Education in the Philippines


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Education in the Philippines

  1. 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS I. II. III. IV. The metamorphosis of Philippine education through the years. Issues, concerns & needs. Development initiatives in Philippine education. Insights.
  2. 2. I. The metamorphosis of Philippine education through the years. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Education under Spanish regime Education under American administration Education under Japanese occupation Education after the war/liberation Education from mid-50s, during 60’s After EDSA People Power revolution Education Today
  3. 3. A. Education under Spanish regime Most education was carried out by the religious orders.  Friars established parochial Schools that was linked with churches to to teach catechisms to the natives.  Instructions are in the Baybayin Language.  Education was managed supervised and controlled by the friars. 
  4. 4. Education in the country is not uniform.  The schooling system was not hierarchical nor structured, thus there are no grade levels. 
  5. 5. B. Education under American administration Americans used education as a vehicle for its program benevolent assimilation.  American soldiers were the first teachers.  Restored damaged school houses, build new ones and conduct classes.  Trained teachers replaced soldiers.  American teachers infused their students the spirit of democracy and 
  6. 6. Americans discarded religious bias.  Education Act of 1901 was passed.  Encourage Filipinos in the field of teaching.  Outstanding scholars were sent to US to train as teachers. 
  7. 7. C. Education under Japanese occupation Japanese promoted Vocational courses.  School calendar became longer.  No Summer vacation for students.  Prohibited anti- Asian opinions, American songs, American poems and symbols.  Nihongo became the medium of instruction.  Introduction of the Social Studies. 
  8. 8. D. Education after the war/liberation Massive rehabilitation of school buildings  Restoration of values through the school system.  Public Schools became in crisis because of rapid economic growth. 
  9. 9. E. Education from mid-50s, during 60’s earning a college degree was not a guarantee for a stable job.  middle class shift their interest in finding better paying jobs abroad.  The “Brain Drain Phenomenon”  Rise of student activism.  Moral objectives of education was not attained by the 14 years of Martial Law. 
  10. 10. F. After EDSA People Power revolution  New concepts were introduced such as: ◦ schools for the people ◦ democratic and relevant education ◦ education as a right not a privilege
  11. 11. G. Education Today  DepEd started to implement the new K-12 educational system.
  12. 12. II. Issues, concerns & needs. A. B. Issues and concerns Needs
  13. 13. A. Issues and concerns Quality and accessibility of education to its takers 2. Role of education in national development 3. Preparation of students from basic education up to tertiary level 4. Unresponsive curriculum 5. Improper monitoring of programs implemented 6. Globalization of education 7. Lack of budget 8. Politics in education 9. Brain drain (human capital flight) – Definition, reasons at the level of countries & at the level of individual, statistics & groups, shortages of professionals, top ten destinations; fact or fiction? 1.
  14. 14. 1. Quality and accessibility of education to its takers Education is the measurement of the personal status of a person.  Schools are centralized in cities. 
  15. 15. 2. Role of education in national development  Education has been looked into as the means of alleviating poverty, decreasing criminalities, increasing economic benefits and ultimately uplifting the standard of living of the Filipino masses.
  16. 16. 3. Preparation of students from basic education up to tertiary level Only seven out of ten pupils who enroll in Grade 1 finish the elementary curriculum,  From the seven who continue to secondary, only 3 are able to complete the curriculum.  From these three only one can complete the tertiary education. 
  17. 17. 4. Unresponsive curriculum More time is allotted for subjects like English, Science and Mathematics unlike other subjects like health, music, values education, civics which are integrated into the Makabayan curriculum.  grade 1 pupil carries so many books to school.  overloaded curriculum results to difficulty in knowledge and skills absorption among our pupils. 
  18. 18. 5. Improper monitoring of programs implemented Political appointees serve at the whims and pleasures of the appointing officer.  Previous programs and projects implemented by the previous administration are be discontinued, regardless that program or project is workable and effective. 
  19. 19. 6. Globalization of education Parochial Rather than liberal  Facilities are not conforming to the international standards.  Department of Education implemented the K-12 program by SY 2012-2013.  ◦ it just resulted to more financial implications, not only to the parents but also to the government.
  20. 20. 7. Lack of budget Schools in the rural areas do not receive much support from the government.  School supplies such as books are received by them almost at the end of the year. 
  21. 21. 8. Politics in education  Inept in formulating laws that can address the crisis in the educational system.
  22. 22. 9. Brain Drain  Brain drain, is the large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge. The reasons may be social environment or there are family influence (overseas relatives), and personal preference.
  23. 23. middle class shift their interest in finding better paying jobs abroad.  Lack of skillful professionals. 
  24. 24. TOP 10 DESTINATIONS Saudi Arabia United Kingdom United States United Arab Emirates Singapore Kuwait Libya Malaysia Qatar Taiwan.
  25. 25. B. Needs 1. Values reorientation of the Filipinos as a key to national development 2. Teachers’ transformation
  26. 26. 1. Values reorientation of the Filipinos as a key to national development The integration of values education in the curriculum.  Values become more permanent in the minds and hearts of the pupils and students. 
  27. 27. 2. Teachers’ transformation Teacher transformation, in terms of their values orientation.  Teachers’ transformation must include their upgrading or updating for professional and personal development. 
  28. 28. III. Development initiatives in Philippine education A. B. C. D. E. K-12 Program TESDA BEACON Philippines Foundation Comparative analysis of the development initiatives of the two organizations. Critique by a student-activist
  29. 29. A. K-12 Program 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Meaning rationale, salient features, implementation, achievements & plans; Pros and Cons; Key finding.
  30. 30. 1. Meaning  The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middlelevel skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.
  31. 31. 2. Rationale  There is an urgent need to enhance the quality of basic education in our country as seen in the education outcomes of Filipino students and the comparative disadvantage of the Philippines with regard to other countries.
  32. 32.  The explanations are First, the Philippines is the only country in Asia and among the three remaining countries in the world that uses a 10-year basic education cycle. Second, The National Achievement Test (NAT) results for grade 6 in SY 2009-2010 showed only a 69.21% passing rate while the NAT results for high school is at a low 46.38%. Third, Philippines ranked 34th out of 38 countries in HS Math and 43rd out of 46 countries in HS II Science. Moreover, the Philippines ranked the lowest in 2008 even with only the science high schools joining the Advanced Mathematics category.
  33. 33. 3. Salient features a) b) c) d) e) Strenghtening Early Childhood Education (Universal Kindergarten) Making the curriculum relevant to lerners (Contextualization and enhancement) Building Proficiency Through Language (Mother toungue based multilingual education) Ensuring Integrated and Seamless Learning (Spiral Progression) Gearing Up for the Future (Senior Highschool)
  34. 34. 4. Implementation  Program implementation in public schools is being done in phases starting SY 2012–2013. Grade 1 entrants in SY 2012–2013 are the first batch to fully undergo the program, and current 1st year Junior High School students (or Grade 7) are the first to undergo the enhanced secondary education program. To facilitate the transition from the existing 10-year basic education to 12 years, DepEd is also implementing the SHS and SHS Modeling.
  35. 35.  Private schools craft their transition plans based on: (1) current/previous entry ages for Grade 1 and final year of Kinder, (2) duration of program , and most importantly, (3) content of curriculum offered.
  36. 36. 5. Achievements and Plans
  37. 37. 6a. The PROS “Enhancing the quality of basic education in the Philippines is urgent and critical.”  “The poor quality of basic education is reflected in the low achievement scores of Filipino students. One reason is that students do not get adequate instructional time or time on task.”  International test results consistently show Filipino students lagging way behind practically everybody else in the world. In the 2008 mathematics exam, for example, we came in dead last. 
  38. 38.    “The congested curriculum partly explains the present state of education.” Twelve years of content are crammed into ten years. “This quality of education is reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education.” If ten years were adequate, how come employers do not hire fresh high school graduates? How come most high school graduates flunk the UPCAT? “Most graduates are too young to enter the labor force.” Since most children start Grade 1 when they are 6 years old, they do not reach the legal employable age of 18 when they graduate from high school today.
  39. 39.   “The current system also reinforces the misperception that basic education is just a preparatory step for higher education.” Why prioritize the minority of high school graduates that go to college? “The short duration of the basic education program also puts the millions of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs), especially the professionals, and those who intend to study abroad, at a disadvantage. Our graduates are not automatically recognized as professionals abroad.” The best examples are our engineering graduates, who are condemned to international jobs not befitting their professional status due to our not having a 12-year basic education cycle.
  40. 40.  “The short basic education program affects the human development of the Filipino children.” If we believe that 17-year-old high school graduates are emotionally, psychologically, and intellectually mature, why do we require them to get parental consent before they get married?
  41. 41. 6b. The CONS   Parents have to shell out more money (for transportation and food) for the education of their children. The government does not have the money to pay for two more years of free education, since it does not even have the money to fully support today’s ten years. DepEd must first solve the lack of classrooms, furniture and equipment, qualified teachers, and error-free textbooks.
  42. 42. 7. Key finding We can do in ten years what everyone else in the world takes 12 years to do. Why do we have to follow what the rest of the world is doing? We are better than all of them. Filipinos right now are accepted in prestigious graduate schools in the world, even with only ten years of basic education.  As far as the curriculum is concerned, DepEd should fix the current subjects instead of adding new ones. The problem is the content, not the length, of basic education. As an editorial put it, we need to have better education, not more education. 
  43. 43. A high school diploma will not get anybody anywhere, because business firms will not hire fresh high school graduates.  Every family dreams of having a child graduate from college.  While students are stuck in Grades 11 and 12, colleges and universities will have no freshmen for two years. This will spell financial disaster for many private Higher Education Institutions (HEIs).  The drop-out rate will increase because of the two extra years. 
  44. 44. B. TESDA 1. Goals and objectives 2. Target beneficiaries 3. Development strategy/ies 4. Programs 5. Major achievements over specific period of time 6. Challenges faced, actions taken and results
  45. 45. 1. Goals and objectives  TESDA provides direction, policies, programs and standards towards quality technical education and skills development.
  46. 46. 2. Target beneficiaries  Work force in the Philippines
  47. 47. 3. Development strategy/ies  Encourage the full participation and mobilizing the industry of, labor, local government units and technicalvocational institutions in the skills development of the country's human resources.
  48. 48. 4. Programs TVET Program  Competencies Standards Development  Competency and Assessment and Certification 
  49. 49. 5. Major achievements over specific period of time  "Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994", which was signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos on August 25, 1994.
  50. 50. 6. Challenges faced, actions taken and results The image of the agency was destroyed, Rep. Joel Villanueva said he would be working on how to improve the quality of TESDA’s training so that it could produce better graduates and create jobs in the countryside.  The TESDA is regaining the lost image. 
  51. 51. C. BEACON Philippines Foundation 1. Goals and objectives 2. Target beneficiaries 3. Development strategy/ies 4. Programs 5. Major achievements over specific period of time 6. Challenges faced, actions taken and results
  52. 52. 1. Goals and objectives  BEACON Philippines Foundation assists the Filipino youth in the North to finish their education.
  53. 53. 2. Target beneficiaries Out of School Youth  Dropped-out students 
  54. 54. 3. Development strategy/ies Helping the Filipino youth enter a classroom for their future  Helps to decrease the drop-out Filipinos in the North. 
  55. 55. 4. Programs   Scholarship Programs Community Development Programs ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Food service Tutoring Teaching Assistant Residence Assistant Buildings and Grounds Technical assistance Office and clerical work Research assistant Fitness/Wellness Centers Daycare Center
  56. 56. 5. Major achievements over specific period of time 2002 - Computers were given for free for business and educational purposes to those that have availed of the seminars and training mostly coming from poor families.  After some time the founders started to provide educational assistance and support, one child at a time. 
  57. 57. 6. Challenges faced, actions taken and results Almost unavoidable, some children will grow up to join the ranks of the hard-core poor. Since the correlation between the lack of schooling and the degree of poverty is so strong, their objective is to ensure that no child is left out of school.  The Foundation is funding scholars throughout the Northern Luzon. 
  58. 58. D. Comparative analysis of the development initiatives of the two organizations.  TESDA: This organization helped many out of school youth and increases the workers of the country through vocational courses to train capable people who will fill the jobs that OFW and migrants left the country.  BEACON Philippines Foundation: This organization helped drop out students to study untill college to decrease the Out of School Youth in the country.
  59. 59. E. Critique by a studentactivist    Only half-facetiously, that we have had 65 years of reform without change. we should expect that proposed and emergent policies will provide new answers to the our questions, thus defining a new philosophy of Philippine education for our time. the boundaries between formal and nonformal education were deliberately blurred in a system with parallel programs for youth and adults.
  60. 60. IV. The Insights A. B. C. Insights for the metamorphosis of Philippine education. Insights for the Issues, concerns & needs. Insights for the development initiatives in Philippine education.
  61. 61. A. Insights for the metamorphosis of Philippine education.  The educational system of the Philippines has a unique system before the colonization but starting from the colonization the system was patterned both from the educational systems of Spain and the United States. However, after the liberation of the Philippines in 1946, the system changed radically, until the year 2011 when the government started to implement the K-12 system which is in line from the international standards.
  62. 62. B. Insights for the Issues, concerns & needs.  In all countries, education is one of the biggest problems. Every country tries to implement educational systems that will fit the needs of the public who will benefit from it. In the Philippines, we can see that whatever our economic state and our conditions our government tried to help our schools, colleges and universities of our country to attain the goal of education of every Filipinos.
  63. 63. C. Insights for the development initiatives in Philippine education. 1. 2. K-12 TESDA and BEACON Philippines Foundation
  64. 64. 1. K-12  The implementation of K-12 in our country is a key for our country’s development. K-12 will also enhance our quality education. There would be a chance that Filipinos would get a high achievement scores. Graduates from the k-12 program will be more prepared and equipped in their chosen field because with the new curiculum senior high students can choose a field that they are good at and they are interested in. K-12 graduates will now be automatically considered as professionals abroad, there would be no spending more money just to qualify the standards abroad.
  65. 65. 2. TESDA and BEACON Philippines Foundation  The two organizations helped the country to minimize some of the problems of the country in terms of its education system. With the help of such institutions the country proves that we can still cope to the challenges of poverty in forming students who are capable to help our country in building the country’s future.
  66. 66.  Thank You For Listening! 