83. Targeting friends: Thinking after getting replies from few “What are people’s average driving speeds anyway?” “Given that, then I need to also know...” “If ‘pyro’ means fire, then this might be a process to...” Pyro means... instant messenger Long reply... email
  84. 84. Nature of Replies NETWORK ASKING TARGETED ASKING • short, conversa2onal • long, detailed • funny, not relevant • focused, relevant 
  85. 85. Nature of Replies NETWORK ASKING TARGETED ASKING • short, conversa2onal • long, detailed • funny, not relevant • focused, relevant  “Because no one drives the speed limit” “Lots more waste sitting idly in traffic” “Isn’t that something I rub on my [body]? Are you still in San Francisco?”
  86. 86. Nature of Replies NETWORK ASKING TARGETED ASKING • short, conversa2onal • long, detailed • funny, not relevant • focused, relevant  “Because no one drives the “15-25% savings. But if speed limit” those cars were electric, we’d have all those barrels left to use for something else.” “Lots more waste sitting idly in traffic” “There’s no one national speed limit, there are two: 55 miles “Isn’t that something I rub per hour in general, 65 miles on my [body]? Are you still per hour for certain roads.” in San Francisco?”
  87. 87. Network prediction
  88. 88. Network prediction PREDICTED 100 80 probability of 60 at least one (relevant) reply 40 20 0 1 ... ... 450 ... ... 700 ... ... 1000 NETWORK SIZE
  89. 89. Network prediction OBSERVED PREDICTED 100 80 probability of 60 at least one (relevant) reply 40 20 0 1 ... ... 450 ... ... 700 ... ... 1000 NETWORK SIZE
  90. 90. Network prediction OBSERVED PREDICTED 100 80 probability of 60 at least one (relevant) reply 40 20 0 1 ... ... 450 ... ... 700 ... ... 1000 NETWORK SIZE TARGETED ASKING NETWORK ASKING
  91. 91. Research Question Design question: How can we improve search with  social networking technologies?
  92. 92. Theoretical orientation
  93. 93. “Inhabitedness”
  94. 94. “Inhabitedness” Photo Credit: Niall Kennedy
  95. 95. Social Presence Theory “A communicator’s sense of awareness of the presence of an interaction partner” Short, Williams, & Christie 1976 Photo Credit: Carlo Nicora; George Duncan
  96. 96. Social Presence Theory “A communicator’s sense of awareness of the presence of an interaction partner” Short, Williams, & Christie 1976 Photo Credit: Carlo Nicora; George Duncan
  97. 97. Social Presence Theory “A communicator’s sense of awareness of the presence of an interaction partner” Short, Williams, & Christie 1976 Photo Credit: Carlo Nicora; George Duncan
  98. 98. ?? R OBERT & D ENNIS 2005
  99. 99. Inhabitedness Photo Credit: Carlo Nicora; George Duncan, Sebastian Tauchmann,Guennadi Ivanov-Kuhn
  100. 100. Inhabitedness Social Presence Photo Credit: Carlo Nicora; George Duncan, Sebastian Tauchmann,Guennadi Ivanov-Kuhn
  101. 101. Inhabitedness Social Presence Structure of the Space + Photo Credit: Carlo Nicora; George Duncan, Sebastian Tauchmann,Guennadi Ivanov-Kuhn
  102. 102. Structure of the space Banks of the Seine, Paris A street cafe in Manchester, UK C ARMONA , H EATH , O C , & T IESDELL 2003
  103. 103. Structure of the space Banks of the Seine, Paris
  104. 104. Structure of the space A street cafe in Manchester, UK
  105. 105. Structure of the space A street cafe in Manchester, UK
  106. 106. Structure of the space A street cafe in Manchester, UK
  107. 107. Structure of the space A street cafe in Manchester, UK
  108. 108. Inhabitedness Social Presence + Structure of the Space nature of the relaTonship features of the channel !e strength (e.g., strong !es, weak !es) mul!media content relaTve group membership the acTviTes supported social network size “social objects” apparent idenTty pseudonym vs. real name visibility frequency of updates
  109. 109. Next Steps... Analytical • operaTonalize the model • develop hypotheses about how  inhabitedness predicts behaviors Methodological • test our predicTons experimentally
  110. 110. Conclusion
  111. 111. Photo Credit: David Wild
  112. 112. NETWORK ASKING TARGETED ASKING
  113. 113. SEARCH STUDY SOCIAL INTERACTIONS generic or “everyday” 40% difficult or failed 61%
  114. 114. Observed Predicted 100 80 60 old models ?? 40 20 0 1 ... ... 450 ... ... 700 ... ... 1000
  115. 115. “Inhabitedness” Photo Credit: Niall Kennedy
  116. 116. Thank you!! Third year class Supervisor Third year advisor Kaya de Barbaro David Kirsh Andrea Chiba Matthew Leonard Josh Lewis Anne Marie Piper Outside Collaborators Friend Helpers! Ed H. Chi PARC Chris Messina Peter Pirolli PARC Sharoda Paul Sanjay Kairam PARC Michael Bernstein Michael Muller IBM Research Elizabeth Churchill Yahoo! Research
  117. 117. Discussion Search as an ac2vity:  • Searches are embedded in rich acTviTes that benefit from social  interacTons with others, and from social communiTes online Research Findings:  • More thinking before asking quesTons to large social networks; • More thinking amer genng replies from targeted friends Towards a theory:  • Social presence theory alone doesn’t explain most social search  behaviors • Inhabitedness may explain some of these behaviors • This is a rich area for future design work Photo Credit: Peter Lee
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