Conceptual Models
  Learning ~ Teaching
Higher Order Thinking

                                                 Evaluation    6
                                  ...
Higher Order Thinking

                                                                                                Dag...
Sense of Self

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Sense of Self
                                                                       21st-Century
                        ...
Higher Order Thinking

                                         Evaluation    6                                           ...
Technology
                                                       Accelerators



Challenge to us now is to build a learni...
Digital Learning Environments
                            Campfire        Mountain Climbing




                          ...
So what do technology resources and tools bring to this discussion.

Here is a tool in the same familiar model....using ex...
Sense of Self
                                            Higher Order Thinking

                                         ...
http://www.tpck.org/
Conceptual Models and Rigor
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Conceptual Models and Rigor

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presented to APU ed tech professors by Barbara Ross

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Conceptual Models and Rigor

  1. 1. Conceptual Models Learning ~ Teaching
  2. 2. Higher Order Thinking Evaluation 6 K N Synthesis 5 O W L Analysis 4 E D Application 3 G E Comprehension 2 Awareness 1 Direct Basic Skills Construct Instruction 1 2 3 4 5 Knowledge Apply Apply Apply Apply in one knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge disciple in one across to real-world to real-world APPLICATION discipline disciplines predictable unpredictable situations situations Let’s look at a familiar chart to get our bearings. Let’s move ourselves from awareness and comprehension of a variety of taxonomies. Let’s build a model that allows us to analyize, synthesize and evaluate how these respective pieces of research inform our work. We see on the vertical axis what is commonly referred to as Bloom’s Taxonomy....and education researchers often say this is the area where we describe what we what children to KNOW. When we describe what we want children to be able to DO....we often look at what has been dubbed the APPLICATION scale shown here as it was adapted by the International Center for Education Leadership founded by Willard Dagget. The green lines are generally considered the “instructional framework used by teachers” to deliver the corresponding knowledge and ability to do....for example when teachers are helping students acquire facts and basic skills they operate from a direct instructional mode. Research from folks like Marzanno show that this is an appropriate teaching method for these kinds of knowledge and skill outcomes....and as you move along the grid from lower left to upper right you can see that instructional style is matched to corresponding student outcomes on the knowledge and application scales.... How do we help teachers align their instruction methods and assignments designs to build a continuum through these quadrants and is there a way to accelerate a students matriculation through this.....What can smooth the trajectory for students through the educational system and into the real world with the KNOWLEGE they need for each task and the SKILLS to do the tasks?
  3. 3. Higher Order Thinking Daggett’s Rigor/Relevancy Framework Evaluation 6 K N Synthesis 5 Assimilation Adaption O W L Analysis 4 C D E D Application 3 G E Comprehension 2 Acquisition Application Awareness 1 A B Direct Basic Skills Construct Instruction 1 2 3 4 5 Knowledge Apply Apply Apply Apply in one knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge disciple in one across to real-world to real-world discipline disciplines predictable unpredictable APPLICATION situations situations RIGOR is the hot new term in school reform.But how do we talk about this in a way that we all understand what it means and know it when we see it? The most advanced model is also the most straight forward.....it is called the Rigor/Relevance Framework. The Rigor/Relevance Framework is a tool developed by staff of the International Center for Leadership in Education to examine curriculum, instruction, and assessment. This is Willard Dagget’s framework..... The Rigor/Relevance Framework is based on two dimensions of higher standards and student achievement. First, there is the Knowledge Taxonomy, a continuum based on the six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy, which describes the increasingly complex ways in which we think. The low end involves acquiring knowledge and being able to recall or locate that knowledge. The high end labels the more complex ways in which individuals use knowledge, such as taking several pieces of knowledge and combining them in both logical and creative ways. The second continuum, known as the Application Model, is one of action. Its five levels describe putting knowledge to use. While the low end is knowledge acquired for its own sake,the high end signifies use of that knowledge to solve complex real-world problems and to create unique projects, designs, and other works for use in real-world situations. The Rigor/Relevance Framework has four quadrants. Each is labeled with a term that characterizes the learning or student performance at that level. Quadrant A - Acquisition Students gather and store bits of knowledge and information. Students are primarily expected to remember or understand this knowledge. Quadrant B - Application Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. The highest level of application is to apply knowledge to new and unpredictable situations. Quadrant C Assimilation Students extend and refine their acquired knowledge to be able to use that knowledge automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutions. Quadrant D - Adaptation Students have the competence to think in complex ways and to apply their knowledge and skills. Even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, students are able to use extensive knowledge and skill to create solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge. The Rigor/Relevance Framework is easy to understand. With its simple, straightforward structure, it can serve as a bridge between school and the community. It offers a common language with which to express the notion of a more rigorous and relevant curriculum. The Rigor/Relevance Framework is versatile; it can be used in the development of instruction and assessment. Likewise, teachers can use it to measure their progress in adding rigor and relevance to instruction and to select appropriate instructional strategies to meet learner needs and higher achievement goals.
  4. 4. Sense of Self 21st-Century Literacy Technology Proficiency Basic Skills SCANS.....introduce this as a compilation of the SCANS SKILLS data.....the horizontal axis Achievement in the Digital Learning Environment Educators must address the issues of standards and accountability on one hand, and the abilities and preferences of digital learners on the other. If we can do this, we can create truly engaged learning environments that will allow us to address both issues simultaneously and maximize the achievement of ALL children. Achievement in the Digital Learning Environment First, an obvious way to apply technology is in support of basic skills. The three R’s—reading, writing, and arithmetic—are just as important today as they were in the past. Research shows that children acquire these skills faster and better when using technology-based curricula. Whether students are just entering the world of reading, writing, and math or preparing for college entrance, technology can better prepare them for success. Two simple facts support this finding. First, children are more engaged by technology than by paper- and pencil-based activities. This expands on the notion that children will spend more time with computers than with books, pencils, and paper. Studies indicate that children not only spend more time with technology-based activities, they think more about what they are doing. More time and more thought equals more success. Second, when given the chance to develop basic skills with technology, students spend more time on activities that match their individual learning needs. The better computer-assisted software programs adapt instruction to the individual level of student competency and make instructional adjustments as students work. In short, more engaged time and more time spent on tasks delivered at an appropriate level for each student results in students’ learning more effectively and mastering basic skills in less time than they do with paper-and-pencil approaches. (Valdez et al., 2000) Using technology to support basic skills is relevant to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. But mastery only of basic skills—reading, writing, and arithmetic—is insufficient preparation for the modern world. In fact, this emphasis may exacerbate students’ alienation from schooling.
  5. 5. Sense of Self 21st-Century Literacy Technology Proficiency Basic Skills So....take the SCANS cylinder apart and align it to our framework
  6. 6. Higher Order Thinking Evaluation 6 Sense of Self K N Synthesis 5 21st Century O Skills W L Analysis 4 Technology E Proficiency D Application 3 G E Basic Skills Comprehension 2 Awareness 1 Direct Basic Skills Construct Instruction 1 2 3 4 5 Knowledge Apply Apply Apply Apply in one knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge disciple in one across to real-world to real-world APPLICATION discipline disciplines predictable unpredictable situations situations Let’s take the SCANS .....SKILLS.....and lay them against the Knowldege and Application grids to see where they align...
  7. 7. Technology Accelerators Challenge to us now is to build a learning environment that can blend a number of elements that are shown through research to improve students performance not just in school but in life: Can we build a system that builds on Daggets research about rigor; Combine it with what we know about skills needed in the 21st century from the updated SCANS research and use technology accelerators in a way consistent with the Good to Great research of Jim Collins? As a matter of fact.....there is a great body of research on effective practices and conditions for effective use of technology as an accelerator.....and the research looks like this.... Materials - NCREL aligned types of technology software and tools and built a matrix that looks rather familiar... Learning Environments - Alan November among others have been researching and reporting findings relating to environmental designs that enhance our abilities to meet the needs of every student in the 21st century. Let’s look at this in the grid formation....
  8. 8. Digital Learning Environments Campfire Mountain Climbing Cave Watering Hole Explain these concepts
  9. 9. So what do technology resources and tools bring to this discussion. Here is a tool in the same familiar model....using exactly the same x and y axis to illustrate the range of technology available for classroom use. You could approach this picture as you do your stock portfolio.....do you have sufficient DIVERSITY? Are the tools you have in your system concentrated down in the lower left? What are you doing for the SKILLS line if students don’t have adequate access to the tools they need for the 21st century....will their progress to the upper quadrant be stymied? Will they move up the knowledge scale but find themselves in quadrant B understanding and anyalizing information without the skills to transfer the knowledge to the real world? NCREL...explain how good SOFTWARE AND TOOL DESIGN is helping educators choose across the spectrum to find the right tools to move students through to the higher order thinking skills....usng the tools and skills needed in the 21st century,.
  10. 10. Sense of Self Higher Order Thinking Evaluation 6 K 21st Century N Synthesis 5 Skills O W L Analysis 4 E Technology Proficiency D Application 3 G E Comprehension 2 Basic Skills Awareness 1 Basic Skills Didactic Construct 1 2 3 4 5 Knowledge Apply Apply Apply Apply in one knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge disciple in one across to real-world to real-world APPLICATION discipline disciplines predictable unpredictable situations situations Summarize by showing how each of the four concepts actually fits into the basic model of KNOWING and DOING.... Dagget lower left...(Acquisition A) Opportunities for students to interact with the information in the upper left (Assimilation B) Powerful instructional opportunities on the lower right (Assimilation C) And self assured young people who can take their knowledge and skills and apply them to new work (Application D)
  11. 11. http://www.tpck.org/

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